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VENTURE INTO SPACE 

EARLY YEARN OF 

GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT (ENTER 



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VENTURE INTO SPACE 






NASA SP-430I 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

EAR1Y YEARS OF 

GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 



Alfred Rosenthal 



NASA Center History Series 




Scientific and Technical Information Division 

OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION 1968 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE. ADMINISTRATION 

Washington, D.C. 



For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 

Prise $2.50 (Paper Cover) 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 67-60096 




Mrs. Robert H. Goddard and James E. Webb, Administrator of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration, unveiled the sculpture of the late rocket 
pioneer at the dedication of the Goddard Space Flight Center, March 16, 1961. 



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Foreword 



SINCE ITS INCEPTION the Goddard Space Flight Center has magnifi- 
cently fulfilled its mission to become a symbol of the aims and dedi- 
cation of my late husband, Robert H. Goddard. As an active division of 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Goddard Center 
has already made many significant contributions to man's knowledge of the 
upper atmosphere and outer space — the precise goals of my husband's 
life. Through its televised tracking activities, the name of Goddard has 
become commonplace in the American home. 

Like most scientists, my husband kept a careful and detailed account of 
his experiments and theories, with occasional summaries and forecasts. It 
is therefore most appropriate that the Goddard Space Flight Center pause, 
at intervals, to sum up its activities, evaluate its successes, and plan for even 
more effective work in the future. 

At the dedication of this Center, I remarked that my husband was an 
extremely happy man, doing what he most wanted to do, with adequate 
funds in optimum surroundings; and I expressed the hope that many of 
those who would work at the Goddard Center might be similarly 
blessed. I feel that this hope is being realized. I also called attention to 
the opportunities for the "straight thinker and the hard worker," with the 
wish that the Center would attract such people, and keep them. This, too, 
has come to pass. With such personnel I have no doubt that this great 
living memorial will continue to play a vital role in the coming Space Age. 

Esther C. Goddarb 



vn 



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Preface 



THE GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER is a partnership of many 
people — scientists, engineers, project managers, and administrators — 
whose combined efforts are needed to carry on and bring to fruition 
scientific and technological expeditions into outer space. 

While the Goddard Center came into being with the establishment of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, its antecedents extend 
much further. Indeed, the Center inherited much scientific and opera- 
tional competence from groups and individuals who had already achieved 
professional distinction. Under the guidance of Dr. Harry j. Goett, the 
Center's first director, 1959-1965, a most competent team came into 
being. This team successfully developed and launched a wide variety of 
scientific spacecraft, sent into orbit this Nation's first weather and syn- 
chronous communications satellites, and provided the tracking links for 
America's first man-in-space missions. 

The purpose of this preliminary historical report is to describe the 
Center's historical origins and traditions, as well as the projects and activi- 
ties which the men and women of Goddard were privileged to make their 
contribution to the U.S. space program. In doing so, they not only opened 
a new path of exploration but were carrying on a tradition of scientific and 
technical curiosity envisioned two generations earlier by a then unknown 
New England professor — Dr. Robert H. Goddard. 

John F. Clark 

Director, Goddard Space Flight Center 



IX 



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Contents 



PAGE 

Introduction 1 

Part I — Origins of the 
Goddard Space Flight Center 

1 FROM ROBERT H. GODDARD TO THE INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL YEAR 5 

2 FROM PROJECT VANGUARD TO THE GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 13 

3 ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 27 



Part II — Goddard Space Flight Center Goes to Work 

4 the early years 39 

5 organizing for space science 43 

6 tracking, data acquisition, and data reduction 65 

7 goddard-managed satellites and space probes 79 

8 boosters and sounding rockets 121 

9 goddard looks to the future 131 

Footnotes 136 



Appendixes 

a introduction to the united states space sciences program 147 

b goddard space flight center satellite and space probe projects 155 

c nasa sounding rocket flights 181 

d a chronology of events related to the goddard space flight center - 203 

e reports of procurement actions, 1960-1963 255 

f organization charts 261 

g scientific exploration of space and its challenge to education 267 

h exhibits 279 

i robert h. goddard contributions and memorabilia 329 

j selected bibliography 333 

Index 341 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Part I 

Dedication of the Goddard Space Flight Center, March 16, 1961 v 

Dr. Goddard at work on his rocket, October 1935 3 

Dr. Goddard and colleagues holding the rocket used in the flight of April 19, 

1932 10 

Dr. Goddard and colleagues after the successful test of May 19, 1937 10 

Dr. Goddard at work, October 1935 11 

Project Vanguard staff 18 

Technicians mate Vanguard I satellite to rocket 21 

Vanguard L March 17, 1958 23 

Vanguard III, September 18, 1959 24 

Center dedication ceremony, March 16, 1961 . 32 

Dignitaries and guests at Center's dedication 33 

Joseph Anthony Atchison at work on bust of Goddard 34 

Mrs. Goddard at dedication ceremonies 34 

Part II 37 

The wooded site selected for the Space Center 40 

First computers are moved to the Goddard Center 41 

Orbiting Astronomical Observatory project management chart 46 

Goddard Space Flight Center project assignments 48 

Employee orientation 49 

Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center, June 1962 50 

Location plan of Center, June 1962 52 

Location plan of Center, 1963 estimates 53 

The site for Building 1, June 1959 54 

Building 1 under construction, October 1959 54 

Building 1 55 

Aerial view of Buildings 1, 2, 3 56 

Building 8 under construction, July 1962 57 

Staff of the Institute for Space Studies 60 

Welding satellite circuitry 61 

Space environment simulator under construction at Goddard 62 

A Wallops Island antenna that receives video signals from Tiros satellites _ 66 

Fairbanks, Alaska, tracking station 67 

The two tracking ships of the Mercury network 69 

Mercury network map 70-71 

Goldstone antenna 72 

Goddard monitoring the MA-6 flight . 74 



CONTENTS 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd) 



PAGE 



Communications area 74 

During the MA-6 mission 75 

Goddard computer room 76 

Explorer VI, launched August 1, 1959 83 

Pioneer V in final checkout 86 

Echo inflation test sequence 90 

Explorer X, an interplanetary probe, launched March 25, 1961 96 

Explorer XII, an energetic particles satellite, launched August 15, 1961 100 

Orbiting Solar Observatory I, launched March 7, 1962 104 

Ariel I, launched April 26, 1962 106 

Tiros V is mated to launch vehicle 108 

Tiros V liftoff, June 19, 1962 108 

Telstar I, launched July 10, 1962 109 

Tiros VI photograph of Cape Blanc, April 23, 1963 111 

Canadian scientists check Alouette I, launched September 29, 1962 112 

Explorer XIV 113 

Relay I, December 13, 1962 115 

Syncom I 116 

Explorer XVII readied for launch 117 

Delta on launch pad; Scout launches Explorer XVI 124 

Sounding rocket at Fort Churchill 126 

Launch of Japanese electron temperature experiment 126 

Nike-Cajun; Javelin; Nike-Apache 128 

Sounding rocket used in first joint flight by the United States and Japan 128 

Splash crater on the moon 132 

Goddard's top management staff, 1962 133 

Goddard's top management staff, 1965 134 



Appendixes 145 

Explorer I, January 31, 1958 207 

Building 1 under construction . 210 

Building 2 under construction 210 

Vanguard vehicle in a gantry . 212 

Architect's drawing of Buildings 7 and 10 213 

Antenna at Goldstone, California . 214 

Conference on Origins of the Solar System, New York City 216 

Italy and the Mediterranean as seen from a Tiros satellite 217 

Rosman tracking facility 220 

xiii 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd) 



PAGE 



The digital solar aspect sensor 221 

Dr. Kunio Hirao and Toshio Muraoka at the launch of the first U.S.-Japanese 

sounding rocket 223 

The Nile delta as seen from a Tiros satellite 225 

A picture transmitted by Telstar I 225 

Aerobee sounding rocket fired from Wallops Island, Va. 229 

Comsat picture of unveiling "Mona Lisa" at National Gallery of Art, 

Washington, D.C. 230 

Fifth Anniversary of Space Tracking ceremonies 232 

Delta Day ceremony, March 1, 1963 235 

Pictures of Italian Premier Fanfani's Chicago trip were transmitted to 

Europe via Relay I 237 

Relay comsat transmits ceremony awarding U.S. citizenship to Sir Winston 

Churchill ■ 239 

Tiros VII photograph of U.S. eastern seaboard, June 23, 1963 242 

Specially constructed instrument that photographed solar eclipse, July 

20, 1963 243 

Nigerian Governor General Nnamdi Azikiwe, via Syncom II satellite 244 

The Rosman, N.C., tracking facility 248 

Artist's conception of Relay mission received in Japan 250 

Space Communications Laboratory, Ibaraki, Japan 252 

Antenna at the Space Communications Laboratory, Ibaraki, Japan 252 

Tiros VIII, December 26, 1963 253 

Procurement actions, January 1, 1960, through June 30, 1960 255 

Procurement actions, Fiscal Year 1961 256 

Procurement actions, Fiscal Year 1962 257 

Procurement actions, Fiscal Year 1964 259 

Organization chart, July 1959 262 

Organization chart, March 1960 263 

Organization chart, January 1961 264 

Organization chart, November 1962 265 

Goddard Center missions ■ 268 

Divisions of space in the earth-sun region 269 

Scope of Tiros photographs 270 

Tiros coverage '. 270-271 

Temperature distribution derived from Tiros VII 271 

Infrared data from Nimbus I 272 

The upper atmosphere 273 



CONTENTS 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd) 



PAGE 



Earth-sun relationships 274 

The earth and "empty" space 274 

Orbit of Orbiting Solar Observatory I 275 

Deflection of cosmic and solar particles by earth's magnetic field 276 

Effect of solar flare on the earth's magnetic field 276 



xv 



Introduction 



THIS HISTORICAL REPORT represents a preliminary record of the 
efforts of this NASA Center, from its antecedents through 1963. Any 
cutoff date for such a report must be necessarily arbitrary; 1963 has been se- 
lected as terminal date because that year saw the culmination of many of 
the early efforts: the organization achieved the form its planners had envi- 
sioned; many of the physical facilities were completed; and, perhaps most 
important, scientific findings produced by "first generation" satellites be- 
gan to be returned to curious scientists. As a consequence of the new 
scientific knowledge and technological advances, the years beyond 1963 
would feature more advanced missions, utilizing "second generation" space- 
craft with more sophisticated instrumentation. Weather and communica- 
tions satellites developed during the early years had by 1963 demonstrated 
such utility as to make operational systems a reality. The Goddard-oper- 
ated manned space flight tracking network contributed to the successful 
completion of Project Mercury, the United States' first man-in-space 
program. In brief, for Goddard Space Flight Center the year 1963 could 
be considered the end of Act One of the Space Age, and the curtain raiser 
of Act Two. 

This volume is a mosaic of what was considered to be reliable informa- 
tion, gleaned from many sources. Historical documents, a GSFC chronol- 
ogy, and a bibliography are included as appendixes. In its preparation, 
valuable assistance and advice was received from numerous officials at the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters — particu- 
larly Dr. Eugene M. Emme, NASA Historian; his deputy, Dr. Frank W. 
Anderson, Jr.; and Mr. Thomas E. Jenkins, NASA Management Reports 
Director, formerly of the Goddard Space Flight Center— and from the en- 
tire Center staff. Without the considerate support from virtually every ele- 
ment of the agency, the preparation of this document would have been an 
almost impossible task. Comments, suggestions, or corrections of fact are 
sincerely invited so as to assist our historical efforts. 

Alfred Rosenthal 

Historian, Goddard Space Flight Center 



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From Robert I. Goddard to tie 

International Geophysical Yen 

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THE HISTORICAL TRADITIONS of the Goddard Space Flight Center 
have antecedents in a period long before America's awakening to the 
Space Age. Named in honor of Dr. Robert H. Goddard, the Center con- 
tinues in the scientific tradition of this New England scientist, who has 
been recognized not only as the "Father of American Rocketry" but also as 
one of the pioneers in the theory of space exploration. 1 

Dr. Goddard was one of those rare combinations occasionally appearing 
in the history of science and technology; he was a theoretical scientist and a 
practical and exacting engineer, but he was also a dreamer who was consid- 
erably ahead of his own time. His particular dream was the scientific con- 
quest of the upper atmosphere and ultimately of the void of space through 
the use of rocket propulsion. To the fulfillment of this dream Dr. God- 
dard devoted his talents, his energies, and his life. He had the drive and 
single-mindedness found among those who today are probing the innermost 
secrets of the space environment. 



The Life of Dr. Goddard 

Robert Hutchings Goddard was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, on 
October 5, 1882. Childhood illnesses prevented the young boy from ex- 
pressing his energy in the usual boyish activities. As a consequence, he 
developed his imagination and read voraciously. He was greatly influenced 
by H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds. 2 Jules Verne also stimulated his imag- 
ination. Dr. Goddard is known to have read Verne's From the Earth to 
the Moon annually and ultimately to have rewritten it to include a rocket 
launch instead of a cannon-powered flight. 3 

A germ of his later work might be seen in his effort in the spring of 1898 
to construct a hydrogen-filled balloon made of thin aluminum. Although 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

it was too heavy to fly, Goddard was not discouraged; he turned his atten- 
tion to such other things as "how birds fly" (which also interested two 
brothers named Wright, in Ohio) and the marvels of electricity. This was 
the situation when, on the afternoon of October 19, 1899, he found himself 
high in a cherry tree, assigned the duty of clipping its dead limbs. It was, 
he said, "one of those quiet, colorful afternoons of sheer beauty which we 
have in October in New England ... as I looked toward the fields to the 
east, I imagined how wonderful it would be to make some device which had 
even the possibility of ascending to Mars, and how it would look on a small 
scale if sent up from the meadow at my feet ... I was a different boy when I 
descended the ladder. Life now had a purpose for me." 4 

The young Robert Goddard began to construct models of his own design 
and devoted himself, in high school, to the study of physics and mathe- 
matics. By the time he graduated, he had, he said, "a set of models which 
would not work and a number of suggestions which, from the physics I had 
learned, I knew were erroneous." He gathered up all his models and his 
carefully catalogued notes and burned them. 

"But the dream would not go down," wrote Dr. Goddard in later years, 
"and inside of two months I once again caught myself making notes of 
further suggestions, for even though I reasoned with myself that the thing 
was impossible, there was something inside me which simply would not stop 
working." As early as 1909, Goddard conceived the multiple-stage rocket, 
the general theory of hydrogen-and-oxygen rocket propulsion, and the use 
of a plane-like structure for rocket guidance. 5 

By this time, Goddard had graduated from Worcester Polytechnic Insti- 
tute with a B.S., holding high honors in physics and mathematics. All 
through college the young scientist had been absorbed by his obsession with 
propulsion. Near the end of his senior year, he filled the basement of the 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute physics building with smoke, the result of a 
static test of a small rocket. 6 

The years between graduation from Worcester Polytechnic Institute and 
1919 were full and arduous ones for Goddard. He stayed on at Worcester 
as an instructor in physics while doing graduate work at Clark University, 
where he received his A.M. in 1910 and his Ph.D. in physics in 1911. He 
then spent a year at Clark as an honorary fellow in physics, where he 
worked on various rocket methods. In 1912 he went to Princeton as a 
research fellow and worked on electrical theory (the subject of his Ph.D. 
dissertation) during the day and on rocket propulsion theory during the 
evenings. Through 1913-1914 illness prevented him from teaching but 
did not hinder his speculations on rocketry. In fact, during his convales- 
cence Dr. Goddard laid the foundations for two patents, received in July 
1914, which developed his idea of a multistage rocket and liquid propel- 
lants. 7 

In the autumn of 1914, Dr. Goddard returned to Clark University as an 



FROM GODDARD TO IGY 

instructor and began his basic work on rocketry, which led to the now- 
famous 1919 Smithsonian publication. It was during this period that he 
proved his theory, by static laboratory test, that a rocket would perform in a 
vacuum and was therefore capable of operating in space. By the middle of 
1916, he had reached the limit of what he could accomplish on his own 
funds. He wrote up his experiments, entitled the manuscript "A Method 
of Reaching Extreme Altitudes," and sent it to three organizations that he 
thought might be interested enough to aid him financially. The only en- 
couraging reply he received was from the Smithsonian Institution, which 
was looking for a very-high-altitude device to extend meteorological re- 
search and asked for further details. This was in December 1916. After 
receiving the Smithsonian's commendation for his work, Dr. Goddard re- 
quested $5,000 to continue his experiments. The next letter from Wash- 
ington granted the $5,000 and enclosed an advance of $1,000. 8 

Thus began, in January 1917, the years of experimentation which Dr. 
Goddard continued unceasingly for the remainder of his life. When the 
United States entered World War I in 1917, he volunteered to direct his 
rocket research toward ends which might prove useful to the 
military. This work led to the development of a solid-fuel prototype that 
became the World War II "bazooka"; however, the war ended five days 
after he demonstrated it. During World War II, Dr. Goddard's invention 
was to be "dusted off" by his colleague, Dr. Clarence N. Hickman, and was 
perfected to provide the American soldier with the first effective hand 
weapon against the tank. 9 

After returning to Clark in 1919, Dr. Goddard persuaded the Smith- 
sonian to publish his revised "Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes" — a 
rather dry and factual report on his experiments during the preceding sev- 
eral years which had been designed to show the Smithsonian where its 
money was going. The Smithsonian agreed, provided the cost of publica- 
tion came from the $5,000 grant to Goddard. The study was released on 
January 11, 1920, as Smithsonian Miscellaneous Publication Number 2540. 
In this publication, Dr. Goddard mildly referred to the space potential of 
rocket thrust and suggested the possibility that someday a rocket such as the 
one he was designing might be used to hit the moon. The newspapers 
picked up the story, some portrayed him as a crackpot, others as an amateur 
who did not know that reactive thrust would not work in a vacuum. This 
adverse publicity had a deep and lasting effect on Dr. Goddard. From that 
day forward, he rarely spoke of anything which might pertain to space flight, 
and he avoided publicity for himself and his work. In private, however, he 
continued to speculate on the possibilities of the rocket in space, on possible 
manned and unmanned missions, on methods of navigating in space, and on 
the potentialities of a solar-powered engine. All this he kept locked away 
in a cabinet in a folder marked "Formulae for Silvering Mirrors." 10 

In the early 1920s Dr. Goddard began his pioneering experiments with 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

liquid-fuel propulsion. He had considered the idea of a hydrogen and oxy- 
gen fuel supply as early as 1909. After several experiments he discovered 
that liquid oxygen and gasoline made the most practical fuel, and the first 
static test of liquid-fuel propulsion was made on November 1, 1923. After 
overcoming numerous problems with the apparatus, the fuel pumps in par- 
ticular, he was ready to try again. On March 16, 1926, Professor Goddard, 
his wife Esther, and two assistants drove to "Aunt Effie" Ward's farm near 
Auburn, Massachusetts, and prepared his rocket for launch. Ignition was 
accomplished by a blowtorch attached to a pole. The rocket rose from the 
ground, traveled a distance of 1 84 feet, reached an average speed of 60 miles 
per hour, and stayed in the air for 214 seconds. It was the first liquid-fuel 
rocket flight in the world, an event comparable to Kitty Hawk in its 
significance. Not a word reached a newspaper. 11 

Dr. Goddard continued his experiments at Auburn. In 1928, after an- 
other test, he reported to the Smithsonian that he had demonstrated the 
rocket's potential for study of the ultraviolet; upper air composition, electri- 
cal conditions, and movement; and mapmaking by several simultaneous 
ground observations of high-altitude light flashes. Then on July 17, 1929, 
he launched a scientific payload of a barometer, a thermometer, and a 
camera. On that date his rocket was mistaken for an airplane crashing in 
flames, which caused the State fire marshal to forbid Goddard to conduct 
any more launches in Massachusetts. The Smithsonian succeeded in per- 
suading the Army to allow him to launch his rockets on Federal property at 
Gamp Devens, Massachusetts; but as a precaution against fires he could 
experiment only after a rain or a snowfall. The "moon-rocket man" pub- 
licity from this affair brought Goddard an unexpected windfall. Up to this 
time he had been relying on the steady but relatively small grants from the 
Smithsonian for the necessary financial assistance. Charles A. Lindbergh, 
who was at the height of his popularity, read the unfavorable press accounts 
of Goddard's work. Lindbergh was interested in the use of rockets to pro- 
vide emergency thrust for airplanes. He visited Dr. Goddard and was im- 
pressed with his work. Lindbergh took Goddard's cause to Daniel and 
Harry Guggenheim. Subsequently the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim 
Foundation began to supply him with money for his experiments. Be- 
tween 1929 and 1941, Dr. Goddard received over $150,000 from this 
source. 12 

The first Guggenheim grant enabled Dr. Goddard to leave Massachusetts 
for a more suitable testing ground. He moved his work to Roswell, New 
Mexico, which was to be his headquarters for the remaining fifteen years of 
his life. All through the 1930s Dr. Goddard and his small staff worked at 
improving his rockets and their components. While at Roswell, he devised 
and patented a gyroscopic control for rockets and an ingenious system for 
cooling the combustion chamber, called "curtain cooling," in which the 
fuel of the rocket acted as the cooling agent. "There was never so much 



FROM GODDARD TO IGY 

invention with so little manpower," remarked one of Dr. Goddard's me- 
chanics. 13 

When war broke out in Europe in 1939, Dr. Goddard visited the U.S. 
War Department and tried to interest the military in his work, but nothing 
tangible came of it. After the United States became involved in 1941, the 
Navy and the Army Air Corps asked him to work for them, not to develop 
his rocket as an offensive or defensive missile but merely to develop a jet- 
assisted takeoff (JATO) device for helping aircraft take off from short run- 
ways or aircraft carriers. Dr. Goddard's repeated efforts to convince the 
American military of the potential of the rocket were to no avail. So it 
happened that JATO and the revived 1918 "bazooka" were the major con- 
tributions which this genius was allowed to make to the American war effort. 14 

The Germans, however, had not neglected their rocket technicians as had 
the Americans. By September 1944, German V-2 ballistic rockets began to 
fall on Britain. The Allies were startled at the great lead of German rocket 
technology. When details of the V-2 reached Annapolis, where Dr. God- 
dard was working in the Navy's research laboratories, he noted the simi- 
larity between the German missile and his own liquid-fuel rocket. Al- 
though the 5i/£-ton V-2 was much larger than anything that Dr. Goddard 
(or anyone in the U.S.) had ever constructed, the two rockets were almost 
identical in basic design. Out of this similarity arose a controversy over the 
extent to which the Germans may have worked from Goddard's patent de- 
signs. 15 

Finally illness took its toll. In Baltimore, in 1945, Dr. Goddard was 
operated on for throat cancer. His lungs, already weakened from an ear- 
lier attack of tuberculosis, gave out and the American rocket pioneer died 
on August 10, 1945. His passing went practically unnoticed except among 
his faithful small group of family and friends. 16 

The Goddard Legacy 

Robert Hutchings Goddard's rocket research was perhaps as fundamental 
to the opening of the Space Age as was the Wright Brothers' research to the 
Air Age. Yet his work attracted little serious attention during his lifetime 
and he did not encourage it. When the United States began to prepare for 
the conquest of space in the 1950s, American rocket scientists began to 
recognize the enormity of the early debt which their science owed to the 
New England professor. They discovered that it was virtually impossible 
to construct a rocket or launch a satellite without acknowledging the work 
of Dr. Goddard. This great legacy was covered by more than 200 patents, 
many of which were issued after his death. 

Belated honors have begun to pour upon the name of Robert Goddard in 
recent years. On September 16, 1959, the Congress of the United States 
authorized the issuance of a gold medal in his honor. The Smithsonian 




Dr. Goddard and colleagues holding the rocket used in the successful experi- 
mental flight of April 19, 1932. They are, from left to right, L. Mansur, A. Kisk, 
C. Mansur, Dr. R. H. Goddard, and N. L. Jungquist. 



Dr. Robert H. Goddard and col- 
leagues at Roswell, New Mexico, 
after the successful test of May 
19, 1937. Dr. Goddard is holding 
the cap and the pilot parachute. 











Dr. Goddard at work on his rocket 
in. his shop at Roswell, New 
Mexico, October 1935. 







Institution, long familiar with his work, awarded him its coveted Langley 
Medal, in honor of his discoveries in rocketry, on June 28, 1960. Subse- 
quently Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, which was made the 
depository of his papers, established the Robert H. Goddard Memorial 
Library. In 1964 a commemorative airmail postage stamp was issued in 
his honor. 

On May 1, 1959, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
named its new Space Flight Center at Greenbelt, Maryland, the Goddard 
Space Flight Center. 17 It is hardly a coincidence or accident that his name 
was chosen to inspire the work being done by this team of scientists and 
engineers engaged in the scientific exploration of space. It is perhaps one 
of the most fitting of the many belated honors which have come to the 
name of Goddard, because it established a Center which is realizing the 
dream of space exploration the young Goddard had conceived at the turn of 
the century. 

The essence of his philosophy, as he expressed it in his high school ora- 
tion in 1904, serves well as the motto of the Goddard Space Flight Center: 

It is difficult to say what is impossible, for the dream of yesterday 
is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow. 



11 



FRECEDf 



^G PAGE BLANK NOT F 



.LMED. 



From Project Vanguard to tic 

Goddard Space Flight Center 



AFTER WORLD WAR II, interest in rocket technology gradually devel- 
oped in the United States. 18 This was generated mainly by the impact 
of the German V-2 rocket upon American military and scientific circles 
during and after the war. At the end of the war, a number of the German 
rocket experts and almost 100 V-2 rockets were brought to the United 
States. Few realized their full potential. Scientists saw the rocket as a 
new tool of high-altitude research, while military considerations aroused the 
interest of the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy. 



Early Rocket Development 

In January 1946, the U.S. Army announced that a firing program for 
the V-2 rockets would begin later that year at White Sands, New Mexico. 
Government agencies and several universities were invited to consider 
using the V-2s for high-altitude (sounding rocket) research and ex- 
perimentation. 19 The first V-2 to be used in the sounding rocket re- 
search program was launched in June 1946, and in the next 6 years over 60 
were launched. As the result of the V-2 program in the United States, 
valuable knowledge was gained in two areas. First, the rockets enabled 
soundings to be made to an altitude of about 100 miles, and measurements 
of high-energy particle radiation, found at high altitudes but absorbed at 
lower levels, were made. Second, a great deal was learned about rocket 
technology and men were trained so that similar-size American rockets 
could be built as the supply of V-2s became depleted. 20 

Several organizations, partially staffed with personnel who had engaged in 

United States V-2 research, began to develop rockets. The first of these 

rockets was the Aerobee, designed by the Applied Physics Laboratory 

(APL) of The Johns Hopkins University. It was capable of carrying a 

13 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

small payload to an altitude of about 80 miles. 21 In 1947 the Naval Re- 
search Laboratory (NRL) , in Washington, D.C., proposed the construction 
of a rocket which would replace the V-2 in the American sounding rocket 
program. This rocket, at first called Neptune but later identified as Vi- 
king, was smaller than the V-2, but more powerful. 22 It could lift a larger 
payload to a height of about 150 miles with a high order of stability. In 
the 6 years between 1949 and 1955, 12 of these rockets were launched, carry- 
ing payloads as high as 158 miles. None attained the hoped-for altitude, 
but new altitude records were established and valuable scientific informa- 
tion was gained. 23 Other groups benefiting from the experience of the 
American V-2 program were the Army, which began work on its Redstone 
missile after 1950, and the U.S. Air Force, which began work on the Atlas 
ICBM in 1954. 24 In addition, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of 
the California Institute of Technology developed the WAC Corporal 
research rocket. 25 

Early U.S. Satellite Proposals 

Although the main emphasis in these years was on the development of an 
improved rocket-powered vehicle, a germinal program was initiated in earth 
satellites. The U.S. Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics was one of the first Gov- 
ernment organizations to initiate a satellite study program. In October 
1945, a committee of the Bureau of Aeronautics recommended that an earth 
satellite development program be undertaken for scientific purposes. The 
Aerojet Corporation and the California Institute of Technology were given 
the task of determining whether such a project was technically feasible us- 
ing the single-stage rocket vehicle which the Navy had proposed. 26 

In March 1946, the Navy took its proposal to the Army Air Force, sug- 
gesting a joint satellite program to aid funding. Although the first effort at 
such a program appeared promising, the Air Force informed the Navy that 
it could not cooperate. In the meantime, the Air Force had established 
Project RAND (later to become the RAND Corporation) to begin a satel- 
lite feasibility study. RAND drew up a proposal for the Air Force entitled 
"Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship." The 
PvAND proposal ruled out the satellite as a military weapon because no 
rocket could be constructed which could lift the heavy A-bomb into orbit 
and no explosive force short of an atomic one would inflict enough damage 
to warrant the expense of putting it into orbit. The problem was not one 
of capability (it was assumed that the U.S. could launch a 500-pound satel- 
lite by 1951) but rather one of devising a useful function for the satellite to 
perform once it was in orbit. Because a satellite was not a potential 
weapon, there were no funds available for its development. 27 

The RAND-Air Force proposal, like its Navy counterpart, urged the 
early adoption of a satellite program for scientific purposes. They argued 

14 



FROM VANGUARD TO GSFC 

for its capabilities in the fields of meteorology, communications, and 
astronomy. In October 1946, RAND issued an additional study entitled 
"The Time Factor in The Satellite Program," in which they emphasized the 
psychological and political factors which could result from the first satellite 
launch. Even this dramatic prognosis was insufficient to overcome the fac- 
tor that the satellite was not a potential weapon. 

When the Department of Defense (DOD) was created in 1947, none of 
the three military services was authorized to continue development of a 
rocket with satellite capability. The Air Force discontinued its satellite 
studies in mid-1947, but did resume them in 1949. By that time, the Navy 
had discontinued its studies because of lack of funds. Early in 1948, DOD 
reviewed the existing satellite proposals but again concluded that "neither 
the Navy nor the USAF has as yet established either a military or a 
scientific utility commensurate with the presently expected cost of a satellite 
vehicle." The work was so neglected at DOD that, in November 1954, the 
Secretary of Defense remarked publicly that he knew of no American 
satellite program. 28 

The RAND Corporation proved to be prophetic in its prediction of the 
great psychological-propaganda impact of the first satellite launching. They 
had emphasized, as early as 1946, that a satellite would be an "instrument 
of political strategy." When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I in 
October 1957, it had exactly the impact that RAND had said it would have 
— only in reverse. It was the United States which did the soul searching 
and suffered a drop in world opinion. It was only after this 1957 propa- 
ganda defeat that the U.S. Government fully understood the wider signifi- 
cance of these early satellite studies. 29 Yet, at the time of the first Sputniks, 
there actually was a satellite program in the United States. 

The International Geophysical Year 

While missile development and satellite proposals were progressing within 
the military services, an important boost was given to the scientific use of 
rocket technology. By 1951, the American Rocket Society (ARS) had 
grown to a point where its voice could be heard. In the winter of that 
year, Commander Robert Truax, who had been championing rocket pro- 
pulsion in the Navy, strongly and bluntly told the members at their annual 
meeting that they were too complacent in their attitude toward space flight, 
that time was catching up with them, and that definite action was called for. 
As a consequence of this meeting, the American Rocket Society formed 
an Ad Hoc Committee on Space Flight. 30 

In 1954, this ARS committee proposed that the Government sponsor the 
development of a small scientific satellite and use available military hard- 
ware to launch it. This proposal was informally submitted to Dr. Alan T. 
Waterman of the National Science Foundation. The satellite idea was 

15 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

alive in many forms in many scientific circles. The International Scientific 
Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, in making plans for the 
International Geophysical Year (IGY), 31 recommended that the launch 
of small scientific satellites be considered by individual groups preparing 
their own programs for the IGY. The United States National Committee 
for the IGY, formed by the National Academy of Sciences, also studied the 
possibility of having an earth satellite launched as part of the U.S. contribu- 
tion to IGY. Interest in satellite projects had also been revived among the 
military; the Army and the Navy had proposed in early 1955 a joint pro- 
gram (Project Orbiter) to launch an elementary, uninstrumented satellite 
in 2 or 3 years. 32 

It was in 1954 that the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958) was 
proposed. Its American spokesmen were among those scientists who had 
participated in the V-2 sounding rocket program. That summer, the In- 
ternational Scientific Radio Union and the International Union of Geodesy 
and Geophysics adopted resolutions calling for the launch of an artificial 
earth satellite during the forthcoming IGY. Both the United States and 
the Soviet Union picked up this proposal. On July 29, 1955, the White 
House announced that the United States would launch "small, unmanned, 
earth-circling satellites as a part of the U.S. participation in IGY." The 
next day the Soviet Union made a similar announcement. 33 

The Vanguard Project 

The White House announcement of the proposed satellite launchings 
was the product of coordinated efforts within the National Academy of 
Sciences (MAS) , the National Science Foundation (NSF) , and the Depart- 
ment of Defense. The announcement stated that NAS would determine 
the experiments to be orbited, NSF would supply the necessary funds, and 
DOD would launch the satellite. A Committee on Special Capabilities was 
established in DOD to determine the means for launching the U.S. 
satellite. This Committee, chaired by Dr. Homer J. Stewart, had three 
proposals from which to select. 34 One proposal was based on the as 
yet incomplete Atlas missile, one on the Army's Redstone (Project 
Orbiter), and one on the Naval Research Laboratory's Viking. The 
Navy proposal was based on sounding rocket research experience of 
the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the Martin Company, build- 
ers of the Viking. In essence it would use the Viking as a first stage, 
the Aerobee as a second stage, and an as yet undetermined rocket as a third 
stage. 35 After lengthy deliberation, a majority of the Stewart Committee 
recommended the NRL satellite proposal in August 1955. The recommen- 
dation was accepted and endorsed by the Policy Committee of DOD. The 
U.S. IGY satellite program under Navy management and DOD monitoring 
was established and designated "Project Vanguard." 

16 



FROM VANGUARD TO GSFC 



Project Vanguard 
Objectives: 

• To develop and procure a satellite-launching vehicle. 

• To place at least one satellite in orbit during IGY. 

• To accomplish one scientific experiment with the 

satellite. 

• To track the satellite's flight to demonstrate that it had 

actually attained orbit. 

Criteria: 

• The first stage was to be based on the Viking rocket, 

which had been developed by the Navy to replace 
the dwindling supply of captured V— 2s. 

• The second stage was to be an improved Aerobee 

rocket. 

• The third stage was to be a solid-fuel rocket weighing 

about 500 pounds, necessitating a real advance in the 
existing solid-fuel rocket technology. 

• On top of this vehicle would be placed a nose cone 

weighing 20 pounds, including the IGY scientific 
experiment to be orbited. 



On September 9, 1955, Project Vanguard was officially authorized when 
the Department of Defense notified the Secretary of the Navy to proceed 
with the project. Project Vanguard was to be accomplished without a 
specific appropriation from Congress. All funds came from the emergency 
fund of the Secretary of Defense. Only after Sputnik I had been launched 
and the Vanguard project had reached its final stages of completion did 
Congress authorize the Secretary of Defense to make available additional 
funds for Vanguard by reprograming the Defense budget. Two years, 6 
months, and 8 days after the Department of Defense authorized the project 
the first successful Vanguard satellite was launched (March 17, 1958) . s6 

At NRL, a special task force, headed by Dr. John P. Hagen, was assem- 
bled to handle the Vanguard program. 37 In a letter to the Navy Depart- 
ment, this group clarified its definition of what Project Vanguard really 
would be: "a complete system for space exploration." They had a difficult 
task before them. In addition to the development of a new satellite launch- 
ing rocket, they had to place a reliable scientific experiment into earth orbit 

17 



^^^^^^B 




■k ML ^ mil 



Project Vanguard staff members meet with Dr. John P. Hagen, Director of 
Project Vanguard, at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 
Left to right: Dr. J. W. Siry, Head of the Theory and Analysis Staff; D. G. 
Masur, Manager of the Vanguard Operations Group at Cape Canaveral, Fla.; 
J. M. Bridger, Head of the Vehicle Branch; Cdr. W. E. Berg, Navy Program 
Office; Dr. Hagen; Dr. J. P. Walsh, Deputy Project Director; M. W. Rosen, 
Technical Director; J. T. Mengel, Head of the Tracking and Guidance Branch; 
and Dr. H. E. Newell, Jr., Science Program Coordinator. L. Winkler, 
Engineering Consultant, was not present when this picture was taken. 



and not only prove that it was in orbit but gather data from the satellite via 
telemetry. This had never been done before. 

Dr. Hagen's small NRL team had mountains of problems to 
overcome. One difficulty might be used for illustration. At the Martin 
Company, which NRL had selected to build the Vanguard missile, the orig- 
inal NRL-Viking engineering team had been broken up. Unknown to the 
Navy, the Martin Company had received a prime contract from the Air 
Force to develop the second-generation ICBM, the Titan. Some of the 
leading Viking engineers already had been put on this project. This was, 
Dr. Hagen noted, "a shock, as we had cleared our intentions with the DOD 
before letting our letter of intent." The Navy stuck with the Martin Com- 
pany, but "things could have been much easier for the Vanguard group if 
the original Viking team of Martin had remained intact." 38 

While the NRL was busy preparing the launch vehicle, the National 
Academy of Sciences established a technical panel, under its IGY commit- 
tee, to select the experiments to be launched. The Vanguard group, 
through the liaison of Dr. Homer E. Newell, insisted on only one require- 
ment for each experiment: that it must have a very high reliability of per- 
formance and must be tested thoroughly to prove this reliability. 39 

The National Academy of Sciences requested the Vanguard group to 
make the satellite spherical in shape; in fact, a 30-inch sphere was 



FROM VANGUARD TO GSFC 

requested. This caused some concern, as it originally had been planned 
that Vanguard would orbit merely a simple nose cone. The Vanguard 
group agreed that they could change their design to launch a 20-inch 
sphere, but this would require a complete redesign of the second stage, 
which would have to have a large diameter. Therefore, in the fall of 1955, 
a redesign of the Vanguard vehicle was undertaken to fulfill the new 
requirements. 40 Since Vanguard was scientific in purpose, there was no 
alternative. 

By March 1956, the redesign of the Vanguard rocket was completed and a 
full schedule of six test vehicles and seven satellite-launching vehicles was 
prepared. As prime contractor for the launch vehicle, the Martin Com- 
pany was constructing the first stage; Aerojet Corporation had received a 
subcontract for the second stage; and the Grand Central Rocket Company 
and the Allegany Ballistics Laboratory were each building separate third 
stages based on different designs. Two major problems remained to be 
solved: choosing a launch site, and constructing the necessary satellite track- 
ing system. 41 

With the rocket thrust then attainable, it was virtually mandatory that 
the satellite be launched eastward in order to gain, rather than lose, the 
earth's rotational velocity of some 1,300 feet per second (about 1,000 
mph). An eastward launching could be made only from the east coast, lest 
the spent rocket stages fall on inhabited areas. This ruled out the other- 
wise most natural launch site, White Sands, New Mexico, where the Viking- 
launch facilities were available. The best available site was Cape Canav- 
eral, Florida, which then was being expanded to accommodate the testing of 
large, liquid-fuel ballistic missiles. The only other serious "competitor" 
was Roosevelt Roads, in Puerto Rico. Cape Canaveral was selected for 
many reasons, the main one being financial. However, a number of prob- 
lems arose from this selection. When the Navy requested that the Army 
Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) share its launch facilities at the Cape 
with the Vanguard operation, the Army refused on the grounds that it 
would interfere with the Redstone program and thus be detrimental to the 
Nation's ballistic missile program. It was then decided that Vanguard 
would construct its own checkout hangar, blockhouse, and launch pad at 
Cape Canaveral. This was an 18-month program but was still within the 
limited time remaining to complete a satellite launching during IGY. Ad- 
ditional down-range facilities also had to be constructed. Unlike the ballis- 
tic missile of that day, Vanguard was multistage, requiring command and 
control points as far away as a thousand miles from the launch site to inject 
a satellite into orbit. Even a gantry (service tower) was unavailable; the 
Vanguard group had to disassemble the Viking gantry at White Sands, 
transport it to the Cape, and reassemble it there. By the time of the first 
launch, the Vanguard group had constructed the Nation's first complete 
satellite launch facility, almost from the ground up. 42 

19 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

Tracking facilities proved to be a problem. Two types of tracking were 
necessary — electronic and optical. The electronic tracking system had to 
have a series of ground stations equipped with radio transmitting and re- 
ceiving equipment, timing facilities, and data-acquisition (telemetry) 
equipment. These facilities had to be constructed before the launch could 
take place and had to be located in various parts of the world to provide the 
degree of orbital coverage considered necessary. A contract was awarded to 
the Bendix Corporation to construct this system, which later became known 
as Minitrack (for Minimum weight tracking, because it required only the 
simplest and lightest transmitter in the satellite) . A system of optical 
tracking stations was established and managed by the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory. A communications network centered at the Naval 
Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., tied the 13 Minitrack and 12 SAO 
stations together. 43 

Twelve Vikings had been built and fired in the normal course of NRL's 
upper atmosphere research. Viking 1 3 was at White Sands awaiting prepa- 
ration for launch when the Navy was given the Vanguard mission. Viking 
14 was modified by adding an ejectable sphere and a solid-fuel second stage 
to test its ignition and separation at altitude. This vehicle was designated 
as Test Vehicle 1 (TV-1). It was then decided to use Viking 13 to check 
out the new launch facilities at Cape Canaveral. To make this the first of 
the Vanguard series and to avoid having to renumber all the vehicle desig- 
nations, Viking 13 was placed ahead of the rest of the planned series and 
designated Test Vehicle (TV-0). 44 

On December 8, 1956, TV-0 was successfully launched at Cape 
Canaveral. It reached an altitude of 126 miles and dropped into the ocean 
183 miles away. 4 ' 5 TV-1 was launched on May 1, 1957; this was a rede- 
signed rocket and the only one of its kind flown. The first stage was the 
Viking 14; the second stage (which was actually the Vanguard third stage) 
ignited, separated successfully, and flew 450 miles farther, carrying a heavy 
instrumented nose cone. A milestone had been reached; a solid-fuel upper 
stage had been ignited in flight, and the feasibility of the Vanguard rocket 
had been proven. 46 

In July 1957, an important change was made in the Vanguard program; 
NRL directed that the Vanguard team replace the instrument test packages 
previously flown on its test vehicles with small (6-inch) satellite 
spheres. The 6-inch spheres had orginally been developed to give an ex- 
tra margin of reliability over the heavier 20-inch sphere when used on the 
launch vehicles. The decision to use the 6-inch sphere on the test vehicles 
was an indication that emphasis was being shifted from the testing of the 
vehicles to the earlier launching of satellites. This alteration was not 
made on TV-2, the first of the true Vanguard vehicles. This rocket was 
already on the launch stand going through prelaunch checkout when, on 
October 4, it was announced that the Soviet Union had launched an earth 

20 



FROM VANGUARD TO GSFC 

satellite at 7:30 in the evening from the Tyuratam Range in Kazakhstan, 

U.S.S.R.* 7 

After Sputnik 

The launch of Sputnik I caused a great deal of turmoil in the United 
States. Great pressure was exerted on the Vanguard team to get an Ameri- 
can satellite into orbit. 48 The launch of TV-2 on October 23, 1957, 
seemed anticlimactic, since the launch was not designed to place a satellite 
in orbit but simply to test the vehicle. The vehicle consisted of the first of 
the new Viking first stages and dummy second and third stages, with some 
of the control system of the last two stages operational. Sputnik II was 
launched on November 3, 1957. On December 6, an attempt was made to 
launch TV-3; this was the first test of the complete live three-stage vehicle 
and control system and was the first Vanguard rocket with potential orbital 
capabilities. The first-stage engine lost thrust after two seconds, and the 

Technicians mate the Vanguard I satellite to its slender booster rocket in 

preparation for its successful flight on March 17, 1958. 



■If 




VENTURE INTO SPACE 

vehicle burned up on the launching pad. Because of the Russian first with 
Sputniks I and II and because a White House statement that the next 
Vanguard launch would place an American satellite in orbit was wrongly 
construed to apply to this test launch, news of the Vanguard failure rever- 
berated around the world. 49 

The unfortunate turn of events in the early Vanguard test launches, 
which reflected the troubles inevitable in development of a new three-stage 
booster, plus the "space race" pressure generated by the Sputniks, led to a 
relaxation of the ban on use of military missiles for the IGY satellite 
project. The Army Ballistics Missile Agency was authorized in November 
to attempt a satellite launching with its proven Redstone missile. As a 
result, the Army and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were able to launch the 
first U.S. satellite, Explorer I, on January 31, 1958. The Explorer I and its 
IGY experiment of James A. Van Allen boosted the prestige of the U.S. 
space program. But this event, as well as the breakup of the TV-3 backup 
Vanguard on February 5, brought more unkind comments in public about 
the Vanguard satellite program. 50 

On March 17, 1958, TV-4 successfully launched into orbit Vanguard I, a 
6-inch sphere weighing 4 pounds. Although this was far from the final 
objective of a 20-pound instrumented satellite, it did justify the confidence 
which had been placed in the Vanguard project. Primary purpose of the 
launch was a test of the performance of the Vanguard rocket, but the small 
sphere it carried achieved such a remarkably stable orbit that it proved one 
of the Nation's most important early satellites. Probably the most note- 
worthy of its many major contributions to knowledge was the discovery of 
the "pear shape" of the Earth. Scientists also were able to study and meas- 
ure the density of the atmosphere in a region some 465 miles above the 
Earth. It provided extensive observation and measurements of air density 
variations associated with solar activity and the first quantitative data on 
how solar radiation pressure affects a satellite's orbit. 

For more than 6 years it transmitted radio signals from space on its as- 
signed 108-megacycle frequency, powered only by six quartz-covered arrays 
of solar cells. Officially known internationally as 1958 Beta 2, Vanguard I 
is still circling the globe every 134 minutes and has an apogee of about 
2,400 miles and a perigee of about 400 miles. 

When NASA phased out the 108-megacycle radio band used for scientific 
satellites during the IGY, the agency's tracking and data acquisition facili- 
ties were gradually converted to the internationally allocated 136-megacycle 
band. At the close of 1964, the station near Quito, Ecuador, was the only 
NASA station still monitoring on the 108-megacycle frequency, and the sig- 
nals from Vanguard I had degraded to the extent that Quito was unable to 
detect any signals, even at optimum conditions (when the satellite was in 
sunlight at the time of its perigee) . 

The successful launch of Vanguard I confirmed the merit of the rocket 



The liftoff of Vanguard I on 
March 17, 1958. 




design; it also demonstrated that the Vanguard group had become a well- 
integrated professional and technical team. Three other Vanguard rockets 
were launched before the Vanguard team was transferred from NRL to the 
newly created civilian space agency, NASA. The first satellite launch vehi- 
cle (SLV-1), launched May 27, 1958, was successful except for a premature 
second-stage burnout; in the second (SLV-2) , launched June 26, 1958, the 
second stage cut off prematurely; the third (SLV-3) , launched September 
26, 1958, reached an altitude of 265 miles. 51 



Vanguard and NASA 

The launch of Sputnik I in the fall of 1957 was a real jolt to the compla- 
cency of the American people. In true American tradition, a great clamor 
went up as to why the Soviet Union was ahead of the United States, who was 
to blame for the situation, and what was to be done about it. The people 
engaged in existing satellite programs had a difficult time explaining that 

23 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

their best efforts had been slowed by limitations over which they had no 
control. The end results of the new "space consciousness" were beneficial, 
since there developed a general realization that the American effort had to 
be greatly expanded and financially supported. 

About 8 months after the launch of Sputnik I, the President's Science 
Advisory Committee and the President's Advisory Committee on Govern- 
mental Organization recommended the establishment of a civilian agency to 
direct nonmilitary space activity. President Eisenhower delivered a mes- 
sage to Congress on April 2, 1958, which stated that "aeronautical and space 
science activities sponsored by the United States should be conducted under 
the direction of a civilian agency except for those projects primarily asso- 
ciated with military requirements." As a result of this message and with a 
clear public demand for such action, Public Law 85-568, the National Aer- 
onautics and Space Act, was enacted and signed by the President on July 29, 
1958. This law established the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration and gave the new agency the responsibility for conducting the 
scientific exploration of space for peaceful purposes. The law also gave the 




Vanguard III, launched September 18, 
1959. 



FROM VANGUARD TO GSFC 

President the authority to transfer to NASA "any function of any other 
department or agency of the United States, or of any officer or organiza- 
tional entity thereof, which relate primarily to the functions, powers, and 
duties of . . . NASA." NASA opened its doors on October 1, 1958. Proj- 
ect Vanguard was transferred to NASA, with other DOD space projects. 52 
The Vanguard project was continued under the direction of 
NASA. Vanguard II (SLV-4), launched on February 17, 1959, was the 
first full-scale (21 -pound) Vanguard payload to achieve orbit, it was also 
the first satellite designed to observe and record the cloud cover of the earth 
and was a forerunner of the Television Infrared Observation Weather 
Satellites (Tiros). Vanguard HI (SLV-7), launched on September 18, 
1959, was a 20-inch sphere weighing about 50 pounds. 53 

Vanguard Helped Shape the Future 

As it happened, Vanguard did not put the first U.S. satellite into 
orbit. Nonetheless its contributions to the U.S. space effort were great 
indeed. Vanguard research became the basis for later launch vehicles, par- 
ticularly the remarkably reliable Delta. Vanguard pioneered the use of ad- 
vanced state-of-the-art techniques, including the first utilization of solar 
cells, which have since become commonplace components of American satel- 
lites. The scientific experiments which were flown on the Vanguard satel- 
lites increased the amount of scientific knowledge of space and opened the 
way for more sophisticated experiments. 54 

Perhaps the most significant achievement of Project Vanguard was to 
bring together a group of dedicated and talented scientists and engineers 
who came to understand the complexities and challenges of the space 
sciences program. This team was assimilated into the National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration, where it became the human core of the God- 
dard Space Flight Center and served as the foundation for the distinguished 
space sciences programs which were to emerge. 55 



25 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED. 



Establishment of tic 

Goiflard Space Flip Crate 

3 



ON SEPTEMBER 25, 1958, Administrator T. Keith Glennan announced 
the activation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion (NASA) , effective October 1, 1958. 56 Approximately 8,000 people 
and five laboratories of the 43-year-old National Advisory Committee for 
Aeronautics (NACA) were to be assimilated into the new agency. NACA's 
facilities would then become NASA's facilities, including Wallops Station 
(Wallops Island, Va.) , and four research centers: Langley Research Center 
(Hampton, Va.) , Lewis Research Center (Cleveland, Ohio) , Ames Re- 
search Center (Moffett Field, Calif.) , and the Flight Research Center (Ed- 
wards, Calif.) . 

On October 1, 1958, an executive order of the President effected the 
transfer to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the re- 
sponsibilities involving several space research projects, including the Navy's 
Vanguard project. 57 

By this executive order, about 150 Project Vanguard personnel were 
transferred from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration. 53 The transfer became effective on No- 
vember 30, 1958, and this group became known as the NASA-Vanguard 
Division. In December 1958, this group was transferred from the Naval 
Research Laboratory to the Space Science Division of NASA. During De- 
cember 1958 and January 1959, 15 people from the Naval Research Labora- 
tory were transferred to the Theoretical Division of NASA. Early in 1959, 
these elements, with others, were designated by NASA Headquarters to 
serve as the nucleus of a new Space Projects Center. Its staff was tempora- 
rily housed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., and at the 
Colemont Building, Silver Spring, Maryland. 

This assemblage was composed of some of the most experienced men 
engaged in space research. It included upper atmosphere scientific re- 
search teams and scientists and engineers from all three military services, 
the Project Mercury (manned satellite) team culled from the experienced 

27 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

staff of the former NACA laboratories, and the Navy's Project Vanguard 
staff. These groups gave immediate, mature capabilities in many vital 
areas of space flight research and development, since each was a "going 
concern" when transferred. From these and other groups, the initial team 
of senior personnel, around which was built the organization of the new 
Space Center, was assembled. 

NASA Deputy Administrator Dr. Hugh L. Dryden appears to have been 
a key figure in selection of the Beltsville site. When the need for the new 
Space Center became apparent, he remembered the availability of surplus 
Government land near the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Be- 
lieving that most of the Project Vanguard staff lived in Maryland, he had 
encouraged consideration of the Beltsville site. "Later, I learned that I 
may have been mistaken, since many of the Vanguard people actually lived 
in Virginia," Dr. Dryden recalled. 

The New Beltsville Space Center 

On August 1, 1958, Senator J. Glenn Beall of Maryland announced in a 
press release that the new "outer space agency" (NASA) would establish a 
laboratory and plant at Greenbelt, Maryland. This was the first time pub- 
lic notice was drawn to what was to become Goddard Space Flight Center. 59 

Planning of the new Center continued through the rest of 1958 and by 
the end of the year events were ripening. On January 15, 1959, by action 
of the NASA Administrator, four divisions (Construction Division, Space 
Sciences Division, Theoretical Division, and the Vanguard Division) of 
NASA were designated as the new Beltsville Space Center. 60 

On January 22, 1959, a NASA General Notice announced the establish- 
ment of the Beltsville Space Center to be operated under the direction of 
the Director of Space Flight Development in NASA Headquarters, Dr. Abe 
Silverstein. 61 

In a meeting held on February 12, 1959, for the purpose of surveying the 
organization and functions of the Beltsville Space Center, it was generally 
agreed that the Center probably would perform five major interrelated 
space science functions on behalf of NASA: 62 

Project management 

Research 

Development and fabrication 

Advanced planning 
Operations 

At the meeting it was agreed that the Beltsville Space Center should 
conduct an active space science program, launch six or seven vehicles for 
communications and meteorological satellites, and carry out research with 
geodetic satellites as well as fulfill other Vanguard Division follow-on 

28 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GSFC 

programs. In addition to the scientific satellites and the meteorological 
and communications programs, the Beltsville center was to assume adminis- 
trative responsibility for the early phases of the Mercury project — the first 
U.S. man-in-space program. Vehicles under consideration in these activi- 
ties, in addition to the Center-managed Delta vehicle, were the Vega, Cen- 
taur, Thor- Vanguard (which became Thor-Delta) , Juno V, and the 
Nova. Another extremely important function of the Beltsville center 
would be the global tracking operation which included tracking, data ac- 
quisition, and data reduction for both NASA's manned and scientific space 
missions. 

Beltsville Becomes Goddard 

On May 1, 1959, Dr. T. Keith Glennan, NASA Administrator, in a pub- 
lic release, formally announced that the Beltsville Space Center would be 
redesignated the Goddard Space Flight Center "in commemoration of Dr. 
Robert H. Goddard, American pioneer in rocket research." The Center 
would be under the overall guidance of Dr. Abe Silverstein, then Director 
of Space Flight Development at NASA Headquarters. 

The organization of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was to in- 
clude a director, not yet appointed; three major research and development 
groups, each headed by an assistant director; and business administration 
and technical services departments. 

In the announcement, Dr. John W. Townsend, Jr., Chief of NASA's 
Space Sciences Division and previously Chief of the Rocket Sonde Branch 
of the Naval Research Laboratory, was named Assistant Director for Space 
Science and Satellite Applications. John T. Mengel, who was responsible 
for the development of the Project Vanguard Minitrack satellite tracking 
system, was named Assistant Director for Tracking and Data Systems. Dr. 
Robert R. Gilruth, who would become Director of Project Mercury and 
who had been Chief of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division, Langiey 
Research Center, was named Assistant Director for Manned Satel- 
lites. The three Assistant Directors temporarily reported to Dr. 
Silverstein. The announcement also stated that the Office of Business Ad- 
ministration would be headed by Dr. Michael J. Vaccaro, transferring from 
the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, where he had served as 
Director of Organization and Personnel. This was the first formal an- 
nouncement of the Goddard organization, mission, and appointment of key 
personnel. 63 

Two other key appointments followed a few months later. In May 1959 
Leopold Winkler, who had transferred to NASA with the Vanguard pro- 
gram, was appointed Chief, Technical Services. And in September 1959, 
Dr. Harry J. Goett was named Director of Goddard Space Flight 
Center. Goett came from Ames Research Center, where he had been Chief 
of the Full Scale and Flight Research Division. 

29 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



Goddard Space Flight Center Responsibilities, 1959 

Conducting advanced planning and theoretical studies 

Conducting necessary supporting research 

Developing payloads for approved programs 

Supervising GSFC flight operations 

Supervising tracking, data acquisition, communications, 

and computing operations 
Interpreting results of flight programs 
Furnishing technical management of projects 
Exercising procurement and contract administration 

authority 
Providing support of space program activities of other 

organizations 
Reporting status of approved programs 
Providing administrative and management support 



With the new space agency, NASA, specifically responsible for activities 
in space devoted to peaceful purposes, the question arose as to which space 
programs initiated by the Department of Defense under its Advanced Re- 
search Projects Agency should be continued by NASA. 64 Spacecraft and 
meteorological satellites had been developed by the Army Signal Corps' 
Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey; vehi- 
cle development had progressed under the Army's Ballistic Missile 
Agency. Upon transfer of the meteorological program to NASA (April 
1959) , the mission was assigned to the Goddard Space Flight Center. The 
space communications program also had been a military project. One 
phase of it — indeed, the earliest phase — had been the passive balloon tech- 
nique, with experiments conducted by the Army Signal Corps at Fort Mon- 
mouth and at NACA's Langley Laboratory. The other phase was the ex- 
perimental hardware for active repeater communications satellites. With 
creation of NASA and the establishment of Goddard, both projects were 
assigned to the new Center. 

Having acquired programs and people from other agencies, Goddard 
immediately needed money to operate. Some money had been inherited 
along with the programs and people. The executive order transferring 
Project Vanguard to NASA also transferred remaining project funds total- 
ing approximately $6 million, plus about $300,000 earmarked for special 
equipment ordered earlier by the Navy's Vanguard staff. Also available to 
the newly established Center were certain funds which had been appropri- 

30 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GSFC 

ated to NACA. These resources were not enough to meet the new Center's 
needs. Since the Fiscal Year 1959 Independent Offices Appropriations Bill 
already had cleared the House of Representatives, the Bureau of the Budget 
authorized the budget request to be included in the 1959 Independent 
Offices Appropriations Bill as a supplemental item while the bill was being 
considered by the Senate. The item was subsequently considered by the 
House-Senate Conference Committee without further referral to the House. 

The Fiscal Year 1960 budget without the manned space flight program 
totaled somewhat less than $100 million (the manned flight program was 
about $140 million, giving the Center a total budget of about $240 
million). The program mushroomed in Fiscal Year 1961 to about $160 
million, plus an additional $140 million designated for the manned space 
missions. The Center's scientific and technical programs for Fiscal Year 
1962 came to about $250 million; for Fiscal Year 1963 it was about $354 
million. 

During the early period of its development, contractual operations, 
which became a vital and integral part of Goddard's business operations, 
were handled for the Center by NASA Headquarters. 

Meanwhile on April 24, 1959, construction of the new space laboratory 
began on a site located on a 550-acre tract formerly part of the U.S. De- 
partment of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Center at Beltsville, 
Maryland. By September 1960, Building 1 was fully occupied and other 
buildings were well underway. Although much of the occupancy was on a 
temporary basis and the personnel complement was widely scattered from 
Anacostia, D.C., to Silver Spring, Maryland, and points between, the God- 
dard Space Flight Center had become a physical reality. 

The Dedication 

On February 8, 1961, Dr. Harry J. Goett, the Director, announced dedi- 
cation ceremonies to be held on March 16, 1961. A committee with Dr. 
Michael J. Vaccaro as chairman and Robert C. Baumann as co-chairman 
planned the ceremonies. 

The dedication included opening remarks by Dr. Goett and a welcom- 
ing address by James E. Webb, NASA Administrator. The event also 
marked the presentation of a Congressional Medal awarded posthumously 
to Dr. Robert H. Goddard, which was accepted by his widow, Mrs. Esther 
C. Goddard. In presenting the Medal, Representative Overton Brooks 
said: 65 "From the Congress of which I am Chairman of the House Com- 
mittee on Space and Aeronautics, we present this medal, but truly it comes 
not from the Congress of the United States but from the heart ... of the 
American people as a whole." Senator Robert S. Kerr, Chairman of the 
Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences of the Senate, was unable to 
be present but sent the following message to Mrs. Goddard: 

31 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

Mrs. Goddard, I am more than honored to have the opportunity 
of joining my good friend, Overton Brooks, in presenting to you 
this Congressional Medal in recognition of the creative achievements 
of your late husband. It was just 35 years ago today that he launched 
the world's first successful liquid fuel rocket and it is most appro- 
priate that we make this presentation on this auspicious anniversary. 
It is only through the genius of a man like Dr. Goddard, who was 
not afraid to work for what he believed in, that we shall maintain 
the spirit and vitality that has made our country great. This medal, 
authorized by Congress on behalf of all the people, is but a small 
token from a grateful nation. 

Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, Deputy Administrator of NASA, introduced Dr. 
Detlev W. Bronk, President, National Academy o£ Sciences, who made the 
dedication address. Dr. Bronk said in part: 

There are two quotations I would like to repeat. The one appropriate 
to the mission of this institution, the other with regard to the man we 
honor. The first is from Louis Pasteur, speaking at a time when his 
beloved country was not doing well. "Oh, my country," said he, "You 
who so long held the sceptre of thought, why did you neglect your 
noblest creations? Take interest, I beseech you, in those sacred institu- 

Dedication ceremony, March 16, 1961. 







r Jt^iL 





Dignitaries and guests attending the Center's dedication. 

tions which we designate under the expressive name of laboratories. 
Demand that they be multiplied and adorned for they are the temples 
of wealth and of the future. There it is that humanity grows, becomes 
stronger and better ... it learns to read in the work of nature symbols 
of progress with universal harmony." And from Pliny the Younger, "It 
is a noble employment to save from oblivion those who deserve to be 
remembered." 



A bronze bust of Dr. Goddard was unveiled by his wife, assisted by Dr. 
Abe Silverstein, NASA Director of Space Flight Programs. The bust was 
created by the Washington sculptor Joseph Anthony Atchison, noted for his 
creative work in the Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, 
the World Flight Memorial for the Smithsonian Institution, and the Second 
Inaugural Medal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Responding to the recognition paid her late husband, Mrs. Goddard re- 
marked: "I hope that this bust and the man it represents will serve as an 
inspiration not only to the brilliant and dedicated people who are now at 
work at this tremendous Space Flight Center but to all who may work here 
in years to come. My husband would be deeply proud and happy for this 
very great tribute." 

33 




.■■:., | 

_ JBBMi 



Joseph Anthony Atchison 
at work on the bust of 
Dr. Robert H. Goddard. 




Mrs. Robert H. Goddard partici- 
pating in the dedication of the 
NASA Center named in honor of 

her late husband. 



Tours of the Center were conducted for invited guests, and "open house" 
was held for employees and their families. Included was a Control Room 
demonstration with simulation of prelaunch and countdown procedures, 
followed by a simulated satellite injection into orbit. 

Lectures reviewed the Center's operation of global satellite networks, in- 
cluding Minitrack and Project Mercury. The cooperative role of the 
Center in the international exploration of space was explained. Guests saw 
an animated miniature tracking station and a scale model of the forthcom- 



34 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GSFC 

ing United States-United Kingdom spacecraft, Ariel I, the first interna- 
tional satellite to be flown under Goddard project direction. There were 
also displays of spacecraft instrumentation and Goddard's family of sound- 
ing rockets, including an Aerobee 150A with a new attitude control system. 

Other models on display included the Tiros weather satellites; Explorer 
X, the magnetometer spacecraft; Explorer VIII, the Direct Measurement 
Satellite; and Vanguard I. There was also a demonstration of a micro- 
meteoroid detector, and vacuum, vibration, and spin-balancing equipment 
used to simulate space environmental conditions was shown. 

Under authorization for construction at the time of dedication were eight 
buildings, representing a $27 million investment. They would provide the 
necessary facilities for 2,000 scientific, technical, and administrative 
personnel. The 550-acre tract once devoted to agricultural research was 
rapidly assuming a new role — the peaceful exploration of space. 



35 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED. 



PAH TWO 



SPACE FLIGHT 

CENTER 

GOES TO WORK 



Nature to be 
commanded must 
be obeyed. 

— Francis Bacon 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED. 



The Early Years 
4 



THE OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS which have been developed and ap- 
plied at the Goddard Space Flight Center go beyond the traditional men, 
money, and machines concept of management. Although the early years 
of Goddard were deeply concerned with men (or manpower), money (in 
terms of budgetary activity, procurement activity, and operational costs), 
and machines (in terms of buildings and support equipment resources) , 
other factors had far-reaching effects. These included such elements as 
Goddard's approach to project organization, its plan for uniting different 
disciplines into a group serving a common purpose, its program for dissemi- 
nating scientific information, and many others. 

Dr. T. Keith Glennan, then NASA Administrator, said: "We are not an 
operating organization in the ordinary sense of that term. We do not ex- 
pect to operate meteorological or communications systems. Our product is 
knowledge — new and fundamental knowledge — the techniques, processes, 
and systems by means of which we acquire that knowledge. The rocket- 
powered launch vehicles we design and buy are not an end in themselves— 
they are cargo-carrying trucks of space, discarded when their fuel is ex- 
hausted." 66 

While the direct relation between some particular element or effort of 
Goddard and the acquisition of space knowledge sometimes appeared ten- 
uous, the fact remained that the primary reason for the Center's existence 
was to acquire new knowledge. To do so required the coordinated effort 
of many scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel — often lo- 
cated in remote areas throughout the world — as well as buildings, equip- 
ment, and facilities. 

The Center's growth may be measured by several factors: (1) the rapidity 
with which it expanded its work force from a few people formerly with 
the Vanguard project at NRL to a staff of some 3,000 with widely varied 
skills and backgrounds; (2) the growth of its physical plant from a wooded 
area near Greenbelt, Maryland, to a complex of modern space science labo- 
ratories, testing facilities, and worldwide tracking, data acquisition, and re- 
duction facilities; and (3) the growth in financial responsibility from the 

39 



The wooded site selected for the Space Center. 

approximately $6,300,000 transferred by the Navy to an R&D budget of 
about $354.03 million for Fiscal Year 1963. 

A Nucleus Goes to Work 

The first employees of the activity later designated as the Goddard Space 
Flight Center were some 150 individuals of the Vanguard group, trans- 
ferred from the Navy to the newly created National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. By mutual agreement between DOD and NASA it was 
decided that this cadre would remain physically at the Naval Research Lab- 
oratory "until suitable space is available at the projected NASA Space 
Projects Center in Beltsville." 

In December 1958 another 46 employees were transferred to the Beltsville 
Center from NRL's Space Sciences group. By the end of 1958 the new 
Center had a total of 216 employees. By June 1959 the Center had grown 
to 391 people in the Washington area. In 1959 recruitment activities were 
stepped up significantly, and by the year's end there were 579 
employees. By June 30, 1960, through transfer and recruitment the per- 
sonnel complement had grown to 707 people. 

40 



sm 



ESSUM! 




mmmm 



if 1 ™! 



■■jet- ^^^^^K ■ 

SB*"^ ■KB F 




'# o™ 



H ■■»■ 111 
1 

■ fillll MM 



■ '^1; 111 



m 



tiff 



First computers are moved to the g§jjj§ 
Goddard Space Flight Center. 




»§iiigiiiip™ 



As previously indicated, NASA's manned space flight program was an 
integral part of the early Goddard mission. For this mission, the Center 
had the talent and technical capabilities from the early Vanguard days, in- 
cluding the worldwide Minitrack network. Increasing emphasis on 
scientific, meteorological, and communications satellite projects, together 
with recognition that the manned space flight program demanded an inde- 
pendent organization, led to the Space Task Group (STG) at Langley be- 
ing separated from its organizational assignment to Goddard as of January 
3, 1961. Goddard retained its responsibilities in connection with the 
Project Mercury tracking network. As a result of this transfer, 667 people 
left the Goddard roster to form the nucleus of what later became NASA's 
Manned Spacecraft Center, at Houston, Texas. 67 



41 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED. 



Organizing for Space Sciem 
el 



The secret of good administration . . . lies not in the administrator's 
vast and exact knowledge, but in his skill in navigating areas of igno- 
rance. ... It is the daily experience of an administrator that he make 
decisions in areas outside his expertise on what a scholar would con- 
sider to be insufficient evidence. 68 

EVEN AS THE INVESTIGATION AND EXPLORATION of space 
became a national goal, the effective direction and administration 
of the space program became an urgent necessity for the newly cre- 
ated agency. Here was a national effort which was to be conducted 
under the closest scrutiny of the public, the Congress, and the scientific 
community. It was a program involving vast human and financial re- 
sources which had to be given sound, and in many ways, novel, direction 
and guidance. 

The national commitment to space did not come as a smooth, steady, 
acceleration of effort, but instead as a series of challenges and 
responses. We have seen in earlier chapters the experiments of one New 
England professor, how such efforts were multiplied many times during 
World War II, received postwar government and scientific endorsement 
and support in the IGY, blossomed into a national space program with civil 
and military components in the wake of Sputnik I, and leapfrogged into the 
exclusive bracket of top Federal program expenditures following the shock 
of the world's first manned space flight, made by the Soviet Union's Cosmo- 
naut Gagarin in April 1961. It was then that President John F. Kennedy 
and his administration rallied the Nation; he said on May 25, 1961: "Now 
it is time to take longer strides — time for a great new American enterprise 
— time for this Nation to take a clearly leading role in space achievement 
which in many ways may hold the key to our future on earth." 69 Later 
President Kennedy predicted that this major expansion of the space pro- 
gram would be considered "as one of the most important decisions that will 
be made during my incumbency." 70 The goal was not only to land a man 

43 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

on the moon within the decade, but also to gain American competence and 
preeminence in all space activities. 

Responsible for three distinct phases of the U.S. space program — 
scientific investigation of cislunar space, applications satellites (weather and 
communications) , and space tracking of manned and scientific satellites 
(tracking, data acquisition, and data reduction) — Goddard Space Flight 
Center's missions were vital to the U.S. position in space. Within four 
years after its establishment, the Goddard Space Flight Center had an an- 
nual research and development budget of some $354.03 million — about one 
million dollars per day. The accompanying charts graphically illustrate 
the rapid growth in expenditures at Goddard. 

With the establishment of the Goddard Center from the Vanguard 
project and the Upper Atmosphere group of the Naval Research Labora- 
tory, varied capabilities, practices, and management concepts were brought 
together. The early organization did not fit neatly into simple categories 



Funding at Goddard Space Flight Center, 1959-1963 
[All amounts are in millions of dollars] 











Major GSFC 


missions 














Sounding 
rockets 


Satellites 


Tracking 
and data 
acquisition 


Delta 
launch 
vehicle 




Year 


Scientific 


Meteor- 
ological 


Communi- 
cations 


Total 


1959 


3.56 




21.31 


0.99 


3.57 


3.10 


12.93 


45.46 


I960 


9.68 




20.24 


7.93 


3.05 


16.19 


12,48 


69.57 


1961 


8.25 




35.14 


17.50 


31.15 


29.65 


9.58 


131.27 


1962 


7.29 




67.64 


26.97 


21.42 


45.13 


0.70 


169.15 


1963 


9.51 




89.87 


42.43 


31.30 


86.59 


0.70 


261.40 


Salaries and plant support 


i 
t 


Advanced 


Year 


Salaries 

and 
expenses 


Construction and 

equipment 

(on site and 

tracking) 


Plant 
support 


Total 


research 

and 
echnology 


1959 


2.02 


3.95 


0.14 




6.11 







1960 


11.40 


17.74 


3.56 




32.70 







1961 


16.31 


14.63 


4.97 




35.91 







1962 


26.68 


32.46 


11,47 




70.61 




2.78 


1963 


38.83 


35.41 


13.81 




88.05 




4.58 



44 



ORGANIZING FOR SPACE SCIENCE 

of programs, disciplines, or functions. It contained most of the needed 
"across-the-board" capability with many specialized skills. This in-house 
competence, further increased by those who joined the staff later, was one of 
the Center's greatest assets. It provided the basic capability to assure intelli- 
gent control of its programs and to conduct enough in-house research and 
development of a significant and challenging nature to ensure the profes- 
sional excellence of its scientific and technical staff. 

The complexity of the Center's missions made for intricate patterns of 
communications and decision-making, calling for new skills in management 
and in conduct of organizational relations. Since some 90 percent of the 
Center's research and development funds were expended with private in- 
dustry, nonprofit and educational institutions, and other Government agen- 
cies, the need for effective management techniques became increasingly 
important. Also needed were effective communications with the scientific 
community; new scientific knowledge was the fundamental objective of 
Goddard's space program. Suggestions and proposals for scientific experi- 
ments were evaluated by subcommittees of the NASA Headquarters Space 
Sciences Steering Committee for: (a) scientific merit; (b) the capabilities 
of the proposer and his institution. The experimenter chosen by the Com- 
mittee could elect to build the hardware himself or subcontract to industry. 

Where management responsibility for a major space project was assigned 
to the Goddard Center, project groups were created and became the back- 
bone of the Center's management structure. Headed by a project manager, 
each project group included support elements from the Center's Office of 
Administration (for fiscal, procurement, scheduling, and other administra- 
tive details) and representatives for test and evaluation (reliability) and 
tracking (data acquisition and data reduction) . It was the project man- 
ager's responsibility to ensure that Goddard's resources, both internal and 
contractual, were effectively used to serve the needs of a particular project. 

The Center management considered the following relationships essential 
to effective project operations: 

• Project needs must be communicated to line supervisors. 

• Project manager must have rapid and direct access to top management 
to report how adequately requirements are being served. 

• Top management must be able to step in to resolve such problems as 
arise from conflict between the needs of the various projects, be- 
tween project demands and the more general discipline activity. 

• Engineers and scientists in the project groups must keep in constant 
touch with the contractors and major subcontractors to follow the 
progress of project elements. 

• A project support staff must assist the project group by performing 
such functions as procurement, financial management, PERT analysis, 
progress reporting. 

45 



r 



OAO PROGRAM CHIEF 

OAO PROJECT OFFICER 
AGENA B PROJECT MANAGER 

OAO REPRESENTATIVE (T & DA) 



NASA 
ADMINISTRATOR 

DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR 
ASSOCIATE ADM1N1STSATO: 



OFFiCE OF TRACKING 
AND DATA ACQUISITION 



L_„„_„__ m ™„ 



PROJECT SCIENTIST 
SPACE SCIENCE DIVISION 




ASSISTANT PROJECT MANAGER 
SPACECRAFT SYSTEMS AND 
PROJECTS DIVISION 



PROJECT SUPPORT STAFF 



PROCUREMENT 
BUDGET AND FINANCE 
COORDINATOR 
PERT ANALYST 



GROUND OPERATIONS 

TRACKING AND DATA 

SYSTEMS MANAGER 

SPACE DATA ACQUISITION DIVISION 



DATA HANDLING AND 

GROUND OPERATIONS 

EQUIPMENT 

SPACE DATA ACQUISITION DIVISION 



DATA REDUCTION 

FACILITY 

SPACE DATA ACQUISITION DIVISION 



SIMULATOR AND MATHEMATICAL 

OPERATIONS 

DATA SYSTEMS DIVISION 



TRACKING AND COMMUNICATIONS 
OPERATIONS 
OPERATIONS AND SUPPORT DIVISION 



X 



TECHNICAL SUPPORT STAFF 



TEST AND EVALUATION 
PROJECT COORDINATOR 
VEHICLE REPRESENTATIVE 



EXPERIMENTS 
SYSTEM MANAGER 
SPACECRAFT SYSTEMS AND 
PROJECTS DIVISION 



3" 



SPACECRAFT 

SYSTEMS MANAGER 

SPACECRAFT SYSTEMS AND 

PROJECTS DIVISION 



GODDARD SPACE 
FLIGHT CENTER 



SMITHSONIAN 
ASTROPHYSICAL 
OBSERVATORY 



CONSULTANTS 



UNIVERSITY 

OF 
WISCONSIN 



PRINCETON 
UNIVERSITY 



GSFC AGENA 6 COORDINATOR 



LAUNCH VEHICLE 
SYSTEMS MANAGER 



SUPPORT STAFF 



SPACECRAFT CONTRACTOR 

GRUMMAN AIRCRAFT 

ENGINEERING CORPORATION 



IBM 
DATA PROCESSING 



RCA 
TV ATTITUDE SENSOR 



LAUNCH VEHICLE SUPPORT 
STAFF 

SYSTEMS ENGINEERING 

PERFORMANCE 

PROGRAM CONTROL 

WEST COAST REPRESENTATIVE 



LAUNCH 

OPERATIONS CENTER 

DIRECTOR 



AIR FORCE 
SPACE SYSTEMS DIVISION 



LAUNCH OPERATIONS 
COORDINATOR 



ATLANTIC MISSILE RANGE 



CONVAIR ASTRONAUTICS 

DIVISION 

ATLAS 



LOCKHEED MISSILES AND 
SPACE COMPANY 
AGENA B VEHICLE 



WESTING HOUSE 

GROUND OPERATIONS EGUIPMENT 



GE MSVD 
GUIDANCE & CONTROL 



KOLLSMAN INSTRUMENT 
CORP. STAR TRACKERS 



Orbiting Astronomical Observatory project management chart. 



ORGANIZING FOR SPACE SCIENCE 

The director and key staff elements kept themselves informed through 
weekly staff meetings and weekly reports, issued every Friday, became 
"weekend reading material" in preparation for the next staff conference. 

But whatever the technique, the management of the Center's complex 
research and development programs was no easy task; project management 
developed into a new and important art which affected virtually every level 
of the organizational strata. Solutions had to be found to such questions as 
to how NASA Headquarters would deal effectively with the Center; how 
the Center management would manage the project manager; and how the 
project manager in turn would manage a multimillion dollar contract with 
the aerospace industry, again involving a variety of contract managers. The 
formal management organization at Goddard is shown in accompanying 
illustrations. 

In these early years, a major consideration was the amount of contract 
assistance which the Center should seek in carrying out its projects. It was 
obvious that only a relatively small portion could be done in-house. Ac- 
cording to Eugene W. Wasielewski, Associate Center Director: "We try to 
have at least one small satellite under development in-house, at all 
times. Sometimes we have two in process. We also attempt to do a major 
share of the work on one of the large satellites. . . . While it is difficult to 
generalize, we feel we are barely doing enough in-house work to enable us 
to carry out our programs effectively." 71 

If a major project was to be accomplished through a prime contractor, 
specifications and requests for proposals were issued. Soon the program 
involved such prime contractors as Radio Corporation of America (Relay I 
and IT), Hughes Aircraft Corporation (Syncom), General Electric (Nim- 
bus) , Ball Brothers (Orbiting Solar Observatory) , Grumman Aircraft Cor- 
poration (Orbiting Astronomical Observatory) , Thompson Ramo Wool- 
dridge Space Laboratories (Pioneer V, Orbiting Geophysical Observatory), 
and many others. In the area of tracking, data acquisition, and data re- 
duction, there were such industrial giants as International Business Ma- 
chines, Western Electric, Bell Telephone Laboratories, and Bendix Cor- 
poration. 

Contracting with industry on a multimillion dollar scale required the 
Center to seek the highest quality of American scientific and industrial 
skill, as well as the best capabilities of other Government laborato- 
ries. Each experiment in space was characterized by a high degree of atten- 
tion to individual design and assembly. Even in a series of projects having 
the same general purpose, the payload packages varied according to the 
experiments conducted. Seldom, if ever, were any two payloads identical. 

Procurement problems were complicated by the fact that in many in- 
stances the experiment or spacecraft hardware to be bought had never be- 
fore been manufactured, indeed had never before been on the drawing 
board. More often than not, materials of a rare or "exotic" nature and 

47 



Project Project Mgr. 



GEMINI Heller 



1 Project EiBHSLMEL* 

APOLLO Covington 



GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 
Graonbelr, Maryland 



J 






_ _J 


m 



Pro je 



Project Mgr. 
Townsend 



I"™**™] 


■™**™ B 1 


"~™"™' 


.".«« 


y__ 


[___, 


~:E°" 


..."."•"""kl 


~«™Hsaraa» 


L_— , 


'"=■"' 


"Er 




Carnarvon Wood 



Project 


Project Mgr. 


S (Son 


Caporale 


Marco) 




S-66 


Martin 


S-66a 


Martin 


S (UK*3) 


Hymowitz 


S-52 


Hymowitz 


S-52a 


Hymowitz 


S-74 


Butler 


S-74a 


Butler 


S-74b 


Butler 


S-IMP-D 


Butler 


S-IMP-E 


Butler 


5-IMP-F 


Butler 


S-IMP-G 


Butler 


S-48 


Jackson 


Sounding 


Med row 


Rockers 




(9 projects) 


S (FR. VLF) 


Shea 



Project 

S-27a 
S (ISIS-A) 
S (ISIS-B) 
S (ISIS-C) 



Project Mgr 

Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 
Nelson 



/ 



Project^ 


Project Mgr. 


SATAN 


Hoff 


NOS Data Acquisition 


Wigand 


ROSMAN Data Acquisi 


ion Hightower 


Fgc 




ROSMAN II 


Grant 


Range & Range Rate 


Kronmiller 


[40^A£ifennas 


Hartz 



Project 
S-67 


Project Mgr 


Project Project Mpr. 


Cervenka 


S-57 Hogarth 


AOSO-B 


Cervenka 


S(OSO-D) Hogarth 


A-30 


Darcey 


S(OSO-E) Hogarth 


A-31 


Darcey 


S(OSO-F) Hogarth 


A-32 


Darcey 


S(OSO-G) Hogarth 


A-33 


Darcey 


S(OSO-H) Hogarth 


S-18 


Ziemer 


S-49 Scull 


S-58 


Ziemer 


S-50 Scull 


S-68 


Ziemer 


S-49a Scull 


S-78 


Ziemer 


S-50a Scull 


A-16 


Sunderlin 


S-59 Scull 


A-19 


Sunderlin 


S-60 Scull 


A-12 


Eaker 


S-69 Scull 


A-27 


Jones 


S-70 Scull 


S-17 


Hogarth 


S-79 Scull 



A-4 

A-5 

A (0-1 

A (0-2) 

A6 

A (0-3) 

A (0-4) 

A-7 

A-(05) 

A-53 

A-54 

A-55 

A-56 

A-Back-up 

OT-1 

OT-2 

OT-3 

S-6a 

S-7 

S-7a 



Project Mgr. 

Press 

Press 

Press 

Press 

Press 

Press 

Press 

Press 

Press 

Rados 

Rados 

Rados 

Rados 

Rados 

Rados 

Rados 

Rados 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 



Goddarcl Space Flight Center project assignments as of September 20, 1963. 



48 



Personnel — the Center's most important resource. Here William Cahill dis- 
cusses Goddard computer operations with a group of new employees. 

limited availability were required. This called for extensive knowledge of 
supply sources, capabilities, and past performance of industrial firms and 
other vendors. 

From January 1, 1960, to June 30, 1960, procurement actions totaled over 
$61 million; during Fiscal Year 1961, procurement actions totaled f 375 mil- 
lion; and during Fiscal Year 1962 the procurement actions totaled over $4 18 
million. (See Appendix E for detailed breakdown.) "Space" became a 
big and complicated business. 

Personnel 

The nucleus of Goddard Center personnel was drawn from several NACA 
laboratories and from the various satellite programs transferred to NASA 
in 1958 (see ch. 2). But as the Center's missions expanded and the physical 
plant neared completion, more and more skilled people of various descrip- 
tions were needed. 

In a labor market which was extremely tight because of the nationwide 
shortage of scientists and engineers, Goddard had the additional problem of 
finding interested individuals possessing the specific and unique experience 

49 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

demanded by its programs. Experience with the college recruitment pro- 
grams was rewarding. Although NASA entrance salaries may have been 
somewhat below the national average, the challenge of Goddard's mission, 
facilities, and progressive educational programs attracted high-quality 
graduates. The critical recruitment was for jobs in which highly special- 
ized experience was necessary: for example, senior people with solid experi- 
ence in satellite instrumentation, communications systems, systems integra- 
tion, and spacecraft project management. It was somewhat paradoxical 
that for this group of personnel the Center was in effect in competition 
with itself; it competed with the personnel needs of industrial concerns 
which, with government contracts, were also engaged on space projects. 
One incentive particularly attractive at Goddard was the opportunity pro- 
vided by the Center to participate in a major space science project from its 
inception to completion. The Center's mission frequently called for the 
"universal type" scientist, capable in areas beyond his immediate scientific 
discipline, knowledgeable in such fields as aerodynamics, electrical engi- 
neering, data transmission, etc. 

Rather than establishing positions such as physicist, electrical engineer, 
etc., NASA categorized and identified positions directly with the nature of 
the work to be done. Since the areas of academic training did not always 
correspond with the fields of advanced research and development, the aero- 



Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center, June 1962. 





1- . '/•■;■' : '.'.- .-.'■ V ',•'.•.■' •..'-. ! 


SV*ii« 




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I 




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■■■111 

liifilfslilil 


H 


.*&,' i> '' 



ORGANIZING FOR SPACE SCIENCE 

space technology concept was applied. Under this plan, the title "Aero 
Space Technologist" was used to cover the broad field of research and devel- 
opment specialties. 72 Specifically, the titles of positions had the symbol 
AST followed by the specialty. 

Five separate categories of employees composed the overall Goddard 
team: scientists and engineers; "blue collar" craftsmen; technical support 
personnel; administrators; and clerical personnel. Almost 42 percent of the 
Center's work force consisted of scientists and engineers, while NASA-wide 
the ratio was approximately one-third scientists and engineers to two-thirds 
support personnel. 

As previously indicated, the scientists and engineers who had been asso- 
ciated with Project Vanguard and other Government space programs 
formed the nucleus of the GSFC personnel complement. This group grew 
rapidly: 73 

1959: 782 (including Space Task Group staff later transferred to 

Manned Spacecraft Center) 
1960: 1,265 (including Space Task Group staff later transferred to 

Manned Spacecraft Center) 
1961: 1,497 
1962: 2,850 
1963: 3,494 (December 31, 1963) 

Sources from which scientists and engineers were recruited during the 
period of December 1958 to December 1963 were: 



Scientists were selected from virtually every source and from many geo- 
graphic regions. The recruiting program was conducted with the aid of 
extensive publicity campaigns and through the cooperation of colleges and 
universities. 

For staff personnel, Goddard sponsored graduate study programs and 
undergraduate cooperative courses with several colleges and universities. 
Select students who had completed their sophomore year could attend 
school one semester and work at Goddard the next, alternating in this way 
until they got their degrees. Under another plan, graduate students could 
take three-quarter-credit courses at a local university, wherein they worked 
3 days a week at Goddard and attended classes on alternate days. 

51 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

Likewise, scientists and engineers were encouraged to augment their edu- 
cation In one of several local graduate school programs. Because the field 
of space technology was unique and developed so rapidly, Goddard had a 
program of seminars, colloquia, and specialized courses. 

Goddard also assisted employees who, having completed their studies at 
the master's degree level, were striving for greater competence and 
stature. Each year a limited number of carefully selected scientists and 
engineers were offered an opportunity to spend up to one year in research 
and study fellowship programs at institutions of their choice. This pro- 
gram enabled an employee to conduct advanced study and to do research 
under the direction of men with international reputations. 



Location plan of Center, June 1962. 



GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 

SULDSNG LOCATION PLAN 



I SPACE PROJECTS BUILDING 
I RESEARCH PROJECTS LABORATORY 
I CENTRAL FLIGHT CONTROL AND RANGE 
OPERATIONS LABORATORY 

I BOILER HOUSE AND ELECTRIC SUBSTATION 
(INSTRUMENT CONSTRUCTION AND 
INSTALLATION LABORATORY 

I SPACE SCIENCES LABORATORY 

I PAYLOAD TESTING FACILITY 

I SATELLITE SYSTEMS LABORATORY 

(GATE HOUSE 

) ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING LABORATORY 




■■ EXISTING FACILITIES 

HH FACILITIES UNDER CONSTRUCTION 



52 



ORGANIZING FOR SPACE SCIENCE 

Physical Plant 

The physical plant of Goddard Space Flight Center was established with 
an eye to immediate and future requirements. An engineering master plan 
was developed by Voorhees, Walker, Smith, Smith & Haines of New 
York City. It envisioned a "campus type" layout, conducive to effective 
management and creative activity. 

The first construction contract was let on April 10, 1959, to Norair Engi- 
neering Corporation, Washington, D.C. This contract called for construc- 
tion of Buildings 1 and 2, together with access roads and parking- 
areas. The first construction began early on the morning of April 24, 



Location plan of Center, 1963 estimates. 




GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 
FISCAL YEAR 1963 ESTIMATES 

LOCATION PLAN 



I SPACE PROJECTS BUILDING 

> RESEARCH PROJECTS LABORATORY 
I CENTRAL FLIGHT CONTROL AND RANGE 

OPERATIONS LABORATORY 

> BOILER HOUSE AND ELECTRIC SUBSTATION 
I INSTRUMENT CONSTRUCTION AND 

INSTALLATION LABORATORY 

SPACE SCIENCES LABORATORY 
PAYLOAD TESTING FACILITY 
SATELLITE SYSTEMS LABORATORY 
GATE HOUSE 

ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING LABORATORY 
APPLIED SCIENCES LABORATORY 
TRACKING AND TELEMETRY LABORATORY 
SPACECRAFT OPERATIONS FACILITY 
LAUNCH PHASE SIMULATOR 
DEVELOPMENT OPERATIONS BUILDING 



EXISTING FACILITIES 

FACILITIES UNDER CONSTRUCTION 

FACILITIES PROPOSED FY 1963 BUDGET 



53 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

1959, when brush and trees were cleared in the area which was to become 
the Center's main entrance. 

The computer and switchboard rooms were occupied on April 28, 

1960. By July of the same year, the remainder of Building 1 was completely 
occupied, although steam for operation of the heating system and refrig- 
eration compressors for air conditioning were provided by a temporary 
boiler outside the building. September 16, 1960, saw the full occupation 
of Building 2. 



Site for Building 1, 
June 1959, 




"J$&*Z fed 




Building 1 under construc- 
*■* tion, October 1959. 




Building 1. 



Humphreys & Harding, Inc., began construction of the Central Flight 
Control and Range Operations Building (Building 3) on September 21, 
1959. Installation of computer equipment was completed on March 1, 
1961, while other portions of the computer and communications area were 
occupied in November and December of the same year. 

Building 4, housing service shops, central power-plant, refrigeration 
plant, cooling tower, emergency power generators, and office areas, was 
started on May 23, 1960, under contract with Norair Engineering 
Corporation. Parking lots and roads were also included under this 
contract. Steam service lines, temporary boiler, and service shops were 
completed in November; office space, parking lot, and boilers were placed 
in operation on December 20, 1960. Construction and installation of re- 
frigeration equipment were completed on May 29, 1961. 

The Instrument Construction and Installation Laboratory, Building 5, 
under contract with Norair Engineering Corporation, was started on No- 
vember 26, 1960. Initial phases of this structure accommodated many ad- 
ministrative and scientific personnel formerly housed in temporary 
quarters. In early 1962 it was necessary to modify the machine shop and 
upper floor areas to house personnel pending completion of Buildings 6, 8, 
and 11. Building 5 was completed on March 20, 1962. 

Arthur Venneri Co. was low bidder on a contract to build the Space 
Science Laboratory, Building 6. Construction was begun on November 19, 



55 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

1960. By February 1962, the lower floors were completed and sections A 
and B were ready for occupancy. The remaining portion of the building 
required one additional month, and the staff took possession on March 2, 
1962. 

The contract for Buildings 7 and 10 went to United Engineers and Con- 
structors, Inc., on January 31, 1.961. Notice to proceed with the construc- 
tion of Building 7 was given in May 1961; construction started May 22, 

1961. Occupancy by the Test and Evaluation Division, formerly housed in 
Building 4 and in numerous trailers, began April 28, 1962, and was com- 
pleted a month later. Construction of Building 10 was started on October 
19, 1961, by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., with a scheduled 
contract completion date of September 1, 1962. Sufficient portions of the 
building, together with the overhead crane, were completed by March 2, 

1962. so that installation of the Space Environmental Simulator and Dy- 
namic Test Chambers by Minneapolis-Honeywell Corporation could begin. 

The Satellite Systems Laboratory, Building 8, under contract with Arthur 
Venneri Co., was begun on September 16, 1961, and was targeted for 
occupancy by spring 1963. Featuring a 500-seat auditorium, it also in- 
cluded provisions for a presentation-type stage, multipurpose projection 

Aerial view of Buildings 1, 2, 3. 



ORGANIZING FOR SPACE SCIENCE 

booth, and wide-range sound facilities. Building 8 would house the Di- 
rector, Associate Director, Assistant Directors, and supporting administra- 
tive services offices of the Center. 

Building 11, an Applied Sciences Laboratory, was begun by the Norair 
Engineering Corporation of Washington, D.C., on August 16, 1962, and 
completed during September 1963. A contract for the construction of 
Building 12 was awarded to the Piracci Construction Company of 
Baltimore. This building, a Tracking and Telemetry Laboratory, was to 
augment such facilities in Building 3. Construction was begun on October 
22, 1962, and was completed during November 1963. Each of the build- 
ings have laboratory and office space for approximately 350 employees. 

The assignment of space for the most effective administration of the 
Center continued to be a critical problem, and occupancy in many areas 
was on a temporary basis. This particularly applied to Buildings 1 and 
5. Many of the administrative officers which eventually were scheduled to 
be located elsewhere at the Center were housed in rented space in the Jack- 
son Building, Bladensburg, Maryland; at Lawrence St., Bladensburg, 
Maryland; at Litton Industries, College Park, Maryland; at Beltsville; and 
in the Colemont Building, Silver Spring, Maryland. 

Building 8 under construction, July 1962. 




VENTURE INTO SPACE 



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Dir. and Asst. Dir. OA— 585: 

84 Dir., Asst. Dir.— OA 

82 FinMgmt--- 

81 OandP 

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219 PandS 

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Office of Tech. Serv.— 456: 

2 Chief OTS 

140 FacEhg 

188 Test and Eval 

126 FabDiv 

Track and Data Sys.— 725: 

17 Asst. Dir._ 

130 Track Sys 

116 OP and Sup._ 

219 Data Sys 

164 Spa Data Acq 

79 MSFS 

Space Sci. and Sat. App. — 1,123: 

11 Asst. Dir 

284 Spa Sci 

185 Spa Sys and Proj 

175 Aero and Mete 

326 SpacTech 

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58 



ORGANIZING FOR SPACE SCIENCE 

Organizational Growth 

A review of the organization charts (see Appendix F) gives an indication 
of how the Center grew while, at the same time, adhering to its original 
concepts. The manned satellite function shown in the first two charts was 
transferred from Goddard to the Manned Spacecraft Center at Houston, 
Texas. The other four major elements — Administration (formerly Busi- 
ness Administration) , Tracking and Data Systems, Space Science and Satel- 
lite Applications, and Technical Services — remained basically the same 
with further refinements. The Office of Technical Services expanded to 
include such divisions as Facilities Engineering, Test and Evaluation, and 
Fabrication. 

The Office of Space Science and Satellite Applications, while retaining 
essentially the same functions, recognized the need for the creation of a 
separate division for aeronomy and meteorology. The responsibilities of 
the Office of Tracking and Data Systems grew to the point where the origi- 
nal breakdown of a Theory and Analysis Staff, a Tracking Systems Division, 
and an Operations Division no longer was adequate. It expanded to in- 
clude a Space Projects Integration Office, an Operations and Support Di- 
vision, a Tracking Systems Division (with a plans office) , a Space Data 
Acquisition Division, a Data Systems Division (with a theory and analysis 
office), and a Manned Space Flight Support Division. 

Goddard Institute for Space Studies 

To provide a point of contact between the national space program and an 
area rich in universities and scientific talent, the Goddard Institute for 
Space Studies was established in New York City in May 1961 as a part of 
the Goddard Space Flight Center. 

The Institute's primary mission was to assist in the analysis and interpre- 
tation of data from NASA probes. It was concerned with basic theoretical 
research in a broad variety of fields, including the structure of the earth, the 
moon, and other planetary bodies in the solar system; the atmospheres of 
the earth and other planets; the origin and evolution of the solar system; 
the properties of interplanetary plasma; sun-earth relations; and the struc- 
ture and evolution of stars. 

The second major mission of the Institute was to arouse the interest of 
university scientists and students in the space program and to enlist their 
participation in some of the theoretical problems of space research. With 
its location in New York, the Institute had a unique opportunity for direct 
contact with the metropolitan university community. In its first year it 
developed associations with Princeton University, Yale University, Colum- 
bia University, New York University, the City College of New York, and 
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. 

59- 



Drs. Robert Jastrow, Jackson Herring, Hong Yee Chiu, and Albert Arking of 
the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York. 

The institute was originally designated as a New York office of the Theo- 
retical Division of the Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Robert Jastrow 
was named Director and also continued as Chief of the Theoretical 
Division. In July 1962, the Institute was separated from the division. 

Goddard Launch Operations 

Much of the early success of the Goddard satellite program has stemmed 
from the efforts of its launch teams, organized under the Directorate for 
Space Science and Satellite Applications, with personnel at both the Eastern 
and Western Test Ranges (ETR and WTR) . The ETR team provided 
the management and technical direction of the field efforts involving the 
successful Delta launch vehicle. Under the Field Projects Branch, God- 
dard scientists and engineers closely supervised, monitored, and directed the 
launch vehicle preparations, launch operations, and coordination for space- 
craft checkout. A similar team at WTR was responsible for the field inte- 

60 



ORGANIZING FOR SPACE SCIENCE 



gration of the spacecraft and launch vehicle and for coordinating and di- 
recting mission operations originating from the Pacific coast. 



Fabrication and Testing 

A scientific satellite was not a mass-produced item, but usually a one-of-a- 
kind spacecraft containing delicate scientific and electronic equipment. It 
required the best engineering talents to build and test these spaceborne 
laboratories. Manufacture of these space vehicles was accomplished either 
in-house by the Center's staff of skilled fabricators, under contract with 
American industry, or by a combination of both. The Center's fabrication 
staff was composed of a small but highly specialized team of engineers and 
technicians skilled in machining, forming, optics, electronics, satellite as- 
sembly, etc. 

In its lifetime, each spacecraft would have to survive environmental 
stresses during ground handling, launching, and then operate effectively in 
space for its expected lifetime. The task was not a simple one, since these 
spacecraft contained equipment heretofore used only under the ideal envi- 
ronment of a laboratory. In space, these instruments had to operate relia- 
bly at distances and under conditions where they were subjected to solar 
radiation, space vacuum, extreme temperatures, radiation belts, and solar 
flares. Unlike a laboratory, there could be no experienced experimenter in 
attendance, making adjustments and taking readings. 

Goddard's Spacecraft Test Facility served as a large-scale laboratory to 



The welding of circuitry for 
use in a scientific satellite. 










^|S 







Space environment simulator under construction at Goddard. 



test Goddard-developed spacecraft and probes. It was the Center's con- 
science. Here a satellite was exposed to man-made conditions of extreme 
temperature, humidity, shock, vibration, structural loadings, and various 
combinations to assure that the spacecraft and equipment could take the 
punishment which they were to face on their orbital mission. These facili- 
ties were capable of handling one 4,000-pound payload, plus two 1,000- 
pound loads simultaneously, measuring up to 25 feet. 

Two major items in the Center's Spacecraft Test Facility were a dynamic 
test chamber and a space environment simulator. These chambers simu- 
lated some of the forces that converge on a spacecraft from initial ground 
handling through launch and flight. The dynamic test chamber consisted 
of a stainless-steel structure 33y 2 feet in diameter and 58 feet high. Pow- 
erful mechanical pumps reduced inside pressure to 0.1 mm mercury. Here, 
dynamic balancing, solar paddle erection, spacecraft orientation, etc., could 
be tested. In the space environment simulator, a spacecraft could be ex- 
posed to simulated conditions of cold outer space, extreme vacuum, and 
solar radiation. 



62 



ORGANIZING FOR SPACE SCIENCE 

A review of scientific satellite failures detected by means of environ- 
mental test programs was made for the calendar year 1962. Five satellites 
were selected for this review, all of which were launched and successfully 
operated in space during 1962. These satellites were chosen to represent 
several factors that might influence their complexity. For example, 
weights varying from less than 100 to over 300 pounds and three launch 
vehicles were represented. The scientific discipline represented by the on- 
board experiments covered electron density; galactic noise; corpuscular, so- 
lar, and cosmic radiation; magnetic fields; ionospheric relations; and 
communication experiments. The telemetry systems were typically 
pulse-frequency modulated, although one system included traveling-wave 
tubes. Only one of the systems used batteries exclusively; the other four 
included solar cells for power. The satellites reviewed included those de- 
veloped by NASA, by industry, and through international coopera- 
tion. They all, however, were tested under the same philosophy. 

The ratio of electrical to mechanical failures was 4:1 (80 versus 20 
percent) . The mechanical problems were chiefly concerned with antenna 
designs, subsystem mounting, and local resonances. Stronger and stiffer de- 
signs, together with damping (often by potting) , were general solutions to 
these problems. Electrical problems were erratic and spurious, requiring 
much troubleshooting. Solid-state components often were found to be 
faulty. Local overheating was often corrected by providing improved heat 
sinks and heat conduction paths. The failure distribution seemed reasona- 
bly consistent between the satellites. Nearly one-half of the failures re- 
viewed occurred during the thermal-vacuum test, which simulated space 
conditions. However, nearly one-sixth of the failures occurred during 



Failure Distribution by Spacecraft 





Weight, 
lb 


Vehicle 


Failures during test 


Space- 


Electrical 


Mechanical 


Total 




No. 


Percent 


No. 


Percent 


No. 


Percent 


A 


94 
170 

86 
150 
310 


Scout 


10 
15 
18 
42 
6 


71 
83 
78 
86 
60 


4 
3 

5 
7 
4 


29 
17 
22 
14 
40 


14 
18 
23 
49 
10 


12 


B 


Delta 


16 


G 


Delta 


20 


D 


Delta 


43 


E 


Thor-Agena 


9 


Tc 


tal . 




91 


80 


23 


20 


114 


100 









63 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Failure Distribution by Test Condition 





Failure during test a 




Electrical 


Mechanical 




Failure category 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


Total 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


Total 


Total 




No. 


Per- 
cent 


No. 


Per- 
cent 


No. 


Per- 
cent 


Checkout.. _ 




2 
5 
1 
1 
6 


3 
3 
1 
3 
8 


5 
4 

1 
32 


2 
1 
1 

2 


12 

20 

3 

5 

51 


13 

22 

3 

5 

56 


4 


3 


1 
3 


4 
1 


1 
3 


6 
14 


26 
61 


18 

34 

3 

5 

54 


16 


Vibration- 


7 


30 
3 




















4 


Thermal-vacuum. _ 


3 






1 


2 


... 


3 


13 


47 




10 


15 


18 


42 


6 


91 


100 


4 


3 


5 


7 


4 


23 


100 


114 


100 







a Test conditions for spacecraft A, B, C, D, and E in table above. 

checkout, and about one-third during vibration. One observation made 
from these data was the importance of completing the entire system and 
checking it out early in the project life. One-sixth of the errors noted were 
primarily indicative of the interaction of subsystems and the many interface 
problems. Cabling and connectors were particular offenders at this stage 
of checkout. Each of these failures was detected, corrected, tested, and 
evaluated. The final result — in space flight— was a successful satellite. 74 



64 



Tracking, Data Acquisition, 

aid Data Reduction 

S 



THE FIRST FUNCTIONAL TRACKING SYSTEM to be constructed 
for satellites was the Minitrack network. This network grew directly 
out of arrangements originally made by the United States with agencies 
abroad as part of the program for the International Geophysical 
Year. Among the overseas stations tied in with the satellite tracking net- 
work were Antigua, West Indies Federation; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Peru; 
Antofagasta and Santiago, Chile; Woomera, Australia; and Esselen Park, 
Union of South Africa. These countries, in a program originally estab- 
lished in 1957 by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in cooperation with 
other agencies here and abroad, were all part of Minitrack. 75 

On January 10, 1959, representatives of NASA and DOD met to coordi- 
nate the separate requirements of the two agencies, and arrived at an agree- 
ment for a "National Program to Meet Satellite and Space Vehicle Track- 
ing and Surveillance Requirements for FY 1959 and FY 1960." The 
agreement, signed by Secretary of Defense Neil H. McElroy and NASA 
Administrator T. Keith Glennan, established respective responsibilities and 
mutual use of tracking data wherever possible and led to the formation of 
the continuing NASA-DOD Space Flight Tracking Resources Committee. 

The basic responsibilities of the network included: tracking, orbit com- 
putation, data acquisition (environmental and scientific telemetry) , and 
data reduction. 

The network consisted of three major functional parts. The first, the 
Minitrack Net, has been used to track all U.S. satellites containing a 
suitable beacon since the beginning of the space programs in 1957 and 1958. 

The Minitract network comprised an organization of fixed ground sta- 
tions, located throughout the world, to provide precision tracking, com- 
mand, and telemetry reception from satellites and space probes together 
with a communications system to transmit this information to a computing 
facility. 

A large percentage of the original stations were located along the 75th 

65 



• x JAj^x,* 



te&umti 



H\i 






l-'J!;. , Ji a:.: •.- < **"*_» J1I3 ^5 ii- -A . KLfiS; • > -n.'a. 



Li.v:x ;! i*£vfea 



/¥•" ■»? 


■n^'Btrar'A 


^^^Kil 






^Q^^^^^^^^^^bW 


-*'%... "S»*ii" 


' -It " "' ■* i'\ 1 


^^^^^^^^^B 



A Wallops Island helical antenna 
that receives video signals from 
the Tiros weather satellites. 



meridian to Intercept satellite orbits with inclinations of less than 45 
degrees. New stations were added in higher latitudes to cope with more 
nearly polar orbits. Furthermore, ten of the stations were supplemented 
with additional antennas aligned specifically for polar orbit. (As of De- 
cember 1962, the Minitrack system included the following stations: Blossom 
Point, Maryland; Fort Myers, Florida; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Peru; Anto- 
fagasta, Chile; Santiago, Chile; Woomera, Australia; Esselen Park, South 
Africa; Goldstone, California; St. John's, Newfoundland; East Grand Forks, 
Minnesota; Fairbanks, Alaska; and Winkfield, England.) 

The prime Minitrack satellite tracking system consisted of radio inter- 
ferometers 76 operating in conjunction with a transmitting beacon in the 
payload itself. Since the establishment of the network, certain enhance- 
ments have been added to the original station equipment to provide track- 
ing capability by optical and Doppler means as well. While the original 
tracking equipment operated on or near 108 megacycles (Mc) , the fre- 
quency assigned for IGY activities, additional equipment has been pro- 
vided, tunable over the 136-137-Mc region. 

Many of the satellites launched by NASA used very wide bandwidths for 
transmission of data from the satellite to the ground stations. Since the 
receiver and sky noise in the telemetry link is proportional to the bandwidth 
used for reception, either a very high transmitter power or a very high 
antenna gain, or both, had to be used in a wideband telemetry link to 
achieve good signal-to-noise ratios. Since transmitter powers were restricted 
for technical reasons, it became necessary to develop very high gain antennas 
at the ground stations for receiving the wideband telemetry signals. The 



66 




Fairbanks, Alaska, tracking station. 



antenna that best satisfied the requirements for high gain and multiple 
frequency operation was a parabolic antenna 85 feet in diameter. 

The first satellite to require a large data acquisition facility for wide 
bandwidth reception was the Nimbus weather satellite. Nimbus was also 
one of the first NASA satellites that was to have a polar orbit. So the first 
station for wideband data acquisition was constructed on Gilmore Creek, 12 
miles north of Fairbanks, Alaska; it was completed in May 1962. A con- 
tract was awarded the University of Alaska for operation of the station, to 
provide coverage for 70 percent of the passes of a satellite in a polar 
orbit. A contract for construction of a second station located near Ros- 
man, North Carolina, was placed in July 1962; this station picked up an 
additional 20 percent of the passes of a polar satellite. Thus these two 
stations formed a network which provided coverage of 90 percent of the 
orbits of a satellite with a very high inclination. 

The main antenna for the Alaskan station was an 85-foot-diameter parab- 
oloid of revolution with a focal length of 36 feet. Its surface consisted of 
double-curved aluminum sheet panels. The surface was separate from the 
reflector structure so it could be independently adjusted. The antenna 
reflector was mounted on an X-Y-type mount designed specifically for 



67 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

tracking satellites. It was capable of tracking at rates from to 3 degrees 
per second, with accelerations up to 5 degrees per second per second. 77 

Tracking Project Mercury 7S 

The first Mercury-Redstone flight occurred December 19, 1960. In this 
flight, the unmanned capsule reached a peak altitude of 135 miles, a range 
of 235 miles, and encountered 5y 2 minutes of zero gravity. The flight 
was a success. The capsule control system, retrorockets, separation rockets, 
communications equipment, and recovery equipment functioned properly. 
The capsule was recovered soon after landing by a helicopter dispatched 
from an aircraft carrier. 

Tracking, data acquisition, and communications for this project were the 
responsibility of the Goddard Space Flight Center. For the Project Mer- 
cury flights, Goddard operated a worldwide tracking network, spanning 
three oceans and three continents. In their location and equipment 
configuration, these tracking sites were prescribed by the character of the 
onboard electronics systems and by facilities existing throughout the world, 
which were used to the maximum extent possible. This maximum utiliza- 
tion of existing facilities was mandatory if the rapid pace set for the project 
was not to outstrip the development of the ground tracking system. 79 

Since the major requirement was one of safety, a highly reliable com- 
mand system for backup of the astronaut functions by ground command was 
installed at strategic points around the earth. This requirement also made 
it mandatory that the onboard spacecraft systems be carefully monitored 
during all phases of the flight; this was accomplished by providing real-time 
telemetry display data at the sites. 

Goddard was the focal point for receipt of real-time radar data from the 
sites. Two IBM 7090 computers provided launch and orbital computing 
during the flight; real-time display data were then transmitted to the Mer- 
cury Control Center at GSFC. An air-to-ground communications system 
was established together with remote site-to-control-center voice and tele- 
type communications, to maintain network contact with the astronaut dur- 
ing all phases of the flight. 

A special facility for testing and evaluation was established at Wallops 
Island, Virginia. Here a typical site was constructed during the early 
phases of equipment procurement to evaluate the performance of the sys- 
tems, determine the interface problems, develop detailed equipment testing 
procedures, establish calibration techniques and equipment, and perform 
early training exercises. This proving ground was invaluable in providing 
a rapid evaluation of contractor-developed equipment and testing proce- 
dures. Here also the criteria were established for ultimate acceptance test- 
ing of the equipment as it was to be installed at each of the remote sites. 

Late in 1961, an industrial team headed by the Western Electric Com- 

68 



TRACKING, DATA ACQUISITION, AND DATA REDUCTION 

pany turned over this $60 million global network to NASA. Other team 
members were Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.; the Bendix Corporation; 
Burns & Roe, Inc.; and International Business Machines Corporation. 
The Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had 
advised and assisted on special technical problems related to the network. 
The contract had involved extensive negotiations with Federal agencies, 
private industry, and representatives of several foreign countries in the 
establishment of tracking and ground instrumentation. 

This worldwide network consisted of tracking and instrumentation sites 
(sixteen land-based sites and two ships) , a control center, and a computing 
and communications center. The network was capable of performing real- 
time analysis of both the powered phase and orbiting flight. From orbital 
insertion until landing, the network provided continuous prediction of the 
capsule location, monitored the status of the capsule and astronaut, and 
initiated the command functions necessary for the mission. 

In view of the fact that the computing system, located at GSFC, required 
a reliable input of tracking data to assure accurate location of the capsule at 
all times, two types of radar were incorporated. Because the spacecraft was 



The two tracking ships of the Mercury network. 




MERCURY COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK 




Mercury 

of such a size that skin tracking with conventional radar would not be 
entirely reliable, two radar beacons were placed on board the spacecraft. 
The frequencies, selected on the basis of the available existing tracking 
facilities, had C-band as well as S-band tracking capabilities. This provided 
a degree of redundancy in case one of the onboard beacons failed during an 
orbital flight. 

Of almost equal importance in the early consideration of the orbital 
flight was the capability of backing up the astronaut by ground command. 
At strategic sites throughout the network, dual FRW-2 command systems 
were installed. As it turned out, the command system was required more 
often during unmanned ballistic and unmanned orbital flights. 

For intelligent ground command, a high degree of real-time ground 
monitoring capability had to be provided for the flight controllers located 
at the various sites. The spacecraft was designed to incorporate a dual 
telemetry system operating at separate carrier frequencies. Consequently 
the ground system had to have the capability of receiving two separate te- 
lemetry carriers with the attendant demodulation equipment associated 
with each. 

To assure high reliability of spacecraft-to-ground communications under 
unknown conditions which might be experienced at approximately 100 
miles altitude, again a dual communications system was incorporated into 
the spacecraft. This consisted of both ultra-high-frequency and high-fre- 



70 




...J 



network m^o. 

quency communications systems. Each ground tracking site had associated 
receiving and transmitting equipment for these frequencies. 

To interconnect the network tracking sites with a reliable intercommuni- 
cations system, two means of communication between sites and with the 
control center were established. The first and basic type consisted of the 
teletype communications facilities. Not only did the teletype communica- 
tions system have to carry the load of communications among the flight 
controllers located at various sites around the network during the mission, 
but this system also was designed to deliver the radar tracking data from the 
radar tracking sites to the central computers. The second type of ground 
communications network provided the capability to communicate by voice 
between the control center and all sites. 

To further enhance the reliability of the tracking systems, such as radar, 
command, communications, and telemetry, early and reliable acquisition of 
the spacecraft as it approached each tracking site was of major importance. 
Therefore a great deal of emphasis was placed on the system which could 
reliably provide pointing information to the various tracking antennas as 
the spacecraft appeared above the horizon. In addition, the provision of 
accurate radar tracking data, the reliable transmission of commands at a 
predetermined time, and tagging the received telemetry data with an ac- 
curate time reference made it necessary that a universal time system be in- 
stalled at all sites. This system utilized the time signals of radio stations 



71 



■■ii 




Goldstone antenna. 



WWV, Beltsville, Maryland, and WWVH, Hawaii, operated by the National 
Bureau of Standards, for calibration. 

The Ground Communications Network was an automatic communica- 
tions system connecting the Mercury sites around the world with GSFC. 
All intelligence pertaining to the Mercury capsule, except on life support 
equipment, passed through GSFC. The system carried telephone, teletype- 
writer, and high-speed data (1,000 bits per second) information to and 
from the worldwide network on a real-time basis. It accepted a message 
from a distant site and delivered it to the final destination, regardless of 
location, in a little over one second. The voice communications system 
was essentially a private-line telephone system which terminated in SCAMA 
(Switching, Conferencing, and Monitoring Arrangement) at GSFC, where 
it could be interconnected or switched over various lines. 

Altogether the Mercury system involved approximately 60,000 route- 
miles of communications facilities to assure an integrated network with 
worldwide capability for handling satellite data. It comprised 177,000 ac- 
tual circuit-miles— 102,000 miles of teletype; 60,000 miles of telephones; and 
over 15,000 miles of high-speed data circuits. 

72 



TRACKING, DATA ACQUISITION, AND DATA REDUCTION 

The various tracking and telemetry stations throughout the world were 
integrated into a coordinated network through a communications system 
terminating in the GSFC Space Operations Control Center. 

The Space Operations Control Center had multiple functions: 

• Control the operation of all tracking, command, data acquisition, and 
data transmission facilities utilized in support of scientific space vehicles. 

• Coordinate the operation of other ground instrumentation facilities 
utilized in support of scientific space vehicles, with the exception of certain 
launch site installations. 

• Ensure that operational activities required in support of any space- 
craft were properly executed according to the operations plan. In case of 
inability to fulfill the plan, the control center was to recommend alternative 
courses of action to the project manager and make certain his decision was 
properly implemented. 

• Provide facilities for monitoring the status of the network and the 
space vehicle at all times. 

• Ensure that the project manager was informed of any departures from 
normal in the status of the network or of the satellite which might affect the 
conduct of the operation. 

• Coordinate data reduction facilities, both for reduction of tracking 
data for determination and refinement of the orbit, and also for perform- 
ance of such computations on the telemetered data as were requested by the 
project manager. The control center was directly responsible for convert- 
ing tracking data into formats suitable for data processing. 

• Schedule network activities to ensure that the requirements imposed 
were within the operational capability of the network and avoid conflicts 
between individual projects insofar as possible. 

• Provide facilities in which interested officials could follow the critical 
phases of specific operations and rapidly obtain information on the status of 
any satellite during its useful lifetime. 

In the performance of these functions the control center utilized a 
number of special facilities: 

Communications. — Ten telephone toll lines, two local voice loop circuits, 
two special external point-to-point circuits, and ten dial intercom positions 
provided voice contact between external and internal groups performing 
functions essential to a given operation. There was also a special voice line 
to other agencies to pass on satellite orbital data. In addition to the rou- 
tine in-house routing system for printed messages, the center was tied into 
the worldwide teletype network via three quasi-real-time data lines and two 
monitor lines providing minimum delay on circuits of operational impor- 
tance. 

Displays. — Three large edge-lit plexiglass boards were available for dis- 
play of status, schedules, and graphical data of general interest and 
importance. An opaque projector presented teletype messages and infor- 

73 




Ill the photograph above, James Donegan (seated second from left), Goddard 
Mercury Operations Director, and staff monitoring the progress of the MA-6 
(John Glenn) flight. Below, the GSFC communications area. 



esafci 



x! 



fy-\ 



m 



TRACKING, DATA ACQUISITION, AND DATA REDUCTION 

mation of interest on a screen. Digital clocks displayed time (GMT): 
time to lift-off (countdown) , and elapsed time of a hold. The clocks could 
be preset and controlled to indicate the status of proceedings. A world- 
map display indicated the nominal orbit on a Mercator projection; and 
active sites were illuminated to indicate status, acquisition, etc. Doppler 
launch data were superimposed on a nominal curve on a plotting board, 
indicating launch vehicle performance after lift-off. 

Computation. — Three small computers were available: the CDC-160, the 
LPG-30, and an RPC-4000. These machines processed data of various 
types and of particular interest into a form for optimum presentation. For 
example, teletype data were edited and stored on IBM-style magnetic tape 
for rapid and easy handling. These machines lent themselves to expedi- 
tious solution of last-minute data changes. They were also used to perform 
various studies to aid in operational planning. 

The communications network centering on GSFC included 36 full-period 
leased teletype lines serving 50 continental and foreign stations in the Mini- 
track and Deep Space networks, other data acquisition and command sta- 
tions for scientific satellites, and other agencies in the scientific community 
engaged in the exploration of space. The 36 circuits (later expanded to 
42-line capacity) terminated in a Western Union 11 IB switching cen- 
ter which combined tape relay, message-switching, and circuit-switching 
capabilities. Circuit combining facilities permitted the interconnection of 



During Project Mercury's MA-6 mission. 






i 






eJ^^i^ii^^SSSl 



fe^jjftjjjjgp^M 






A J*] 4g'i- -"'■■:'' 



iM" 



mk 









3"fl 






r*-. 'L".'S?a--'i':*" 



iBSj 



sy 



■ ^^VrTliW'ipl^'^ .'IT TO rr.n-; , 



■Hli 



Goddard computer room. 



any station in the network in any combination for direct conference or 
real-time data exchange as needed. In addition, six full-period off-net lines 
were brought into the center. Three TWX, RCA, and Western Union 
commercial refile services were available. These circuits were used to 
carry all types of administrative and logistics information, satellite tracking 
data, satellite prediction and orbital data, and certain types of telemetry 
data. 

All equipment and circuits in the Operations Room were arranged on a 
patch panel which permitted complete flexibility in interchange or substitu- 
tion of equipments and links. One of the page printers was equipped with 
a keyboard for use in keyboard-to-keyboard coordination of data runs with 
remote stations in the network. Each of the circuits could be directly con- 
nected to any station in the network by leg-combining repeaters under 
switch control. An off-line 19/14 teletype set was provided for special tape 
preparation. 

in the Control Room, two page printers were provided for monitoring 
purposes. Any lines in the network could be monitored upon request, and 
outbound traffic from the Control Room was carried by courier to the com- 



76 



TRACKING, DATA ACQUISITION, AND DATA REDUCTION 

munications room. Voice communication in the Control Room was han- 
dled by standard telephone equipment. Each of 12 operating positions had 
the capability of using an outside exchange line, local interposition exten- 
sions, or a general conference loop; selected positions had the capability of 
point-to-point connection for immediate contact to facilities such as the 
communications room. The Operations Director, the Project Coordinator, 
and the Network Controller were able to select any of the lines in the 
room. Headset transceivers were generally used, leaving the operators' 
hands free. 

Data Reduction Center. — A data processing center was established for de- 
termining the orbital parameters of earth satellites and reducing the 
scientific data obtained by the experiments contained in these satel- 
lites. Computer facilities available at the center included four large-scale 
general-purpose scientific computers (IBM 7090s) with associated peripheral 
equipment, as well as a variety of small digital computers, such as the 
CDC-160 and LPG-30. Scientific data obtained by the satellites were proc- 
essed by special-purpose equipment developed to handle the many different 
telemetry formats in use. Underlying principles stressed semiautomatic 
operation with optimum improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. Conver- 
sion to digital format was a one-step operation, allowing rapid entry into a 
large-scale computer for the complete reduction and analysis phase. Quick- 
look facilities in the form of tabulation or strip charts gave the experi- 
menters the opportunity to evaluate their data prior to the final reduction 
and analysis and thereby determine optimum handling procedures to suit 
their individual needs. 

The objective of the GSFC orbital calculation programs was to determine 
and predict the orbits of satellites on the basis of observational data. Ini- 
tially the programs were written by the IBM Vanguard group for the Van- 
guard IGY project. These were subsequently replaced by programs writ- 
ten by GSFC personnel incorporating improvements in methods and 
efficiency. Orbit prediction could be done in four ways: Hansen theory, 
Keplerian ellipse, Brouwer theory, and numerical integration of equations 
of motion. The output of these orbit-prediction programs could be sup- 
plied in a variety of local frames at arbitrary times and in any form 
required. Output forms used included geodetic latitude, longitude, 
and height above subsatellite points; azimuth, elevation, and range; local 
hour angle, declination, right ascension, and direction cosines — all with ref- 
erence to an arbitrarily selected site on the earth's surface. 

Data acquired at the many remote stations had to be processed and 
reduced. Some of these data were not uniform in quality; therefore, the 
central data reduction facility had to be extremely flexible and capable of 
taking into account operational errors. The central facility also had to be 
able to handle many categories of data and the many variations created 
by a lack of standardization of all missile ranges and data acquisition 

77 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

networks. Almost without exception, telemetry data were recorded at the 
stations on magnetic tape. 

The first step in the operation was an inspection and evaluation of the 
tapes received. Selection for further processing was based on the general 
requirements that the tapes had signals with adequate signal-to-noise ratio 
and usable timing, standard frequency, and tape-speed controls. The data 
were then digitalized and stored on digital magnetic tape. In cases where 
experimenters demanded analog records such as film or strip-chart record- 
ings, these were supplied. In some instances, these were the only means by 
which the data could be presented. But since digitalizing did allow rapid 
entry of the data in a computer, it was usually suggested as the preferable 
method. 

The final reduction and analysis of the data in a computer allowed inser- 
tion of calibration, linearization, smoothing, selection, correlation, and other 
data and, finally, merging of the data with orbit and aspect data. Mathe- 
matical operations on the data, such as insertion into equations relating 
measured values to other quantities, were easily performed; and the final 
output to the experimenter could be in the form of tabulation or graphs as 
desired. 



78 



Goiflarl-Manap Satellites 
awl Space Probes 

7 



WHEN THE GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER was established, 
its basic mission within the NASA structure was the scientific ex- 
ploration of space — "to meet the gaps in current knowledge . . . and re- 
search in space in all the scientific disciplines as dictated by the expanding 
knowledge of space phenomena." 80 By December 31, 1963, Goddard had 
launched some thirty satellites and space probes and performed experi- 
ments with over three hundred sounding rockets. 

Specific emphasis was placed on experimentation in several scientific 
areas: atmospheric structure, electric and magnetic fields, astronomy, ener- 
getic particles, gravitation, ionospheric structure and behavior, and satellite 
meteorology, and communications. As a result of investigation in these 
areas, man's knowledge of the upper atmosphere would be Increased and 
the groundwork would be laid for operational systems of meteorological 
and communications satellites. 

Although much can already be written about the results of the explora- 
tions carried out at Goddard before 1964, it must be emphasized that the 
story here is incomplete. At this point in time, the interpretation of space 
research is an open-end task. It has not yet been possible to fully Interpret 
all of the mass of data that has already been transmitted. Some satellites 
are still orbiting and transmitting data that will undoubtedly alter present 
concepts. Finally, discussion continues among scientists about the signifi- 
cance and interpretation of the data that have already been studied. For 
these reasons, intrinsic in the nature of scientific advances, the following ac- 
count of satellites, probes, and sounding rockets must necessarily be in- 
complete. 81 

Early Satellites Related to the Center Mission 

The Center considers Explorer VI ' , launched in August 1959, as its first 
satellite. Prior to that time, the United States had placed eight satellites In 
orbit and launched one major space probe as a result of pre-NASA pro- 

79 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

grams. Although not directly connected with the work at Goddard Space 
Flight Center, they have been listed here as precursors of the Center's 

program. 

Explorer I 

This satellite was launched on January 31, 1958, under the project direc- 
tion of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and was the first U.S. satellite 
placed in earth orbit. Its IGY experiment was responsible for the discov- 
ery of the Van Allen radiation belt — believed by many to be the most 
significant finding of the International Geophysical Year. It demonstrated 
the feasibility of temperature control by satellite surface treatment and 
showed that micrometeoroids are not necessarily a major hazard in space 
navigation, near the earth. The satellite ceased transmission on May 23, 
1958. 

Vanguard I 

Launched March 17, 1958, Vanguard I was a test of the Vanguard launch 
vehicle and satellite ejection mechanism under the management of the Na- 
val Research Laboratory. In an earth orbit, it determined atmospheric 
density at great altitudes and conducted geodetic measurements. It re- 
vealed that the earth is slightly pear-shaped, and the extensive information 
gained from it was useful in correcting geophysical map errors. It revealed 
much about the pressure of solar radiation and pioneered the use of photo- 
cells as a solar power source. Its lifetime, originally estimated at 200 years, 
is now believed to be about 2,000 years. One of its transmitters functioned 
until January 1965. 

Explorer III 

Explorer III, launched by the Army on March 26, 1958, went into an 
orbit slightly more elliptical than planned. It yielded valuable data on 
radiation belts and micrometeoroid impacts as well as external and internal 
temperatures and transmitted for about two months before reentry on June 

28, 1958. 

Explorer IV 

The Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense 
launched Explorer IV on July 26, 1958, for the purpose of studying radia- 
tion belts detected by Explorers I and II and to measure artificial radiation 
created by previous experiments. It collected data that helped to establish 
detailed spatial relations and many of the properties of artificial radiation; 

80 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

and it aided in analysis of the earth's magnetic field. Transmitting until 
October 1958, it decayed about a year later. 

Project Score 

Launched December 18, 1958, also under the direction of the Advanced 
Research Projects Agency, Project Score tested the Atlas ICBM as a launch 
vehicle. It also tested the feasibility of voice and teletype relay via satel- 
lite. For the first time a human voice (President Eisenhower's) was 
beamed from outer space. It was the first known satellite to be guided 
into orbit by a radio-inertial system. Its beacon signal terminated De- 
cember 19, 1958, and the voice signal stopped on December 31, 1958. It 
reentered the atmosphere on January 21, 1959. 

Vanguard II 

This satellite, launched under NASA direction on February 17, 1959, 
was placed in orbit for the purpose of studying the earth's cloud 
cover. While the satellite was successfully placed in orbit, a wobble which 
developed in the satellite's orientation prevented interpretation of the 
cloud-cover data from the two optical telescopes. The payload configura- 
tion consisted of a sphere with a shell of highly polished silicon-monoxide- 
coated magnesium. The two transmitters functioned for 19 days. 

Discoverer I 

Discoverer I was launched by the Air Force under the direction of the 
Advanced Research Projects Agency on February 28, 1959. Its objective 
was to demonstrate the orbital capability of the Discoverer satellite with the 
Thor-Agena booster and the capability of the ground-support equipment. 
The satellite was the first to be placed in near-polar orbit. Difficulty with 
stabilization caused tumbling, which hampered continuous tracking. 
Transmitters included telemetry and a tracking beacon. The satellite re- 
entered the atmosphere and decayed in mid-March 1959. 

Pioneer IV 

Launched by NASA on March 3, 1959, this instrumented probe was 
placed in an earth-moon trajectory to measure radiation in space, to test 
the photoelectric sensor in the vicinity of the moon, to sample the moon's 
radiation, and to test long-range tracking. 

Pioneer IV, the first U.S. solar satellite, achieved an earth-moon trajectory, 
and yielded important radiation data in space. An injection below the 
planned velocity caused it to pass 37,300 miles from the moon and prevented 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

near-lunar experiments. The configuration of this spacecraft was conical 
with a shell of gold-washed fiber glass, which served as a conductor and 
antenna. It was tracked for 82 hours to a distance of about 407,000 

miles. It is in orbit around the sun. 

Discoverer II 

Launched on April 13, 1959, by ARPA, its objectives were to maintain a 
life-supporting temperature and oxygen environment and provide data on 
propulsion, communications, recovery techniques, and the measurement of 
cosmic radiation. It achieved a near-circular polar orbit and stabilization 
was controlled. The timer malfunctioned and caused a premature capsule 
ejection, preventing a recovery attempt. 

Discoverer II was the first satellite to carry a recoverable instrument 
package. Telemetry was received until April 14, 1959, and the tracking 
beacon functioned until April 21, 1959. The capsule made impact in the 
vicinity of the Spitsbergen Islands (Arctic Ocean) on April 26, 1959, and 
was lost. 

Goddard Satellites Leave the Launching Pads 

With the launching of Explorer VI on August 7, 1959, Goddard Space 
Flight Center began a series of NASA satellite launchings that was to pro- 
vide an accumulation of new data so significant and detailed that it would 
give man new perspective on his environment and solidify the foundation 
for operational weather and communications satellites. The following 
presentation of Goddard launchings is primarily chronological, but sum- 
mary discussions have been inserted in appropriate places to give a clearer 
picture of some of the achievements of satellite-derived scientific research. 

Explorer VI 

Explorer VI, launched by an Air Force Thor-Able booster on August 7, 
1959, was the first scientific satellite under the project direction of Goddard 
Space Flight Center. In addition to Goddard personnel, several universi- 
ties and one private laboratory participated in equipping the satellite with 
experiments and interpreting the data received. 82 

The Universities of Chicago and Minnesota and the Space Technology 
Laboratories (STL) developed the instruments for measurement of the 
Van Allen radiation belt. STL also provided instrumentation for measur- 
ing the earth's magnetic field and for a type of one-line television scanning 
of the earth's cloud cover. NASA and the Air Force Cambridge Research 
Laboratories provided micrometeoroid experiments. Stanford University 
provided all equipment for the observation of very-low-frequency radio 
signals. 

82 



Ttwim 










Explorer VI, launched from AMR August 7, 1959. 



This "paddle wheel" satellite stopped transmitting on October 6, 1959, 
and reentered the earth's atmosphere sometime before July 1961. During 
its active lifetime, Explorer VI transmitted much valuable data. The most 
significant results can be briefly summarized. 

The University of Chicago, using a triple coincidence telescope — an elec- 
tronic device for measuring particles — reported that there appeared to be 
high-energy radiation of 10-20 million electron volts (MeV) on the inner 
side of the Van Allen radiation belt. It is apparently a narrow proton 
band, 330 miles thick, at about 1,240 miles from the earth. The total 
counting rate maximum was about 1,400 counts per square centimeter per 
second. They detected no protons with energies greater than 75 MeV, or 
electrons with energies greater than 13 MeV in the vast outer low-energy 
radiation region. There was some indication that radiation intensity 
varied with time. 

The University of Minnesota also made measurements on the radiation belt 
but used an ionization chamber and Geiger counter. These measurements 
were compared with measurements of the University of Chicago and with 
those made by other spacecraft. Although instruments differed, the Uni- 
versity of Chicago and the University of Minnesota measurements showed 
the same region of hard radiation. At times the radiation intensities at 
great distances dropped to a level about 5,000 times less than those meas- 
ured by Pioneer IV and 10 times lower than Pioneer III. 

Variations of radiation with respect to time were noted. In August, ra- 
diation at great distances had increased to a point consonant with the 

83 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

Pioneer III measurements. In general, the measurements showed that the 
radiation belt had a complicated and variable structure. There appeared 
to be some correlation between the variations in pockets of radiation at 
large distances and solar outbursts. 

The Space Technology Laboratories installed five instruments on Ex- 
plorer VI that measured various kinds of radiation and magnetic fields and 
televised the earth's cloud cover. Although the intensity of the radiation 
fields did not increase with solar activity in readings taken August 16, Au- 
gust 20 readings seemed to indicate correlation between solar activity and 
increased radiation. One hundred and forty traverses of the radiation belt 
region indicated that the low-energy radiation zone has a gross structure 
similar to the radiation belts reported by Van Allen, but fluctuations in 
intensity indicated that both the inner and outer zones are much more 
complicated than had been previously indicated. 

The data from the magnetic field experiment were quite involved, but 
there were no unexpected findings. The television scanner data gave only 
a crude image of the cloud cover, but they did correlate roughly with data 
from meteorological maps and are of historical significance in that they 
formed the first satellite-originated, complete, televised cloud-cover picture. 

The micrometeoroid counting rate, as conducted by NASA and the Air 
Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, was somewhat lower than that 
found in earlier experiments. Stanford University's very-low-frequency de- 
tecting experiments showed that the Navy's 15.5-kilocycle-per-second trans- 
mitting station was received clearly below the D-region of the ionosphere 
and dropped out after passage through the D-region at 43.4 miles altitude. 

Vanguard III 

Vanguard III was launched on September 18, 1959, marking the end of 
the Vanguard launching activities. The 50-pound satellite achieved the de- 
sired orbit of 2,329 miles apogee and 319 miles perigee. The satellite was 
equipped by the Naval Research Laboratory to measure solar x-radiation 
and by Goddard Space Flight Center to measure magnetic fields, microme- 
teoroid impacts, and satellite temperatures. The ionization chambers from 
the Naval Research Laboratory were saturated most of the time because of 
the high apogee of the satellite. But the information enabled scientists to 
refine their determinations of the lower edge of the Van Allen radiation 
belt. 

GSFC's magnetometer worked well; it showed there were systematic var- 
iations from the predicted fields. The micrometeoroid experiment showed 
from 4 to 15 impacts of particles 10~ 9 g or larger per square meter per 
hour. The thermistors showed that the temperature of the satellite varied 
between 6° and 27° C. The satellite ceased transmitting on December 11, 
1959: it is expected to remain in orbit about 40 years. 83 

84 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

Explorer VII 

The seventh Explorer satellite was launched by an ABMA juno 11 
booster on October 13, 1959. The 91.5-pound satellite achieved a success- 
ful orbit with an apogee of 680 miles and a perigee of 342 miles. It was 
the last ARPA originated satellite under NASA cognizance. The Naval 
Research Laboratory experiment measured Lyman-alpha and solar 
x-rays. The Research Institute for Advanced Study of the Glenn L. Mar- 
tin Company installed Geiger tubes for heavy primary cosmic rays; total 
cosmic-ray counts were made by the University of Iowa. The radiation 
balance in the earth's atmosphere was measured by the University of 
Wisconsin. Goddard Space Flight Center conducted micrometeoroid and 
temperature experiments. Information was received about solar x-ray and 
Lyman-alpha radiation, heavy cosmic radiation, and cosmic radiation 
counts. Of special interest was the intense radiation recorded on one orbit 
as the satellite passed through an aurora. 

Some of the experiments were coordinated to show correlations between 
atmospheric and solar activity. The Geiger-tube radiation counts indicated 
a correlation during periods of high activity between solar activity and 
optical emissions from the lower atmosphere. University of Wisconsin 
experiments indicated correlation between the earth's atmospheric tempera- 
ture and space temperature. 

The heavily instrumented satellite was spin-stabilized and carried two sets 
of radiation detectors, one an integrating ionization chamber and a Geiger- 
Mueller tube combined in a single package, and the other a proportional 
counter telescope. The vehicle also carried a magnetometer to measure the 
component of the ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the spin axis of 
the vehicle. A micrometeoroid detector and a device for determining the 
attitude of the vehicle relative to the sun were also included, but failed to 
function properly. 

The Goddard instrumentation recorded the first penetration of a sensor 
in flight by a micrometeoroid. The tracking beacon became inoperative 
on December 12, 1959. Several of the instruments, although designed 
for short-term transmission, were still transmitting data in 1961. 84 

Pioneer V 

One of the most dramatic space launchings in 1960 was that of Pioneer V, 
on March 11. This 94.8-pound interplanetary probe was placed into a suc- 
cessful orbit around the sun by an Air Force Thor-Able booster. Com- 
munication was lost soon after launch as the result of a malfunctioning 
diode, but was restored on April 24. 

Pioneer V set a communications distance record that stood until the fall 
of 1962 when Mariner II set a new record on its flight toward 

85 







Pioneer V in final checkout. 



if 



''^Sa^^^a? T 1 ' ill »■ ■ 'I ; ■ * 



Venus. Pioneer V continued to transmit interplanetary data up to a dis- 
tance of 17,700,000 miles and its tracking signal was received from a 
distance of 22,500,000 miles from the earth. 

Some of the scientific achievements of Pioneer V can be briefly summa- 
rized. 

Galactic Cosmic Rays.— The frequently observed sharp decreases in the 
intensity of galactic cosmic rays, called Forbush decreases, are phenomena of 
solar origin and are not caused by the earth or its magnetic field. 85 This 



86 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

fact was determined by a comparison of data from Pioneer V with simulta- 
neous observations obtained from ground-based neutron monitors. The 
comparison showed that the magnitude of the large Forbush decreases of 
April 1, 1960, in the vicinity of the earth was almost identical with that 
observed at the position of Pioneer V, 3,100,000 miles (5 million km) 
closer to the sun. 

The mechanism which produces the 11 -year variation in cosmic-ray inten- 
sity is centered in the sun, and the size of the volume of space in which the 
intensity is reduced is greater in radius than one astronomical unit during 
that part of the solar cycle which was covered by the Pioneer V measure- 
ments. 86 This result is inferred from the fact that the reduction in inten- 
sity produced by this mechanism was nearly the same at the earth and at 
Pioneer V. 

Solar Cosmic Rays. — Cosmic rays were observed in space, completely free 
of any effects due to the earth. Instruments aboard Pioneer V directly 
detected particles accelerated by solar flares, which constitute a potential 
hazard to man in space. Numerous bursts of such particles were observed 
with the ionization chamber-Geiger tube package. The correlation be- 
tween these observations and data from ionosondes at Thule and Resolute 
Bay on the minimum ionospheric reflection frequency indicates that the 
particles detected in the bursts were solar protons, with energies probably 
between 10 and 50 MeV, and that very few, if any, solar electrons above 50 
MeV result from flares. 87 Many of these proton events were detected by 
the counter telescope also. However, the threshold of this instrument for 
proton detection was about 75 MeV, whereas that for the ionization 
chamber-Geiger tube package was about 20 MeV. 

These solar flare particles, which produce ionization in the polar atmos- 
phere for many successive hours, are not stored in the geomagnetic 
field. This fact was established by a comparison of data received from 
Pioneer V with polar cap absorption data acquired simultaneously. 88 

The energetic electrons in the earth's outer radiation zone arise from an 
acceleration mechanism within the geomagnetic field rather than from direct 
injection of energetic electrons into the field. This conclusion was based 
on the fact that the flux of electrons of energies in the 50-billion-electron 
volt (BeV) range reached very high levels in the outer radiation zone, ac- 
cording to Explorer VII data, while few, if any, electrons of these energies 
were detected at Pioneer V. S9 

Bremsstrahlung-producing radiation (electromagnetic radiation produced 
by the sudden retardation of a charged particle) , evidently accelerated by 
solar activity, is present in interplanetary space during the periods of such 
activity. 90 This type of radiation was detected by the proportional counter 
telescope on numerous occasions. 

The Geomagnetic Field. — The termination of the geomagnetic field was 
observed at about 14 earth radii on the daylight side of the earth, at least 

87 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

during periods of little geomagnetic activity. 91 The distance from the 
earth of this termination was considerably greater than that predicted by 
most theories. 

An anomaly in the geomagnetic field was observed at about 6 earth radii 
on the daylight side of the earth. 92 This deviation from the assumed dipo- 
lar character of the field was similar to that observed with the earth satel- 
lite on the night side of the earth. 93 The anomalous component of the 
field is believed to be produced by a ring current circling the earth with its 
axis parallel to the geomagnetic axis. 94 

The existence of rapid fluctuations in the geomagnetic field between 10 
and 14 earth radii was confirmed. 95 This phenomenon was first observed 
with instruments aboard the space probe Pioneer IV in October 1959. 96 
These fluctuations may be produced by the interaction of the geomagnetic 
field and the ionized particles therein with the interplanetary medium. 97 

Magnetic Fields in Interplanetary Space. — During periods of low solar 
activity, the interplanetary magnetic field was found to be about 2.7 X 10~ 5 
gauss and nearly perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic. 98 During peri- 
ods of solar activity, fields greater than 50 X 10- 5 gauss were observed. The 
direction of the fields at such times could not be determined. The 
correlation of these increases in the interplanetary field with solar and ter- 
restrial effects leads the experimenters to conclude that these high fields ac- 
company the plasma ejected from the sun during active periods. Further, 
these comparatively intense fields are believed to be responsible for the ex- 
clusion of galactic cosmic rays from regions of the solar system during For- 
bush decreases. 99 

Measurement of the Astronomical Unit. — The astronomical unit, ex- 
pressed in the terms of solar parallax, was found to be 8.79738 ±0.00082 
seconds of arc. 100 This result, determined from the long-range tracking of 
Pioneer V, is in good agreement with the value of 8.79835 seconds of arc 
obtained from optical observations of the asteroid Eros. 

Tiros I 

Tiros I, the first meteorological satellite, was launched into a near-circu- 
lar orbit of 428.7 miles (690 km) perigee and 465.9 miles (750 km) apogee 
on April 1, I960. 101 Shaped like a hat box, it was about 21 inches high and 
42 inches in diameter and weighed about 270 pounds. The top and sides 
were covered with solar cells, the primary source of power. Its main sen- 
sors were two TV camera systems. When viewing the earth vertically, one 
camera took pictures about 700 to 800 miles on the side, while the other 
took more detailed pictures about 80 miles on the side. Since it was spin- 
stabilized, the cameras could view the earth during only part of each 
orbit. Tape recorders made it possible to store pictures taken over areas 
distant from the United States and to read them out as the satellite passed 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

over the command and data acquisition stations at Fort Monmouth, New 
Jersey, and Kaena Point, Hawaii. 

Tiros I had a useful lifetime of 78 days (1302 orbits). On June 16, 
1960, a stuck relay in the satellite drained the batteries, and continued 
operation caused general failures. During its operational lifetime, Tiros I 
provided 22,952 exciting pictures of the earth's cloud cover, of which an 
estimated 60 percent were of meteorological interest. Weather patterns 
over the earth lying roughly between 50° N and 50° S latitude were pho- 
tographed. These weather patterns, compared with data provided by con- 
ventional observations, showed that the satellite data provided more com- 
plete and more accurate information than had been possible in the past. 

Studies of Tiros I pictures indicate that distinct cloud vortex characteris- 
tics are probably associated with individual storm types. Striking patterns 
of large spiral cloud formations, some as much as 1,550 miles in diameter, 
were observed. Jet streams, thunderstorms, fronts, and regions of moist 
and dry air were discernible in some photographs. In the absence of ob- 
scuring clouds, large ice packs were sometimes seen. 101 

Echo I 

Echo I was a 100-foot-diameter, aluminized-plastic inflatable sphere that 
was placed into orbit on August 12, 1960. The initial orbital parameters 
were: apogee, 1,049 miles (1,689 km); perigee, 945 miles (1,522 km); period, 
118.3 minutes; inclination, 47.2 degrees. The Mylar polyester sphere, 
including subliming powders, weighed approximately 124 pounds and had 
been designed by the Langley Research Center. Initial inflation was ac- 
complished by the expansion of residual entrained air when the packaged 
sphere was ejected from the payload. Inflation was maintained by the use 
of subliming chemicals. The sphere carried two 10-milliwatt tracking bea- 
cons, powered by chemical batteries and solar cells. It was the first passive 
communications satellite. 

The specific objectives of the launch were: to orbit a 100-foot-diameter, 
aluminized-plastic sphere to be used as a passive reflector of electromagnetic 
waves; to study the effects of the space environment on large area-to-mass-ra- 
tio structures; to measure the reflective characteristics of the sphere and the 
electromagnetic propagation characteristics of space; and to conduct experi- 
ments to determine the feasibility of using such satellites as passive relays in 
worldwide communication systems. 

The principal communications experiments were conducted by the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) station at Goldstone, California; the Bell 
Telephone Laboratory (BTL) station, Holmdel, New Jersey; and the Na- 
val Research Laboratory (NRL) station, Stump Neck, Maryland. Gold- 
stone and Holmdel carried out the first communication experiment; JPL 
transmitted at 2,390 Mc and received at 960.05 Mc; at the other end of the 



1 ^aMST 



tiK'l'sareafaiSS'yKife'l't^i' •> -'•Si 







u.' Ww 






Echo inflation test sequence. 

link, BTL received at 2,390 Mc and transmitted at 960.5 Mc. Voice mes- 
sages were transmitted over the two-way link utilizing wideband frequency 
modulation with special demodulation techniques developed by BTL. 
NRL received JPL transmissions at 2,390 Mc, and transmitted at either 
2,390 or 2,390.4 Mc, using 2,390 Mc when JPL was not transmitting 
and 2,390.4 Mc for differentiation from JPL transmissions when JPL was 
transmitting simultaneously. In addition to experimenting with voice 
modulation, tests were made with continuous wave "sine wave" modula- 
tion, etc., to provide further data for evaluation of the characteristics of the 
passive satellite transmission media. At a secondary priority on later passes 
of the satellite, experiments were conducted utilizing narrow-band phase 
modulation, narrow-band frequency modulation, and single sideband. 



90 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

Immediately after launch, and for a few days thereafter, beacon function 
was completely satisfactory. Suitable orbital elements were determined; 
and the highly directional antennas at NRL, JPL, and BTL were directed 
at the satellite to well within the required accuracies of 0.2°, 0.2°, and 0.4°, 
respectively. After a period of time, orbital data points became increas- 
ingly uncertain because of several causes. The first of these was the failure 
of the battery system; this limited beacon power to that supplied directly by 
the solar cells, so the beacons could function only when the satellite was in 
sunlight. A second cause was the progressive darkening of the epoxy resin 
with which the solar cells were coated. This darkening was a design fea- 
ture which would cause the cells to become inactive within a period of 
approximately 6 months to 1 year, so that beacon transmissions would even- 
tually cease. Finally, Echo I's gradual change in its aspect with relation to 
the sun meant that it passed through the earth's penumbra for more ex- 
tended periods. This development precluded beacon function; the Mini- 
track orbital data were based on fewer data points, with a consequent loss of 
accuracy. Antenna-pointing accuracy requirements no longer could be 
met. Minitrack stopped tracking Echo I on December 28, 1960. 

Significant information has been gained from Echo I. 102 

• The use of a sphere as a passive reflector has been effectively demon- 
strated. System and space transmission losses did not differ substan- 
tially from those anticipated. 

• With good reflector sphericity there was no appreciable cross-polariza- 
tion of reflected signals. However, as wrinkling occurred, there was 
increasing cross-polarization of signal components. 

• The uniquely large area-to-mass ratio of Echo I has made it possible 
to determine the effect of solar pressure on its motion, and a quantita- 
tive measure of such effects has been applied to orbit predictions. 

• Echo I provided data for air drag in the upper atmosphere measure- 
ments. Thirty-fold diurnal changes in density in the upper at- 
mosphere at the altitude of about 620 miles (1,000 km) and changes 
produced by solar disturbances on high-altitude atmospheric density 
have been reported. The density of the atmosphere at the altitude 
of the Echo I orbit has been calculated from the drag and is reported 
as about 10~ 17 at about 620 miles (1,000 km) altitude and about 
10- 18 at about 992 miles (1,600 km) altitude. 

• An interesting use has been made of observations of Echo I to acquire 
information on the ozone distribution in the atmosphere. An experi- 
menter reported he found the maximum of ozone content between 
12.4 miles (20 km) and 18.6 miles (30 km) altitude, with the 
number of molecules per cubic centimeter as 2X 10 12 /cm 3 and decreas- 
ing 10" molecules/cm 3 at the altitude of 40.3 miles (65 km) . 

• Another experimenter reported that he had used a special radar track- 
ing technique to search for ionization surrounding Echo I but that he 

91 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

found no evidence of such ionization in the case of either Echo I or 
Sputnik III. 

• The whole process of tracking, determining orbits, and pointing 
narrow-beam antennas using computed drive tapes has been demon- 
strated successfully; this means a satellite can be used in synchronized 
fashion for communication relay between two remotely located sites. 

• Radar cross-sectional measurements have been made on the satellite. 
They have indicated a gradual decrease in average area which, pres- 
ently, appears to be about one-half of the original value. 

At the time of publication, Echo I was still in orbit, visible to the naked 
eye in the night sky, and still capable of reflecting radio signals. Although 
the satellite was slightly crumpled and had lost much of its original shape as 
the result of micrometeoroid punctures, its orbit and condition were better 
than had been anticipated. The satellite was expected to reenter the 
earth's atmosphere in 1968. 

Explorer VIII 

This satellite was launched on November 3, 1960, with the objective of 
studying the temporal and spatial distribution of ionospheric parameters by 
direct measurement. The 90-pound satellite was launched into an orbit of 
50° inclination with a 258-mile (415 km) perigee and a 1,423-mile (2,290 
km) apogee. Spin stabilization at 30 rpm was used. Data transmissions 
stopped on December 27, 1960, the approximate date estimated for exhaus- 
tion of the chemical batteries. No solar cells were used. 

The instruments included a radio frequency (RF) impedance probe for 
determination of electron concentration, four ion traps for measurements of 
positive-ion concentration and mass distribution, two Langmuir probes for 
measurement of electron temperature, an electric-field meter for determi- 
nation of satellite charge distribution, and two instruments for determining 
micrometeoroid impacts. All the instruments operated continuously with 
the exception of the electric-field meter, which operated only by command. 

One of the micrometeoroid detectors consisted of two microphones with a 
maximum detectable sensitivity of 10~ 4 dyne-second and a dynamic range of 
3 decades. This detector reported frequency and momenta of impacts. 
The second micrometeoroid detector used a photomultiplier tube with 
a 1000A evaporated layer of aluminum on the window. Light flashes 
generated by micrometeoroid impacts on the aluminum were translated 
into pulses of varying length and amplitude by the photomultiplier. The 
pulses were interpretable in terms of the kinetic energy of the impinging 
particle. Sensitivity was estimated to be sufficient to detect particles of 
< 10~ 15 g having a velocity of 20 km/sec. 

The radio frequency impedance probe experiment could be connected 
to the antenna upon command, to study ion sheath effects. 

92 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

Two of the four ion traps were single-grid models and thus sensitive to 
photoemission. The remaining two ion traps were multiple-grid models 
not sensitive to photoemission. Comparison of the data from the two ex- 
periments gives the magnitude of the photoemission current. 

The Langmuir probe measured both electron and positive-ion 
currents. The electric-field meter was of the rotating-shutter type and ca- 
pable of measuring fields up to 10,000 volts /meter. Its noise equivalent 
was less than 5 volts /meter and residual drift less than 5 volts /meter. 

Explorer VIII data have disclosed a number of interesting discoveries. It 
measured the diurnal electron temperatures between altitudes of 244 miles 

(400 km) and 1,364 miles (2,200 km) and found the daytime temperature 
to be about 1,800° K and the nighttime temperature to be about 
1,000° K. In its orbit it measured an electron concentration of 1.3 X10 4 
electrons /cm 3 . Its ion probe reported the mean mass of the ions as 16 
atomic mass units, indicating the predominance of atomic oxygen in the 
ions. The ion density profile determined by Explorer VIII up to 465 miles 

(750 km) was similar to that determined before, but, in addition, showed 
the upper atmosphere to be isothermal. Another interesting and im- 
portant result found by Explorer VIII was the ratio of helium to hydrogen 
ions. Above 496 miles (800 km) the helium ion was found to be an im- 
portant constituent of the ionosphere, and at the altitude of 1,364 miles 
(2,200 km) there was a heavy predominance of helium ions over hydrogen 
ions. This discovery explains the high air densities encountered by Echo I 
in its high-altitude orbit. The instruments carried by Explorer VIII also 
revealed that the spacecraft was charged and that, as the altitude of the 
craft increased, the negative charge changed to positive. 103 



Tiros II 

Launched November 23, 1960, into an orbit of 431 miles (730 km) apo- 
gee and 406 miles (625 km) perigee, Tiros II was similar to Tiros I but 
carried, in addition, infrared sensors to observe the radiation from the earth 
and its atmosphere, and a magnetic coil for partial control of 
orientation. The magnetic coil was included on the basis of experience 
with Tiros I, whose spin axis had moved in an unexpected manner (but 
fortunately remained more favorable for observations) . These motions 
were caused by the interaction of an induced magnetic field in the satellite 
with the magnetic field of the earth. The new coil allowed some control of 
satellite orientation and camera pointing. 

Presumably because of a malfunction associated with the lens of the wide- 
angle camera, the pictures from this Tiros II camera failed to show the 
detail that was so striking in the Tiros I photographs. They did disclose 
large cloud masses or clear areas, and proved useful in day-to-day weather 

93 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

analyses and forecasting. The narrow-angle camera pictures were of excel- 
lent quality. 

Prior to the launching of Tiros II, 2 1 countries were offered the necessary 
orbital data if they wished to conduct special meteorological observations to 
be correlated with the satellite observations. Ten of the 17 countries 
which indicated a desire to participate chose to proceed with their programs 
even though the wide-angle camera picture quality proved poorer than ex- 
pected. 

The measurements made by the infrared detectors on Tiros II were: tem- 
perature of the top of the water vapor layer (6.3 microns (p)); surface 
temperatures or cloud-top temperatures (8 to 1 2 p) , which help to distin- 
guish cloudy areas at night; the amount of reflected radiation (0.2 to 5 p) ; 
the amount of emitted radiations (7 to 30 p); and low-resolution cloud 
pictures (0.5 to 0.7 p) . 

The magnetic orientation coil, on several separate occasions, functioned 
as planned. The sensor instrumentation worked properly until mid-Jan- 
uary 1961 when a malfunction in the clock control system forced discontin- 
uance of remote wide-angle pictures to reduce the danger of a power drain 
that would disable the entire satellite. 

The operation of Tiros II continued during most of 1961, but with a 
more or less progressive deterioration in the quality of data obtained. The 
blackbody sensor of the wide-angle radiometer failed in March. Of the 
scanning radiometer channels, the 6.3-ju, channel had degraded early in the 
year, the 7- to 30-^, channel in early April; and no useful infrared data were 
obtained after April 23, 1961. The infrared electronics and tape recorder 
continued to function until the satellite was shut off in early December after 
more than a year in orbit. Except for temporary suspensions, the cameras 
had been programed to operate regularly until the Tiros III launch on 
July 12, 1961, and from then until August 8, 1961, on an average of two 
orbits per day. Cloud pictures of operationally significant meteorological 
value were obtained in early August. After August 8, camera programing 
was sporadic because of power limitations. The last pictures, in November 
1961, were still not completely useless although obviously degraded. A to- 
tal of 36,156 pictures was obtained. 

The third pair of spin-up rockets was fired with partial success in mid- 
September 1961. The fourth pair was successfully fired on September 28 
after more than 10 months in orbit. The magnetic orientation coil worked 
well until late November 1961. In early December 1961, the satellite no 
longer appeared to be responding to orientation coil commands and was so 
oriented that the sun shining on the base plate produced excessive heating 
and very little power. The beacons were shut off on December 3, 1961, 
but the satellite is still in orbit. Case studies have clearly demonstrated the 
expected correlation between the 8- to 12- fi atmospheric window data and 
the concurrent patterns of cloud cover and cloud-top altitude. 

94 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

During the fall of 1961, a Tiros II Radiation Data User's Manual was 
published, along with Volume I of the Tiros II Radiation Catalog. Volume 
I of this catalog contains analyzed grid point data for fifty orbits of the 
Tiros II scanning radiometer data. 104 

Perhaps the most striking of the Tiros II picture data were several exam- 
ples of narrow-angle camera photographs of sea ice in the area of the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. One series of such examples was obtained in January 
1961; the second in late March. The March pictures included coverage 
from the Gaspe Peninsula to east of Newfoundland and show significant 
changes in the ice patterns, particularly in the vicinity of Anticosti Island. 

Explorer IX 

Explorer IX, a 12-foot inflatable sphere made of Mylar and aluminum 
foil, weighed 15 pounds. It was launched on February 16, 1961, for the 
purpose of obtaining atmospheric densities from drag measurements. A 
project of Langley Research Center with GSFC participation, Explorer IX 
went into orbit with a perigee of 395 miles, an apogee of 1,605 miles, and 
an inclination of 39°. The tracking beacon carried by the sphere failed to 
operate after the sphere was placed in orbit, but optical tracking from the 
ground was successful. By means of this satellite, density of the atmos- 
phere at an altitude of 434 miles was calculated from drag for comparison 
with values calculated from Echo I at about twice this altitude. The 
sphere was sensitive to changes in the density along relatively small seg- 
ments of its orbit and was thus able to reveal the effect of solar disturbances 
on upper-atmosphere density. 

The results obtained by Explorer IX, combined with those of Echo I and 
other satellites such as Vanguard I, showed that the upper atmosphere is a 
dynamic region of changing density caused by the diurnal variation of sun- 
light and by the smaller changes of energy associated with solar disturb- 
ances. 105 The satellite reentered April 9, 1964. 

Explorer X 

This spin-stabilized earth satellite, weighing about 79 pounds, was 
launched on March 25, 1961. It entered a highly eccentric orbit with an 
apogee of about 186,000 miles located at an angle of 140° to 150° from the 
sun-earth line, and a perigee of about 100 miles. 

The highly eccentric orbit was selected for the purpose of studying the 
properties of the magnetic field and the solar interplanetary plasma over a 
region extending from close to the earth out to a point where the effects of 
the earth's magnetic field should be negligible. The scientific payload con- 
sisted of an extremely sensitive rubidium-vapor magnetometer, two flux- 
gate saturable-core magnetometers to measure the spatial and temporal var- 

95 




Explorer X, an interplanetary probe, launched March 25, 1961. 



iatlons of the geomagnetic and interplanetary fields, and a multigrid plasma 
probe to determine the flux, energy spectrum, and directionality of very low 
energy protons in the plasma. Since the satellite was spin-stabilized, a sun 
sensor was used to provide information about the orientation of the instru- 
ments relative to the sun. Power for the satellite was provided by batteries 
having an active life of about 60 hours, sufficient to permit continuous 
measurements to be made on the first outward pass to apogee. 

Quiet magnetic conditions prevailed prior to and during the first day of 
the satellite's outward pass to apogee; solar activity was confined to Class 1 
and 1— flares. However, at 10:15 Universal Time on the second day after 
launch, a Class 3 flare occurred near the east limb of the sun, producing 
disturbed magnetic conditions in the vicinity of the satellite and at the 
earth. Significant findings are: 

Magnetic Fields. — The measured geomagnetic field between 1.8 and 5 
earth radii over the South Atlantic Ocean was found to be less than the 
computed field. 106 The discrepancy was attributed to the existence of the 
field source having its maximum strength at an altitude between 1.8 and 3 



96 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

earth radii at the geomagnetic equator. From 5 to 6.6 earth radii, the 
measured geomagnetic field was in agreement with the computed field. Su- 
perposition of the earth's field and the interplanetary field was detected 
between 11 and 19 earth radii. Beyond 19 earth radii the earth's field was 
negligible. 

The interplanetary field between 20 and 21.5 earth radii was found to be 
stable. However, its magnitude was more than anticipated. The field was 
approximately radial from the sun. An abrupt change in the character of 
the interplanetary field was detected simultaneously with the first detection 
of the solar interplanetary plasma at 21.5 earth radii. Large fluctuations 
both in magnitude and direction were encountered for five hours after the 
onset of the abrupt change and were attributed to the passage of shock 
waves. 107 

When the satellite was at 37.1 earth radii, an increase in the interplane- 
tary field intensity occurred at about the same time that a sudden com- 
mencement was observed at the earth's surface, indicating that little if any 
delay was associated with the arrival of the sudden commencement disturb- 
ance at the earth's surface from outside the earth's field. 

Solar Interplanetary Plasma. — The Explorer X satellite provided the first 
experimental observation of a plasma in interplanetary space. 108 A strongly 
spin-modulated signal was present at all energies near the earth, from 1.3 to 
2.9 earth radii. The interplanetary plasma was first detected at 21 earth 
radii, and its presence was confirmed out to 38.5 earth radii. 

Correlation of the plasma data with the magnetic field data indicated that 
the presence of the plasma was coincident with a relatively weak field which 
fluctuated in magnitude and direction. Absence of plasma was associated 
with strong steady fields directed away from the sun. Large fluctuations in 
plasma intensity were detected between a minimum detectable value of less 
than 5X10 6 and about 10 10 /cm 2 -sec. 



Explorer XI 

Explorer XI, the gamma-ray astronomy satellite, was launched on April 
27, 1961, into an orbit with an apogee of 1,113.2 miles, perigee of 304 miles, 
an inclination of 28.8°, and period of 108.1 minutes. The objective of this 
satellite was the detection of extraterrestrial high-energy gamma rays, such 
as result from the decay of neutral -n- mesons. The experiment was designed 
to detect and map the direction and intensity of the galactic gamma rays 
above the earth's atmosphere. Earlier balloon experiments had been 
limited by the background radiation produced in the residual atmosphere. 

Explorer XI resembled an old-fashioned street lamp with the payload 
constituting the lamp and the attached burned-out fourth stage the 
post. Before being put into orbit, the payload and the fourth stage were 

97 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

spun about the longitudinal axis at 6 cps, but the whipping of the external 
loop antennas and the nutation damper included in the satellite converted 
the rotation into an end-to-end tumbling that was desired for scanning the 
entire sky. Storage batteries carried the major portion of the power load. 

The instrumentation consisted of a gamma-ray telescope and sensing de- 
vices in the forward end of the payload. The latter reported the position 
of the satellite relative to the earth's horizon and to the sun. The telescope 
consisted of a sandwich of scintillation crystals and of a Cerenkov detector 
contained in an anticoincidence shield. The use of crystals with differ- 
ent fluorescent decay rates — namely, Csl (Tl) and Nal (Tl) — permitted 
differentiation between gamma rays and neutrons. When the instrumenta- 
tion was not in the anticoincident mode, primary cosmic-ray protons could 
be observed. These particles have known energy and can be used as a 
calibration standard for the energy of the gamma rays. 

The energy spectrum of the positive particles was found to be peaked at 
500 electron volts even though the shape of the energy spectrum showed 
large variations. The number density of the plasma protons ranged from 6 
to 20 cm 3 . The plasma arrived from the general direction of the sun. 

The aluminum housing of the satellite, serving as a micrometeoroid 
shield, emitted secondary neutrons and gamma rays, the background counts 
from which could obscure the results if the intensity of celestial gamma rays 
was low. 

Explorer XI achieved too high an apogee and consequently reached into 
the inner Van Allen belt, which masked the gamma-ray counts in that por- 
tion of the orbit. As a result, useful data were supplied only about five 
percent of the time in orbit. Preliminary results of the analysis of these 
data have been given by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, based 
on some 23 hours of useful observing time in a period of 23 days. 

During this period 127 events which could have been gamma rays 
occurred. Of these, 105 were shown by analysis to have come from the 
direction of the earth and were presumably produced in the earth's atmos- 
phere; the remaining 22 came from a variety of directions. The analysis of 
arrival directions was complicated by the fact that all portions of the sky 
were not scanned for the same length of time. Therefore use was made of 
an idealized model of the galaxy. It was assumed to be a disk 100,000 light 
years in diameter and 1,000 light years in thickness, filled uniformly with a 
gas of one hydrogen atom per cubic centimeter, and having a cosmic-ray den- 
sity equal to its value in the vicinity of the earth. By means of this model, 
"predicted" intensities were used to evaluate an expected number of counts 
in each of the cells into which the sky was divided. Comparison of the 
"predictions" with the observations showed a good degree of consistency 
with regard to spatial distribution and to the number of events. The re- 
sults are consistent with a source strength of gamma rays in the galaxy of 
the order of 10~ 24 cm^-sec -1 . 109 

98 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

Tiros III 

This satellite was launched on July 12, 1961, into an orbit with an apogee 
of 506.44 miles, a perigee of 461.02 miles, and a 48.2° inclination. Both 
TV cameras were of the wide-angle type. Tiros III was basically the same 
as Tiros II except that a third set of infrared sensors developed by V. Suomi, 
of the University of Wisconsin, was added; these sensors, very much like his 
experiment on Explorer VII, consisted of two pairs of hemispheres (each 
pair consisting of one black and one white hemisphere) , mounted on mir- 
rors, on opposite sides of the spacecraft. 

The satellite was commanded from, and data were acquired at, stations 
located on St. Nicolas Island, California, and Wallops Island, Virginia. 
An auxiliary command (only) station at Santiago, Chile, permitted ob- 
taining more hurricane and other cloud-picture data over the tropical 
Atlantic Ocean than would otherwise have been possible. 

Tiros HI proved a worthy successor to the earlier satellites in the series, 
especially with regard to the discovery and tracking of Atlantic hurricanes 
and Pacific typhoons. The cloud-picture data from these and other 
weather situations were made available for operational weather analysis and 
forecasting through internationally disseminated operational nephanalyses. 

On more than 50 separate occasions, Tiros III photographed tropical cy- 
clones in all stages of development. Five hurricanes (Anna through Esther, 
inclusive) and one tropical storm were seen in the Atlantic; two hurricanes 
and a tropical storm were seen in the data-sparse Pacific near Baja Califor- 
nia. Typhoons Kathy through Tilda, nine storms in all, were followed in 
the central and western Pacific. 

On a single day (September 11, 1961), Tiros III photographed Hurri- 
cane Betsy (in a dissipating stage), Carla (as it hit the Texas coast), and 
Debbie; discovered the tropical storm later designated as Hurricane Esther; 
and photographed Typhoons Nancy and Pamela. 

One of the two Tiros III cameras ceased operation on July 27, 1981, 
apparently because of a stuck shutter, confirming the desirability of redun- 
dant wide-angle cameras. Some deterioration of the quality of the TV pic- 
tures of the second camera was noted as early as the second week in August, 
and became progressively worse. Routine preparation of operational neph- 
analyses was stopped in late November 1961, when the picture quality 
became too poor. Few nephanalyses were transmitted after that date, and 
archiving of the pictures was terminated. The tape recorder on the second 
camera ceased to function on December 5, 1961, preventing further data 
acquisition in remote mode. It was possible to resume direct picture tak- 
ing in early January 1962, but quality remained poor and the pictures were 
of little, if any, practical value. Over 35,000 pictures were obtained 
through the end of December 1961. 

Degradation of the 6.3-^ and 7- to 30-^ infrared channels was noted as 

99 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



early as August 5, 1961. No useful infrared data were obtained after Oc- 
tober 80, 1961; for several weeks before then, about 50 percent of the data 
were lost because of problems with the tape recorder playback mecha- 



nism. 1 



Explorer XII 

Explorer XII, an Energetic Particles Satellite, was launched on August 
15, 1961, in an orbit with an apogee of 47,800 miles, a perigee of 180 miles, 
and an inclination of 33°. The highly eccentric orbit permitted measure- 
ments both in interplanetary space and inside the earth's magnetosphere. 
About 90 percent of the time of the satellite was spent in the Van Allen 
belt region. The objectives of this satellite were to describe the protons 
and electrons trapped in the Van Allen radiation belt; to study the 
particles coming from the sun, including the occasional very intense 
bursts of high-energy protons which present a hazard to manned flight; to 
study the cosmic radiation from outside the solar system; and to correlate 
particle phenomena with the observed magnetic field in space about the 
earth. 

Explorer XII was octagonal in shape, 19 inches from side to side, and 27 
inches long, including a magnetometer boom. It carried four laterally ex- 
tended paddles, carrying solar cells. Prior to injection into orbit, the satel- 




Explorer XII, an energetic par- 
ticles satellite, was launched on 
August 15, 1961. 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

lite and third stage were spun to 150 rpm for stabilization. After burnout 
of the third stage, a yoyo despin device slowed the rate down to 31 
rpm. Further despinning to 18 rpm occurred as the solar paddles were 
extended just prior to separation of the spacecraft from the third stage. 
Seven experiments were carried in the satellite: 

(1) A proton analyzer was used to measure the proton flux and dis- 
tribution of energies in the space beyond 6 earth radii. Although the mass 
of the particles was not measured, the particles were assumed to be protons, 
since the latter probably constitute at least 85 percent of the positive-ion 
population in space. 

(2) A three-core flux-gate magnetometer, sensitive to a few gammas, was 
used to measure the earth's vector magnetic field at distances of 3 to 10 
radii. 

(3) The trapped-radiation experiment (four Geiger counters and three 
CdS cells) measured the fluxes and energies of particles emitted by the sun, 
the galactic cosmic rays, as well as trapped Van Allen belt particles. 

(4) The cosmic-ray experiment monitored cosmic rays beyond the effect 
of the earth's magnetic field during the apogee portion of the orbit. The 
instrumentation consisted of a double telescope for cosmic rays, a single 
crystal detector of energetic particles, and a Geiger-Mueller telescope for 
cosmic rays. The group of instruments was capable of obtaining data on 
the flux of moderate to very energetic protons 1 to 700 MeV, on the flux of 
low-energy alpha particles, and on the differential spectrum of proton en- 
ergy. 

(5) An ion-electron detector was carried to measure particle fluxes, 
types, and energies in and above the Van Allen belt. This device consisted 
of a photomultiplier tube coated with a powder phosphor, ZnS (Ag) , in 
combination with absorbing screens for the detection of energetic particles 
and with a scattering block for the detection of electrons. The energy flux 
could be measured for protons with energies below 1 MeV and for electrons 
below 100 KeV. 

(6) An experiment was carried to determine the deterioration of solar 
cells resulting from direct exposure to the radiation in the Van Allen belt, 
and to compare the effectiveness of glass filters in preventing degradation of 
solar cells. 

(7) An optical aspect experiment was carried to determine the orienta- 
tion in space of the spacecraft as a function of time. Six photodiodes gave 
the position of the spin axis of the satellite relative to the sun's elevation 
with an accuracy of about 5° in azimuth and elevation. 

The launch occurred as planned, and all experiments functioned nor- 
mally until December 6, 1961, when the satellite ceased transmitting; telem- 
etry coverage of nearly 100 percent was maintained until then. By Septem- 
ber 12 the spin rate of the satellite had increased from the initial value of 
27.8 to 28.63 rpm as a result of the solar-radiation pressure on the solar cell 

101 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

paddles. The unprotected cells in the solar cell experiment suffered a ma- 
jor degradation when the spacecraft passed through a point of high proton 
concentration in the Van Allen belt. Degradation for the test cell patches 
covered by glass was not noticeable. 

The instrumentation carried in this satellite indicated that the level of 
electron flux in the outer portion of the Van Allen belt was about three 
orders lower than what had previously been considered to be present. The 
ion-electron detector, which was capable of measuring protons of low en- 
ergy, showed that protons are present in the outer Van Allen belt. This 
region was at one time thought to contain only electrons. The instrumenta- 
tion on board this satellite detected electrons out to a boundary of 8 earth 
radii, with a maximum flux at 6 to 7 earth radii. The data from the satel- 
lite confirmed existence of a low-energy proton current ringing the earth in 
an east-to-west direction, perpendicular to perpetual north-south spiraling 
motion along geomagnetic field lines. 111 

Explorer XIII 

The effects of micrometeoroids or cosmic dust in collisions with space- 
craft, and the degree of likelihood of collisions, were unknown, but the pos- 
sibility that the particles constitute a hazard to travel in the space environ- 
ment was very real and required investigation. The micrometeoroid satel- 
lite, Explorer XIII, a project of the Langley Research Center with GSFC 
participation, was designed to provide an improved estimate of the danger 
of penetration of spacecraft by cosmic dust by securing direct measurements 
of the puncture hazards in spacecraft structural skin specimens at satellite 
altitudes. In addition, the satellite carried instruments to measure mi- 
crometeoroid flux rates and to obtain data regarding the erosion of space- 
craft materials. 

The satellite was launched on August 25, 1961, failed to obtain a high 
enough perigee, and all the data collected during its 2 14 days of life were 
telemetered during 13 minutes of time. It reentered August 27, 1961. 

Explorer XIII carried a group of experiments installed around the fourth 
stage of a Scout launch vehicle. The satellite was cylindrical in shape, 76 
inches in length, and 24 inches in diameter; the overall weight was about 
187 pounds. Five types of detectors were carried. One consisted of a bat- 
tery of pressurized cells in which the pressure was released upon 
puncture. In the second type, foil gauges showed impact of micrometeor- 
oids by a change in resistance. A third type of experiment showed a 
change of resistance in wire grids when a wire was broken by impact. An- 
other detector used photoelectric cells which detected the light transmitted 
through the aluminized Mylar sheets. The fifth experiment recorded im- 
pacts on piezoelectric crystals. 

The satellite was spin-stabilized during the last stage of burning. It was 

102 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

expected that interaction of the satellite with the magnetic field of the earth 
would cause the original spin to turn into a tumbling motion after 10 
days. Two separate telemeters were used for storing and telemetering 
data. Both used Goddard's Minitrack telemetry and coding system. 112 

P-21 Electron Density Profile Probe 

The P-21 space probe was launched on October 19, 1961, from Wallops 
Island by means of a Scout rocket in a nearly vertical trajectory. The alti- 
tude achieved was 4,261 miles. The payload itself was in the form of an 
eight-sided frustrum and weighed 94 pounds. The heat shield had been 
selected for low electrical conductivity, to permit an attempt to use the 
stored antennas during the propulsion period. 

The flight of the probe was about 2 hours in duration. It was launched 
near mid-day at a time when the ionosphere appeared quiet. The payload 
was spin-stabilized about its axis before fourth-stage separation. Telemetry 
of the swept-frequency r-f probe data made use of the 73.6-Mc 
frequency. The instrumentation carried consisted of: (1) a continuous- 
wave (CW) propagation experiment to measure the ionosphere profile; (2) 
an r-f probe experiment to measure the ionospheric electron density, espe- 
cially at altitudes above 620 miles where data are particularly scarce; and 
(3) a swept-frequency probe to provide information on the power absorbed 
by electron pressure waves. Two CW signals were transmitted from the 
rocket to the ground, one at 12.27 Mc and one at 73.6 Mc. They were 
controlled to an exact 6 to 1 ratio. Comparison of the two frequencies for 
Faraday rotation gave the columnar electron density in the path traversed 
by the beam; this experiment was of value only during the ascent of the 
rocket and only below 2,480 miles. A new instrument was used with the 
dual purpose of providing information on electron densities in the iono- 
sphere and information concerning the behavior of the probes themselves. 

It was planned to calibrate the r-f probe during ascent to 2,480 miles by 
means of the CW experiment and to use the probe measurements for the 
remainder of the flight. The r-f probe made use of a capacitor in which 
the dielectric constant of the gas between the plates was affected by the 
ionization of the gas. Comparison of the capacity of the probe when in the 
ionosphere and when outside supplied the information necessary to deter- 
mine electron density in the ionosphere. The heat shield had been selected 
for low electrical conductivity to permit an attempt to use the stored 
antennas during the propulsion period. 

Tiros IV 

This satellite was launched on February 8, 1962, into an orbit with a 
48.29° inclination, an apogee of 525 miles, and a perigee of 471 

103 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

miles. One of the TV cameras was a standard Tiros wide-angle type; the 
second carried a Tegea Kinoptik lens not previously used on Tiros. In the 
scanning radiometer, the 7- to 30-ju, sensor had been dropped to provide a 
channel for picture-timing data. Beacon frequencies had been transferred 
from the 108-Mc to the 136-Mc band. Otherwise the satellite was basically 
the same as Tiros III. Vidicon picture transmission ceased on June 11, 
1962, after some 30,000 pictures were transmitted. 113 

OSO I 

The Orbiting Solar Observatory satellite, designed for the study of radia- 
tions from the sun with instrumentation located above the earth's at- 
mosphere, was launched on March 7, 1962. OSO I weighed about 458 
pounds. It reached an orbit with an apogee of 369 miles and a perigee of 
343.5 miles, an inclination of 32.8°, and a period of 96.15 minutes. The 
measurements included ultraviolet radiation studies using narrow-band de- 
tectors, a gamma-ray experiment to study solar emission in the 0.1- to 500- 
MeV region, neutron flux measurements from the earth and the sun, and 
studies of the time variation of solar ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma-ray 
emissions. An instrument obtained spectral and spatial variations in the 
1A and 10A radiation region as the instrument's look-angle scanned across 
the inner corona and the solar disk. Gamma rays in the 0.1- to 5-MeV 
region were detected by a combination of scintillation counters. An elec- 
tronic pulse height analysis of the counter pulses yielded the energy spec- 
trum of the rays. To measure gamma rays in the 100- to 500-MeV region, a 
Gerenkov detector viewed from four directions by multiplier tubes in con- 
junction with an anticoincident scintillator was used. The neutron ex- 
periment, using BF 3 counters, monitored the neutron flux from the earth 



'iW\ ™ 

iSllv. 




Orbiting Solar Observa- 
tory I, launched March 7, 
1962. 



itllfifii 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

and the sun. One objective of this experiment was to determine whether 
the lower radiation belt arises from the decay of neutrons emitted from the 
earth's atmosphere. 

The satellite consisted of a spinning portion for gyroscopically stabilizing 
the payload in space and a servo-driven instrumentation section providing 
azimuth and partial elevation control. This instrumentation section was 
oriented within one minute of arc. It housed about 173 pounds of instru- 
mentation requiring a stabilized view of the sun for operation. Additional 
instrumentation was carried in the spinning wheel portion of the satellite. 
Power for the servosystems and the instruments was furnished by solar cells 
and rechargeable chemical storage cells. 

After May 22, 1962, contact was lost with OSO I. Then contact was rees- 
tablished on June 24, 1962, and satisfactory data were received until August 
6, 1963, thereby exceeding the expected life of the satellite by almost a 
year. The satellite is still in orbit. 

All experiments transmitted as programed, resulting in a significant in- 
crease in knowledge about the composition and behavior of the sun. Data 
revealed tentative evidence that solar flares may be preceded by a series of 
microflares whose sequence and pattern may be predictable. OSO I 
reported at least four of these series during a year in orbit. 11 * 

P-21a Electron Density Profile Probe 

A second electron density profile probe, P-21a, was launched on March 
29, 1962. (See the account of the launch of P-21 on October 19, 1961, for 
more details on the mission and instrumentation of the electron density 
probes.) In addition to equipment carried on P-21, P-21 a had a swept- 
frequency radio-frequency probe and a positive-ion detector. Like P-21, 
the second probe was to measure electron density profile and intensity of 
ions in the atmosphere. However, it was launched so the measurements 
could be made at night. The probe achieved an altitude of 3,910 miles 
and transmitted good data. The 12.3-Mc transmission failed, but Faraday 
rotation data were obtained by 73.6 Mc to give electron density profile at 
nighttime. As a result of P-21 a data, it was concluded that the characteris- 
tics of the ionosphere differ drastically from the daytime state when the 
temperature of the ionosphere is much cooler. 

The data from the P-21 and P-21 a probes and from satellites were com- 
bined with sounding rocket data to enable scientists to map in greater detail 
the structure of the upper atmosphere. These data show that there are two 
transition regions (from + to He + and from He + to H + ) in the upper 
ionosphere rather than a single transition from + to H + as was pre- 
viously believed. The + /He + transition, i.e., + /He + = 1, was between 800 
and 1,400 kilometers, depending on the atmospheric temperature. The 
measured temperature in the upper ionosphere was found to be constant 

105 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

with altitude within a few percent and consistent with a previously devel- 
oped empirical relation which predicts the temperature as a function of 
diurnal time and of solar activity. The determined altitudes of the ion 
transition levels were in good agreement with a theoretical model which 
describes these altitudes as a function of atmospheric temperature. 

Ariel I 

On April 26, 1962, the first international satellite was launched as a joint 
United Kingdom-United States project. The satellite was designated 
Ariel I, the International Ionosphere Satellite. The spacecraft transmitted 
regularly until November 1963, when its transmission became intermittent. 

The satellite had an overall diameter of 23 inches, was 22 inches high, 
and weighed 136 pounds. It was spin stabilized at a rate of 12 to 36 
rpm. Solar cells and nickel-cadmium batteries supplied the power. Data 
were stored on a 100-minute tape recorder. Orbital parameters were: 
apogee, 754.2 miles; perigee, 242.1 miles; inclination, 53.86°; period, 100.9 
minutes; eccentricity, 0.057. 

This project developed from proposals made in 1959 to NASA by the 
British National Committee on Space Research. These proposals were in 
response to a United States offer to the Committee on Space Research 
(COSPAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unions to launch 




Ariel I, launched April 26, 
1962. 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

scientific experiments or complete satellites prepared by scientists of other 
nations. The content of the program and the division of responsibility 
between NASA and the British Committee were agreed to during discussions 
that took place in late 1959 and early 1960. Subsequently the NASA Ad- 
ministrator assigned project responsibility for the United States to the God- 
dard Space Flight Center. 

This assignment included the design, fabrication, integration, and testing 
of the spacecraft structure, power supply telemetry, command receiver, ther- 
mal control, and data storage. GSFC supplied the vehicle, was responsible 
for launch, performed data acquisition via the worldwide Minitrack net- 
work, and provided data processing. The United Kingdom had the re- 
sponsibility for the design, fabrication, and testing of all flight sensors and 
their associated electronics up to the telemetry encoder input. The United 
Kingdom also was responsible for data analysis and interpretation. 

The University College, London, carried out a number of experiments 
that included an electron temperature and density determination based on 
Druyvesteyn's modification of the Langmuir probe to determine the elec- 
tron density and temperature near the satellite. Ion mass, composition, 
and temperature instrumentation was essentially the same as the electron 
temperature experiment with another method of temperature measure- 
ment, a solar Lyman-alpha emission measurement. This last experiment 
measured two parts of the solar spectrum to enable simultaneous and 
nearly continuous observations of the state of the ionosphere and of the 
solar atmosphere. In addition, University College installed instruments 
to measure solar x-ray emission, latitude and longitude of the sun with 
respect to the satellite, and satellite spin rate. 

Imperial College, London, installed instrumentation to make accurate 
measurements of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum and the effects of 
interplanetary magnetic field modulation of this spectrum. The Univer- 
sity of Birmingham conducted ionosphere electron density measurements 
with instruments that differed from those of the University College, Lon- 
don, to provide checks on the measurements. 

Goddard Space Flight Center provided subsystems that accommodated 
telemetry, data encoder, tape recorder, power system, and spacecraft param- 
eters (housekeeping) system. 115 

Tiros V 

Tiros V was launched from the Atlantic Missile Range on June 19, 
1962. The infrared sensor had not functioned in a prelaunch test, but the 
launch was not delayed to repair the sensor; the satellite was needed for 
observations, during the August-September tropical storm season. The or- 
bit, with a 367-mile perigee and a 604-mile apogee, was more elliptical than 
planned, but good picture transmission was still possible. 

107 








fear 



W 



■HI 






11 



Tiros V is mated to second stage of launch vehicle. 



.<**» 




Tiros V liftoff from Cape Ca- 
naveral, June 19, 1962. 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

The first camera ceased transmitting data on July 6, 1962, and the second 
on May 4, 1963. During its 10l/£ operational months, Tiros V transmit- 
ted 57,857 pictures, about 80 percent of which were usable for cloud cover 
analysis. 

Of the ten major tropical storms in the 1962 season, Tiros V observed five 
of them. In addition, it supplied data that were used in weather analysis for 
the orbital flights of Project Mercury Astronauts Walter Schirra and Gor- 
don Cooper. Tiros V data were used by Australia in the first instance of 
international use of weather satellite data. On September 6, 1962, data 
from Tiros V satellite were sent to France via the Telstar I communication 
satellite. 116 

Telstar I 

A dramatic new era in world communications was inaugurated on July 
10, 1962, when a Goddard Space Flight Center team launched the world's 
first active communications satellite. Telstar I was a product of private 
industry, American Telephone & Telegraph Company, launched for AT&T 
by NASA on a reimbursable basis. Here was a satellite which enabled a 
whole continent to "see" across oceans. Television programs from and to 
Europe, for instance, brought new, real-time sights and sounds into the 
homes of millions. Even though Telstar 's "mutual visibility" — the time 
during which signals could be sent and received — was relatively short (ap- 
proximately 15 to 20 minutes) , the portents of this new communications 
medium was immediate. With an elliptical orbit that crossed the Van Al- 
len belts, Telstar I taught engineers a great deal about radiation damage to 
communications equipment. 




Telstar I, launched July 1©, 1962. 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

A legislative debate soon ensued on Capitol Hill as to how this new com- 
munications system was to be used operationally — by private industry, by a 
public utility, or by a Governmental agency. On August 31, 1962, Presi- 
dent John F. Kennedy signed Public Law 87-624, the "Communications 
Satellite Act of 1962" (Exhibit 16) . This law created a "communications 
satellite corporation for profit which will not be an agency or establishment 
of the United States Government, but which would have government repre- 
sentation on its Board of Directors and have many of its activities regulated 
by Government." A space-age development now became a new business 
enterprise and marked a new form of Government-business collaboration. 117 

Tiros VI 

Tiros VI was launched on September 18, 1962. Good coverage of a large 
portion of the earth's cloud cover was possible because the satellite went 
into an almost circular orbit with an inclination of 58.3°. The launch was 
originally scheduled for November but was pushed forward to September so 
that Tiros VI could serve as a backup for Tiros V during the last half of the 
tropical storm season. It also was used for weather observations-Tor the 
Project Mercury flights of Astronauts Walter Schirra and Gordon Cooper. 

Transmission was such that Tiros VI was able to aid in the detection of 
hurricanes and typhoons in both the 1962 and 1963 tropical storm 
seasons. Data from this satellite were used by the U.S. Weather Bureau in 
daily forecasts. 

On December 1, 1962, the medium-angle camera ceased to function, and 
it was announced on October 17, 1963, that the satellite was no longer 
transmitting data. During its 13 months of active lifetime, Tiros VI trans- 
mitted over 67,000 pictures. 118 



Alouette I 

On September 29, 1962, a second international satellite, the Alouette I, 
was launched. A United States-Canadian project, it was NASA's first sat- 
ellite launched from the Pacific Missile Range and into polar orbit. 

Alouette I was a project of the Canadian Defence Research Board, and a 
part of NASA's Topside Sounder Program. The primary objective was to 
examine the structure of the ionosphere from above in a manner similar to 
that being used by ground-based sounding stations. In particular, informa- 
tion was desired about the ionosphere in the region above the maximum 
electron density of the F layer, usually about 188 to 250 statute miles above 
the earth's surface. 

The topside sounder was carried in a satellite traveling at 638-mile apo- 
gee and 620-mile perigee. It was launched with a Thor-Agena vehicle. 
The satellite provided radio transmissions (downward and via the Echo 

110 







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Tiros FI photographed Cape Blanc, Africa, the clearly discernible ocean, and 
eddy pattern from Canary Islands, April 23, 1963. 



satellite) over a frequency range of about 2 to 15 Mc. The data were 
telemetered to Canadian, United States, and United Kingdom sites. 

After having been in orbit for one year, all four experiments — iono- 
spheric sounder, energetic-particle counters, VLF receiver, and cosmic-noise- 
intensity equipment — continued to provide data without degradation of 
quality since launch. Energetic photons and corpuscles, together with 
micrometeoroids, were gradually decreasing the efficiency of the solar 
cells. The solar-cell charging power was down to 58 percent of its initial 
value, but the efficiency was declining at a much slower rate, confirming 
predicted rate of decrease. 

Ill 



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asj«MMbE» eaafcissssaaEjBi. js=»aa- ^l 

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Canadian scientists check 
1 Alouette I, which was launched 
September 29, 1962. 



The control center for the Alouette I satellite was at the Defence Re- 
search Telecommunications Establishment (DRTE) in Ottawa, Canada. 
The magnetic tape was processed at DRTE and topside ionograms were 
filed at the World Data Center, Boulder, Colorado. 

From preliminary analysis, it appeared evident that the Alouette I top- 
side sounder not only clarified many of the earlier concepts about the struc- 
ture of the topside ionosphere, but at the same time raised a number of new 
questions concerning the relative importance of solar, magnetic, and corpus- 
cular control of the topside ionosphere. 

The analysis of Alouette I data has led to the publication of numerous 
scientific papers. About two-thirds of these were of Canadian origin, the 
remaining one-third were by scientists of the United Kingdom and United 
States. 119 

Explorer XIV 

This Energetic Particles Satellite, launched on October 2, 1962, contained 
a cosmic-ray experiment, an ion detector experiment, a solar cell experi- 
ment, a plasma probe and analyzer, a trapped radiation experiment, and a 
magnetometer experiment. Its objectives were to describe the trapped 

112 



\, 



■m 



* •"*•&! 



■M 






flllfff- 

v.: :?*<*■ .;'!■.-■■ -I 



£ 












Explorer XIV. Il 



^S?K*- S _^L *'=> ■ ■- ■ ■ • '-■•■.-..■ ■V.'*"'*^ '■-...■ : * j 



corpuscular radiation, solar particles, cosmic radiation, and the solar wind 
and to correlate the particle phenomena with the magnetic field observa- 
tions. This satellite was to continue and extend the energetic-particles 
study undertaken by Explorer XII. 

The 89-pound Explorer XIV satellite was launched into a highly ellipti- 
cal orbit with an apogee of 61,090 miles and a perigee of 174 miles. The 
satellite transmitted data from the six experiments and tracking beacon reg- 
ularly until January 1963, when stabilization difficulties caused the loss of 
about 15 days of data. On January 29, transmission was resumed and con- 
tinued until mid-August when all usable signals except the tracking beacon 
ceased. In 10 months the satellite had transmitted 6,500 hours of usable 
data. 

Instruments enabled scientists to chart the boundaries of the magneto- 
sphere with more precision than had been previously possible, and it was 
found that it flared away from the earth in a definite shape. 

The effects of magnetic fields on particles and radiation, and variations in 
the magnetic field during the day-night cycle were observed. There was 
possible confirmation of Explorer VFs claim of a ring current on the night 
side of the earth. Dr. James Van Allen said that Explorer XIV and Ex- 
plorer III data indicated the radiation from high-altitude nuclear tests that 



113 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

was trapped in the ionosphere would remain much longer than he had 

previously estimated. 120 

Explorer XV 

This satellite was launched October 27, 1962, for the purpose of studying 
the new artificial radiation belt created by nuclear explosions. Instrumen- 
tation was similar to Explorer XII and included p-n junction electron 
detectors, scintillator detectors, a scintillator telescope, and a triaxial 
fluxgate magnetometer. 

The satellite went silent in February 1963, after transmitting 2,067 hours 
of data. Digitized data were sent to the five experimenters, who used it to 
determine more exactly the intensity and location of the artificial radia- 
tion. 121 



Relay 



i 



Relay I, NASA's first active communications satellite, was launched by 
Goddard Space Flight Center on December 13, 1962. The objective of the 
172-pound satellite was to investigate wideband communications between 
ground stations by means of a low-altitude satellite. Relay I was placed in 
an orbit with an apogee of 4,612 miles and perigee of 819 miles. Although 
Relay I was primarily a communications satellite, the major portion of its 
instrumentation was designed to evaluate the satellite's circuitry and equip- 
ment and transmit this information to earth. Seven instruments were de- 
signed to measure energetic particles and the effects of these particles on 
Relay I's instrumentation. 

Communications signals to be evaluated were an assortment of television 
signals, multichannel telephone, and other communications. Wideband 
stations used in the experiment were located at Rumford, Maine; Pleu- 
meur-Bodou, France; Goonhilly Downs, England; and Weilheim, West 
Germany. Narrowband stations were located at Nutley, New Jersey, and 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Some of the most noteworthy of the transmissions made on Relay I were 
the first three-way link between North America, South America, and Eu- 
rope; first simultaneous TV transmission to London, Paris, and Rome 
(March 11, 1963); first known color transmission (March 19, 1963); and 
transmission of the coverage of President Kennedy's tragic death (No- 
vember 22 to 26, 1963). 

Transmission difficulty was experienced during the week after launch and 
for about a week during March 1963, but long-term performance of the 
satellite was considered excellent. Although all planned experiments had 
been completed by March 1963, Relay I was still transmitting at the end of 
1963. At that time it had completed 2,880 orbits, performed 1,330 wide- 

114 



Relay I, which was launched 
December 13, 1962. 




-: T« 



band experiments, 720 narrowband experiments, and 157 demonstrations 
(TV and narrowband). The transponder had been operated for 288 hours 
over a period of 720 operations. 122 

Syncom I 

Syncom I was launched on February 14, 1963. The objective was to 
place in orbit a 24-hour (synchronous) active communications satellite 
with the Delta rocket. The booster functioned well, but 20 seconds after 
the apogee motor fired to place the satellite in a near-synchronous orbit, all 
communications were lost. Optical sightings of the satellite were made 
after some days; it was found to be in a near-synchronous orbit traveling 
eastward at about 2.8° per day. The firing of the apogee motor may have 
damaged the satellite. 123 



Explorer XVII 

This Explorer satellite, launched on April 3, 1963, was to make 
studies of the earth's upper atmosphere. Specifically, it was designed 
to make direct samplings of atmospheric constituents such as helium, nitro- 
gen, and oxygen. Measurements were made with two mass spectrometers, 
four vacuum-pressure gauges, and two electrostatic probes. Telemetry was 
performed with a new pulse-code-modulation system — a solid-state system 

115 




Syncotn I. 



providing output power of 500 milliwatts and capable of supplying 40 sepa- 
rate channels of information in digital form. 

After a few days of operation Explorer XVII had more than tripled all 
previous direct measurements of the neutral gases in the earth's upper 
atmosphere. Among the data was confirmation that the earth is surrounded 
by a belt of neutral helium at an altitude of 150 to 60 miles. The satellite 
became inactive on July 10, 1963. 124 

Telstar II 

On May 7, 1963, Telstar II was launched into orbit from Cape 
Canaveral. This medium-altitude, active communications satellite was de- 
signed to provide additional information on TV, radio, telephone, and data 
transmission, as well as experiments on the effects of radiation on the on- 



116 



Explorer XVII readied for 
launch. 



board communications equipment. It was a project of AT&T launched by 
a Goddard Center launch team. The Center also participated in some of 
the experiments. It was successfully used for transmitting TV, color TV, 
and voice messages between the United States, France, and England. The 
transmitter failed after some 60 days in orbit. 12 



125 



Tiros VII 

Tiros VII was launched June 19, 1963, into an orbit designed to provide 
maximum Northern Hemisphere hurricane coverage for the 1963 
season. The satellite was equipped with two vidicon cameras with wide- 
angle lenses, a five-channel medium-resolution radiometer to measure infra- 
red radiation, an electron temperature probe, and a magnetic attitude coil. 

Coverage extended to 65° N and 65° S latitudes, and included Hurri- 
canes Arlene through Ginny during the 1963 hurricane season. The elec- 
tron temperature probe malfunctioned 26 days after launch, but the two 
cameras and the infrared subsystems remained active for over two 
years. Spacecraft reliability had truly made great strides and the Goddard 
team and its contractors had laid the foundation for an operational system 
of weather satellites. 126 

Syncom II 

Syncom II communications satellite was launched July 26, 1963, and by 
September had been maneuvered into a near-perfect synchronous 

117 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

orbit. Firings of hydrogen peroxide jets on August 11 slowed Syncom II 
from 7° drift per day to 2.7° drift per day, and on August 12 the drift was 
reduced to 1.2° per day. By September 7 the satellite was in orbit over 
Brazil and the South Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of more than 22,000 
miles in an orbit that varied from an absolute circle by no more than 4.5 
miles. Orbital period was 23 hours, 55 minutes and 54 seconds — only 0.09 
second shorter than the mean sidereal day. The satellite had a drift of 
about one degree per month that was corrected by a periodic figure-eight 
carrying the satellite along the 55° meridian to points 33° north and south 
of the equator. NASA Administrator James E. Webb called completion of 
the positioning maneuvers the culmination of "one of the outstanding feats 
in the history of space flight." 

The satellite was equipped with a spin-stabilized active repeater consist- 
ing of a 7,200-Mc receiver and an 1,800-Mc transmitter with an output of 2 
watts. A vernier velocity-control system was installed for orientation of 
spin axis and adjustment of the orbit. In addition, onboard instrumenta- 
tion could measure the effect of radiation on the solar cells that powered 
the spacecraft. Measurement of power loss resulting from radiation dam- 
age confirmed the desirability of changing the next Syncom satellite to n/p 
cells with 0.012-inch quartz cover slides. 

A telephone conversation between President John F. Kennedy and Nige- 
rian Prime Minister Sir Abubaker Tafawa Balewa on August 23, 1963, was 
the first transmission of the satellite. The success of this project confirmed 
the feasibility of earth-synchronous satellite systems, a technical achieve- 
ment of major significance. 127 

The success of Goddard's work on the synchronous satellite development 
was to pave the way for the world's first commercial communications satel- 
lite, Early Bird. After its NASA research and development role was com- 
pleted, Syncom II continued its useful service. NASA transferred opera- 
tion of the satellite to DOD on January 1, 1965; DOD used it for 
communications with the armed forces in Vietnam. 

Explorer XVIII 

Explorer XVIII, an Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP), was 
launched on November 27, 1963. The satellite carried ten experiments 
designed to study the radiation environment of cislunar space and to moni- 
tor this region over a significant portion of a solar cycle. Special emphasis 
was placed on the acquisition of simultaneous data to aid in the determi- 
nation of interdependent effects of magnetic and ion fields. In addition, it 
was hoped that knowledge could be gained for the further development of a 
simple, relatively inexpensive, spin-stabilized spacecraft for interplanetary 
investigation. 

An elliptical orbit of 121,605-mile apogee and 122-mile perigee, with 

118 



SATELLITES AND SPACE PROBES 

Useful Lifetimes of Goddard Satellites 



Project 



Other 


Useful 


name 


life, 




days 


S-2 


68 


S-la 




S-30 


55 


P-14 


2 


S-15 


180 


S-3 


112 


S-55a 


2 


S-3a 


310 


S-3b 


95 


S-6 


100 


IMP-I 


300 


A-ll 


250 



Remarks 



Explorer VI 

Explorer VII. - . 
Explorer VIII.. 

Explorer X 

Explorer XI 

Explorer XII... 

Explorer XIII 

Explorer XIV.. 
Explorer XV... 
Explorer XVII.. 
Explorer XVIII. 
Echo I 

Tiros I 

Tiros II 

Tiros III 

Tiros IV 

Tiros V 

Tiros VI 

Tiros VII. 

Tiros VIII. — . 
Ariel I 

Alouette I 

Relay I 

Syncom I 

Syncom II 

Vanguard III. . 



A-l 



77 



A-2 


231 


A-3 


145 


A-9 


146 


A-50 


330 


A-51 


388 


A-52 


920" 


A-53 


740" 


S-51 


320 


S-27 


1,185" 


A-l 5 


924 


A-25 


0.25 


A-26 


900" 




85 



Satellite achieved estimated useful lifetime. 
Transmission ceased abruptly. 



Power supply designed for 3 months. 
Survived 9-hour shadow at 160 days. 
Number of days useful as a communications 

satellite; number of days useful for scientific 

information indefinite. 
Number of days TV data meteorologically 

useful. 

Number of days TV system useful. 

Number of days IR. system provided useful 

meteorological data. 
Number of days TV system useful. 



Some damage from Starfish event (74 days); 
useful data continued at a decreasing rate. 



Achieved estimated useful lifetime. 



" Still functioning December 31, 1965. 



an orbital period of 93 hours, was achieved. All experiments and equip- 
ment operated satisfactorily except for the thermal ion experiment, which 
gave only 10 percent usable data. The satellite was the first to accurately 
measure the interplanetary magnetic field and shock front, and to survive a 
severe earth shadow of 7 hours and 55 minutes. One year later, on De- 
cember 15, 1964, Dr. Norman F. Ness, speaking at a Goddard Scientific 
Symposium, discussed some of the findings produced by the IMP satellite. 
Dr. Ness compared the earth to a comet, explaining the presence of a 



119 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

long magnetic tail extending to an unknown distance out beyond the dark 
(night) side of the earth. 

The new theory was drawn from the results of the first detailed mapping 
of the earth's magnetic field on the nighttime side of the magnetosphere by 
this satellite. Earlier, scientists had believed the earth's magnetic field on 
its dark side was draped out far beyond the earth in a massive closed 
teardrop. Under the new theory countless magnetic lines of force stretch 
out like the tail of a comet to a still-to-be-determined distance in space, 
possibly beyond the moon. Within this vast comet-like tail the lines of 
force in the Northern Hemisphere are directed toward the sun; in the 
Southern Hemisphere, away from the sun. In between there is a neutral 
zone. 

Dr. Ness characterized this neutral zone — which had been hypothesized 
but never before detected — as a thin sheet, which is a permanent part of the 
earth's environment and virtually void of magnetic activity. Though the 
neutral zone's exact role was unknown, it may be responsible for speeding 
particles into the earth's polar region, either directly or via the Van 
Allen belt to cause aurora. The neutral zone may even play a major 
role in the development of the Van Allen belt. Because of its location, 
it may give rise to gegenschein, a slight but noticeable increase in the 
luminosity of the night sky. 128 

Tiros VIII 

The eighth Tiros weather satellite was launched on December 21, 
1963. The satellite went into a successful orbit, and proved for the first 
time the feasibility of automatic picture transmission (APT) for direct 
facsimile readout from the satellite. This system allowed weathermen 
around the world, using inexpensive ground equipment, to receive an al- 
most real-time photo of the weather in their area. 

Recognizing the continuing success of the Tiros weather satellite pro- 
gram, the U.S. Weather Bureau in late 1962 began discussions with NASA 
to continue this program on an operational basis. This follow-on effort 
was named Tiros Operational Satellite System (TOSS) . On May 23, 1963, 
TOSS was formally implemented when the Weather Bureau issued a 
$9,132,000 purchase order to NASA providing for three Tiros spacecraft, 
two Thor-Delta launch vehicles, plus associated launch, data acquisition 
programing, and data analysis services. The first two TOSS spacecraft 
would be identical to Tiros VI with its two wide-angle cameras. The third 
would embody a "cart wheel" configuration producing vertically oriented 
pictures taken by cameras looking out from the spacecraft rim. 129 



120 



Boosters and Sounding tickets 

8 



SATELLITES WERE THE BACKBONE of the Goddard Space Flight 
Center research program, but no account of the Center would be com- 
plete without discussing the boosters that placed these satellites into orbit 
and the sounding rockets with their complementary research. 



Delta 

By far the most important of the launch vehicles has been the Delta. It 
was important to the entire U.S. space program because of the frequency of 
its use and its proven reliability. It is also important in a study of the 
Goddard program because its development was closely associated with the 
efforts of the Goddard Space Flight Center. Like the original core of God- 
dard personnel, the Delta evolved, in part, from the Vanguard project at 
the Naval Research Laboratory. 

In September 1955, NRL was given a green light for the development of 
a rocket capable of launching a satellite into orbit. This project, known as 
Project Vanguard, was to be part of the International Geophysical Year and 
was not to interfere with the Department of Defense rocket program. The 
development of the Vanguard vehicle and the orbiting of Vanguard satel- 
lites has already been discussed (see ch. 2). 

Although the Delta is generally considered the progeny of the Vanguard, 
there is another thread of the Delta development that must be picked 
up. Near the end of 1955, the U.S. Air Force awarded Douglas Aircraft 
Company a contract to develop a 1,500-mile Intermediate Range Ballistic 
Missile (IRBM) . While this vehicle, known as the Thor, was still in de- 
velopment, it was augmented by mating the Thor with two upper stages 
that were essentially the upper stages of the Vanguard. The new vehicle 
was fired as the Thor-Able in April 1958 and was widely used in the early 
period of the Air Force space program. 

Just one year later a NASA contract was signed for the Delta, a rocket 
with satellite launching capability. This rocket, which was patterned after 

121 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

the Air Force Thor-Able, first successfully launched a satellite on August 
12, 1960. 

The Delta was originally conceived as an "interim launch vehicle" for 
satellite launching through 1961 or 1962 — a rocket to serve until larger- 
thrust rockets were developed. But the Delta proved so reliable that it 
became an "off the shelf" item. Although some programs, such as manned 
space flight, had to wait until larger rockets were available, most of NASA's 
satellite needs could be met satisfactorily and economically with a Delta-size 
vehicle. The Delta was continuously modified so that it kept pace with the 
demands made on a medium-weight satellite launch vehicle. It thus 
achieved exceptional reliability and versatility under the guidance of its 
Goddard project managers. 

These improvements not only included innumerable modifications but a 
general upgrading of the capabilities of the rocket. The Delta rockets used 
through 1960 and 1962 lifted payloads of less than 300 pounds into relatively 
low orbits. Later Deltas were capable of placing satellites of over 800 



Delta Configuration 

Stages: 3 

Propellants: 1st stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene; 2d stage, 
unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine and inhibited red fum- 
ing nitric acid; 3d stage, solid 

Thrust: 1st stage, 170,000 lb at sea level; 2d stage, 7,700 lb; 
3d stage, 2,800 lb 

Maximum Diameter: 8 ft, excluding fins 

Height: 88 ft, less spacecraft 

Payload: 800 lb in 350 n.mi. orbit; 130 lb escape 



pounds into orbits of around 1,000 nautical miles. Changes included 
stretching the second stage propellant tank by three feet in 1 962 and replac- 
ing the X-248 solid propellant third stage in 1963 with the higher perform- 
ance X-258. 

It is ironic that Delta's remarkable flight record started with a 
failure. In its debut at Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960, Delta No. 1 
failed to put a 100-foot-diameter Echo balloon into orbit. A circuitry 
problem in the second stage was diagnosed as the problem. The circuitry 
subsystem was redesigned, more severely tested, and installed in the second 
stage for another flight. On August 12, 1960, 3 months after the first fail- 

122 



BOOSTERS AND SOUNDING ROCKETS 

are, Delta No. 2 successfully launched a backup Echo passive communica- 
tions satellite into orbit. Delta No. 2 was the start of a successful launch 
string that would last for Zy 2 years and include 21 successful space missions. 
Among the satellite "firsts" boosted into orbit by Delta were: the first 
passive communications satellite, Echo I; the first international satellite, 

Delta Growth (1962 to 1963) 



Delta configuration 


Earth orbit (300 miles) 


Escape 


DM19 (1960) 


525 1b 


70 1b 


DSV-3A and 3B (1962) 3-foot longer second 


800 lb" 


951b 


stage tanks 






DSV-3C(1963) 


800 lb" 


1151b 


X-258 motor replaced 






X-248 motor 







a Structural limits of the second stage limit spacecraft weight to 800 pounds. 



Delta Launch Vehicle Record, 1960 to 1963 



Vehicle 

No. 



Mission 



Results 



Launch 



Weight, 

pounds 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 



Echo 

Echo I 

Tiros II 

Explorer X 

Tiros III 

Explorer XII 

Tiros IV 

OSO I __._ 

Ariel I 

Tiros V 

Telstar I 

Tiros VI.... 

Explorer XIV 

Explorer XV. 

Relay I 

Syncom I 

Explorer XVII. 

Telstar II 

Tiros VII 

Syncom II 

Explorer XVIII {IMP I) 
Tiros VIII. 



Failed 
Successful 



May 13, 1960 
August 12, 1960 
November 23, 1960 
March 25, 1961 
July 12, 1961 
August 16, 1961 
February 8, 1962 
March 7, 1962 
April 26, 1962 
June 19, 1962 
July 10, 1962 
September 18, 1962 
October 2, 1962 
October 27, 1962 
December 13, 1962 
February 14, 1963 
April 3, 1963 
May 7, 1963 
June 19, 1963 
July 26, 1963 
November 27, 1963 
December 21, 1963 



132 

200 

280 

80 

280 
90 
280 
500 
160 
300 
171 
280 
89 
98 
172 
150 
150 
410 
300 
150 
138 
265 



123 






,%'■ 



n 



— "^ -V i ! 






v 





\-C~yJ 


" I 


if: id- 4 


'.■> 




i 



Delta on launch pad; Scout launches Explorer XVI. 



Ariel I; the first privately owned satellite, Telstar I; the first synchronous 
orbiting satellite, Syncom II; the Orbiting Solar Observatory; the Tiros 
weather satellites; and Explorer XVIII, the first Interplanetary Monitoring 
Platform. 

The Delta was used to launch 21 of the 33 satellites discussed in chapter 
7. The first launch (the attempted Echo launch on May 13, 1960) was the 
only failure that the Delta experienced in the 22 launches. With its out- 
standing record of reliability and extensive use, the Delta was truly the 
workhorse of the NASA scientific satellite program. 

In addition to the Delta, other boosters have been used to launch God- 
dard satellites, including the Delta precursor, the Vanguard, for the launch 
of Vanguard III, and the four-stage Scout. This Scout solid-fuel rocket, 



124 



BOOSTERS AND SOUNDING ROCKETS 

managed by NASA's Langley Research Center, was used to launch smaller 
satellites and two space probes. Several Department of Defense rockets 
were also available for Goddard's use. The Juno II, an Army Redstone- 
derived vehicle, was used for three of the Explorer satellites. The Air 
Force's Thor-Able launched three early Goddard satellites and its Thor- 
Agena was used to launch Alouette J. 130 



Sounding Rockets 

In addition to its satellite program, Goddard-managed sounding rocket 
experimentation made many contributions to the space science program. 
By December 31, 1963, the Center had fired 292 sounding rockets. Of 
these, 203 were considered successful, 31 partially successful, and 58 failures 
— either because the rocket failed or the payload was not recovered. 131 (It 
should be pointed out that classification of a sounding rocket flight as suc- 
cessful, partially successful, or failure, involves some arbitrary decision, 
and that the above totals are subject to further interpretation.) This pro- 
gram supported astronomy, solar physics, energetic particles and fields, 
ionospheric physics, and planetary atmosphere and meteorology. Many 
sounding rocket launchings also served to flight-test equipment intended 
for use on satellites. 132 

The sounding rocket program also enabled many foreign countries to 
participate in atmospheric and space research. Frequently the Goddard 
Center assisted other nations in these cooperative efforts. 

While the sounding rocket program has never caught the public imagina- 
tion as have the more dramatic satellite programs, these activities have 
played an important role in Goddard Center's scientific investigation of 
space, and no account of the early years at Goddard would be complete 
without some discussion of them. 

As a practical matter, satellites cannot orbit below 100 miles because of 
atmospheric drag. Balloons and aircraft were not effective above about 20 
miles. A device was needed to take measurements in the upper atmos- 
phere, particularly in the zone between 20 and 100 miles. This was the 
early impetus to the development of sounding rockets. A statement made 
by Dr. Homer E. Newell, Jr., before a Senate committee serves as a brief 
background to the Goddard sounding rocket program: 

The United States has been using sounding rockets for upper air re- 
search and rocket astronomy since the close of World War II. WAG 
Corporal, V-2, Viking, Aerobee, Aerobee-Hi, Nike-Deacon, Nike-Cajun, 
NikeAsp, and Rockoons were used. Altitudes attained were below 200 
miles for the most part. Many hundreds of rockets were fired prior to 
the start of the International Geophysical Year; an additional 200 were 




Sounding rocket readied for 
launch at Fort Churchill, Canada. 



On April 26, 1962, the Japanese 
electron temperature experiment 
was launched from Wallops Island 
by a Mke-Cajun sounding rocket. 




BOOSTERS AND SOUNDING ROCKETS 

fired as part of the International Geophysical Year program. Current 
rate of rocket soundings is somewhat below 100 per year. Higher alti- 
tude rockets are being introduced into the work to extend the atmos- 
pheric observations to one to several thousands of miles altitude. 
Launchings have been carried out at White Sands, N. Mex.; Wallops 
Island, Va.; San Nicolas Island, Calif.; Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Fort 
Churchill, Canada; Guam; and from shipboard in the North Atlantic, 
the Mid-Pacific and South Pacific, and the vicinity of Antarctica. 



133 



Most Goddard sounding rockets were launched from Wallops Island, Vir- 
ginia, and Fort Churchill, Canada. 

Immediately after the end of World War II, the United States began an 
upper atmosphere research program using V-2 rockets. As the supply of 
V-2s ran out and the need for rockets specifically designed for research 
purposes became evident, the development of the Viking, the Aerobee, and 
the Nike-Deacon rockets was undertaken. The latter two rockets played 
prominent roles in NASA's sounding rocket program. 

The Nike-Deacon consisted of a Nike-Ajax first stage and a Deacon sec- 
ond stage. From 1947 on, one or another version of the Aerobee served as 
the principal sounding rocket workhorse. The Aerobee came in two 
configurations: the Aerobee 150 and the Aerobee 300. The Aerobee 150 
was a two-stage system consisting of a solid-propellant booster and a liquid- 
propellant sustainer stage. Both burned for the duration of the launch 
and the booster merely provided assistance at takeoff. The Aerobee 300 
was the Aerobee 150 propulsion system with the addition of a third 
stage. While the Aerobee 150 had a three-fin configuration, the Aerobee 
150A was four-finned. There was also an Aerobee 300A, which used a 
150A second stage. 

Nike-Apaches and Nike-Cajuns were perhaps the most heavily used rock- 
ets in the United States sounding rocket program. Identical in appearance, 
the Apache propellant provided more power than the Cajun and thus took 
a given payload to a higher altitude. 

The Javelin was the largest sounding rocket used with any 
frequency. This four-stage rocket was designed primarily for the re- 
searcher who wished to place a payload experiment of between 90 arid 150 
pounds at altitudes between 500 and 650 miles. The largest scientific 
sounding rocket was the Journeyman. It lifted a payload of between 50 
and 150 pounds to altitudes between 900 and 1,300 miles, although its use- 
fulness could be extended to heavier payloads and higher altitudes. 

Other sounding rockets included: the Astrobee 200, a two-stage solid-pro- 
pellant rocket, similar to the Aerobee 150 but with a higher acceleration .o 
the payload; the Astrobee 1500, a two-stage solid-propellant rocket capable 
of reaching 1,500 miles altitude; and the Black Brant II built by Canadian 
Bristol Aerojet Limited. 

127 




■I.... / YuPlMH 




Nike-Cajun; Javelin; Nike-Apache. 




A closeup of the sounding rocket used in the first joint flight effort by the 
United States and Japan being checked by a Japanese scientist. 



BOOSTERS AND SOUNDING ROCKETS 

Major Sounding Rockets 



Nike-Apache/Nike-Cajun 



Overall: 


Second stage: Apache (TE 307-2) 


Total length: 28 ft 


Length: 8.9 ft 


Gross weight: 1,600 1b 


Principal diameter: 6.5 in. 


Propellant: Solid fuel 


Thrust: 5,000 1b 


Payload weight: 


Burning time: 6.4 sec 


Minimum: 40 lb 


Second stage: Cajun (TE 82-1) 


Nominal: 60 lb 


Length: 8.9 ft 


Maximum: 120 lb 


Principal diameter: 6.5 in. 


First stage: Nike (M5E1) booster 


Thrust: 8,500 1b 


Length: 12.4 ft 


Burning time: 4 sec 


Principal diameter: 16.5 in. 




Thrust: 42,500 lb 




Burning time: 3.5 sec 





Journeyman 



Overall: 


Second and third stages: Lance 


Stages: 4 


Length: 16 ft 


Total length: 62 ft 


Maximum diameter: 15 in. 


Gross weight: 14,079 lb 


Thrust: 44,0001b 


Payload weight: 


Burning time: 6.4 sec 


Minimum: 75 lb 


Fourth stage: X-248 


Nominal: 125 lb 


Length: 6 ft (plus 3-ft payload) 


Maximum: 175 lb 


Maximum diameter: 19 in. 


First stage: Sergeant 


Thrust: 3,000 lb 


Maximum diameter: 31 in. 


Burning time: 42 sec 


Thrust: 50,0001b 




First stage booster: 




2 Recruits 




Thrust: 36,000 lb (each) 





Javelin 



Overall: 

Total length with nominal payload: 

Approximately 49 ft 
Gross weight less payload: 

Approximately 7,500 lb 
Fuel: Solid 
Payload weight: 
Minimum: 20 lb 
Normal: 125 lb 
Maximum: 175 lb 
First stage: Honest John (M-6) booster 
Diameter: 22.9 in. 
Length: 16 ft 
Thrust: 82,0001b 
Burning time: 5 sec 



Second and third stages: Nike (M5E— 1) motor 

Diameter: 16.5 in. 

Length: 11.2 ft 

Thrust: 42,500 1b 

Burning time: 3.3 sec 
Fourth stage: X-248 rocket motor 

Diameter: 19 in. 

Length: 6 ft (plus 2.4-ft payload) 

Thrust: 3,000 lb 

Burning time: 42 sec 



129 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

Goddard Space Flight Center fired about 100 sounding rockets per year 
from 1959 through 1963, so it is impractical to discuss each firing. This 
program was a significant element of the Center's scientific and technologi- 
cal endeavor. Not only do sounding rockets continue to fulfill the early 
purpose of taking measurements in the upper atmosphere but they also serve 
a variety of specialized scientific and meteorological purposes at other 
altitudes. Furthermore they are economical testing devices for equipment 
and systems that will later fly in expensive satellites. 



130 



Goddard looks to the Future 

9 



THE CENTRAL IDEA of the scientific exploration of space has been 
expressed by the first Director of Goddard Space Flight Center (1959 to 
1965) , Dr. Harry J. Goett: 

The characteristic of space science is such that it spreads across many 
disciplines, and a very broad segment of the scientific fraternity is help- 
ing unravel the meaning of the new scientific data being brought back 
from outer space. You must recognize the efforts of the orbital mecha- 
nicians, physicists with various areas of specialization, astronomers, 
geologists, and geodesists in the analysis of the results. . . . Each of 
these disciplines is finding that it has a new frontier. New areas of 
research are being created by the data which rockets and satellites pro- 
vide. We surely have just started to realize their potentials. 

The job of putting together the cosmic jigsaw of space from the bits and 
pieces of data obtained from our satellites is one that engages the efforts 
of many people throughout the scientific community; and this jigsaw 
puzzle goes together so gradually that there are no singular events which 
merit a headline. 134 

At the end of 1963, many pieces of the jigsaw puzzle had been fitted 
together and scientists were able to plan for the future. The Vanguard 
and Explorer satellites were the forerunners of complex "second genera- 
tion" observatory spacecraft containing as many as 30 individual ex- 
periments. Soon the data flow from these space-borne laboratories would 
be measured literally in miles of magnetic tape daily. By 1964 some 15 to 
20 satellites were being interrogated every day, producing some 50 miles of 
data tapes daily and tens of thousands of data bits per second. Somehow 
the future had arrived sooner, much sooner, than engineers, scientists, and 
managers had dared to expect. The chain reaction of space-related 
scientific inquiry was to continue. 

Vanguard II (SLV-4) , launched in February 1959, gave impetus to the 
Tiros weather satellites, which within the brief span of 4 years would de- 
velop into the Tiros Operational Satellite System (TOSS) . The Nimbus 

131 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

weather satellite program would promise further breakthroughs in space- 
borne meteorology. 

Rapid strides were also made by NASA in the area of improved com- 
munication techniques. Technological advances produced by AT&T's 
Telstar, NASA's Echo, Relay, and Syncom systems soon found further 
applications. In 1965 the control of Syncom II and Syncom III would be 
transferred to the Department of Defense for operational communications 
and for study in design of military communications systems. Early Bird, 
the world's first commercial communications satellite, would be built by the 
Syncom contractor, Hughes Aircraft Co., for the Communications Satellite 
Corporation and would be closely patterned on the earlier Syncom. 

Facilities and experience gained in space tracking, especially in support 
of Project Mercury, would provide a readily adaptable base for the tracking 
of Projects Gemini and Apollo. 

Years ahead of man's first travels to the moon and to other planets, God- 
dard communication links from far-flung tracking stations would carry the 
first closeup photographs of the moon and Mars. 



Splash crater on the moon. 




'*" ""V 



|BW|Mi||^B 



, " xyster. Jg$& 
• JwS; "Si' i 



rf£«!'.1 



MOM 



Goddard's top management staff, 1962. From left to right: Dr. M. J. Vaccaro, 
Assistant Director for Administration; J. T. Mengel, Assistant Director for 
Tracking and Data Systems; E. W. Wasielewski, Associate Director; Dr. H. J. 
Goett, Director; Dr. J. W. Townsend, Assistant Director for Space Science and 
Satellite Applications; and L. Winkler, Chief of Technical Services. 



The vast investment of talent and money had begun to pay off. New 
scientific knowledge and technology poured in as returns to a Nation which 
some five years earlier had embarked on a new national purpose — the ex- 
ploration of space. Now a new debate developed: How fast? How much? 

NASA Administrator James E. Webb, sensing the Nation's feeling, 
remarked: "In the years ahead, we can expect continuing and necessary 
debate on the rate and 'mix' of the space investment." 135 He considered it 
extremely important that the country strive to maintain a well-balanced 
effort, duly recognizing the potential returns from manned exploration, 
scientific investigations, practical applications, and possible military uses of 
space, with a substantial share of attention to basic research in each area. 

What was required, in the national interest, was a judicious evaluation of 
the Nation's new opportunities produced by the Space Age. If the United 
States was to ensure its security and position as leader of the Free World 
and gain the scientific and economic benefits which space would surely 
produce, it had an opportunity it could not afford to neglect. At Green- 
belt, Maryland, a team of 3,500 engineers and scientists was ready to con- 
tribute to this endeavor. 



133 






'Hill 






ISefi 



Mv 







The Center's management staff in 1965. From left to right: Robert E. Bourdeau, 

Assistant Director for Projects; Herman E. LaGow, Assistant Director for Sys- 
tems Reliability; John T. Mengel, Assistant Director for Tracking & Data 
Systems; Eugene W. Wasielewski, Associate Director; Dr. John F. Clark, 
Director; Dr. John W. Townsend, Jr., Deputy Director; Dr. Michael J. Vac- 
caro, Assistant Director for Administration and Management; William G. 
Stroud, Chief, Advanced Plans Staff; Daniel G. Mazur, Assistant Director for 
Technology; Dr. George F. Pieper, Assistant Director for Space Sciences. 

Goddard's past and its hopes for the future were summed up by the 
Center's second director, Dr. John F. Clark: 

We who are engaged in the hectic task of space exploration have little 
time to reminisce about past accomplishments and little inclination to 

speculate about future achievements beyond, at the most, a few years 

Looking back at our early years of space exploration, one fact becomes 
paramount: We have telescoped time and emerged with the means to 
explore space, to use it for the benefit of not only this nation, but of the 
world. The capabilities that we have built up have not just been placed 
in space, but rather have been anchored on the solid earth in labora- 
tories, launch facilities, and in the dedication of the men and women 
who make up this cooperative team. 

One can speculate — but it is only speculation — about what the future 
may bring. There are many avenues of exploration open: the moon, the 
space environment near earth, the planets, and even the galaxies. But 
without knowing what constraints we may encounter in the availability 
of people, dollars or objectives, such speculation can be a rather aca- 
demic exercise. It is certain, however, that the years immediately 



134 



GODDARD LOOKS TO THE FUTURE 

ahead will be filled with intense activity in space, just as they have been 
in the past decade. We shall be expanding our knowledge and opera- 
tional capability constantly. Only the rate of progress is uncertain. 136 

Somehow the dream of a lonely New England professor had become the 
commitment of a new generation. 



135 



Footnotes 



i For a discussion of the relative role of Dr. 
Goddard among the space pioneers see: Willy 
Ley, Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel, New 
York: 1961; Eugene M. Emme, ed., History of 
Rocket Technology, Detroit: 1964. 

2 Milton Lehman, This High Man: The 
Life of Robert H. Goddard, New York: 1963, 
pp. 14, 22-23. 

3 E. R. Hagemann, "Goddard and His Early 
Rockets," Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, 
Summer 1961, pp. 51-52; Shirley Thomas, 
"Robert H. Goddard," Men of Space, Phila- 
delphia: 1960, I, 23. 

* Robert H. Goddard, "An Autobiography," 
Astronautics, April 1959, p. 27. 
= Ibid. 

6 Lehman, pp. 40-50. 

7 Lehman, pp. 56-70. 

s G. Edward Pendray, "Pioneer Rocket De- 
velopment in the United States," Hagemann, 
pp. 53-54. In History of Rocket Technology, 
p. 22. For the best account of Dr. Goddard's 
relationship with the Smithsonian Institution, 
see Bessie Zaban Jones, Lighthouse of the 



Chapter 1 

Skies: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory: Background and History, 1846-1955, 
Washington: 1965, pp. 241-276. Dr. Charles 
G. Abbott of the Smithsonian in 1958 still 
considered Goddard's 1916 proposal " 'the best 
presentation of a research in progress that I 
have ever seen.' " 

a Lehman, pp. 96-97. 

wlbid., pp. 102-112; Hagemann, pp. 54-56; 
Jones, pp. 254-258. 

ii Lehman, pp. 139-144. 

12 Eugene M. Emme, "Yesterday's Dream 
. . . Today's Reality," The Airpower Historian, 
October 1960, pp. 219-220; Jones, pp. 266-272. 

is Robert H. Goddard, Rocket Develop- 
ment: Liquid Fuel Rocket Research, 1929- 
1941, New York: 1948. 

ii Lehman, pp. 341-353. 

is Ibid., pp. 378-390. See Arthur C. Clarke, 
Man and Space, New York: 1964. 

is Ibid., pp. 395-399. 

17 The Center was formally dedicated on 
March 16, 1961. 



is The pre-World War II activities of the 
American Rocket Society are briefly discussed 
in G. Edward Pendray, "Pioneer Rocket De- 
velopment in the United States," in Eugene 
M. Emme (ed.) , The History of Rocket Tech- 
nology, Detroit: 1964, pp. 10-28. 

i3 James A. Van Allen, John W. Townsend, 
Jr., and Eleanor C. Pressley, "The Aerobee 
Rocket," in Homer E. Newell, Jr. (ed.) , 
Sounding Rockets, New York: 1959, pp. 54-56. 

20 John P. Hagen, "The Viking and the 
Vanguard," in Emme, op. cit., pp. 122-141. 

21 Van Allen, Townsend, and Pressley, op. 
cit., pp. 54-70. 



Chapter 2 

22 Milton Rosen, The Viking Rocket Story, 
New York: 1955; Homer E. Newell, Jr., "Vi- 
king," in Sounding Rockets, pp. 235-242. 

23 Newell, "Viking," pp. 239-242. The up- 
per atmospheric research group of the Naval 
Research Laboratory consisted largely of peo- 
ple who were to transfer to NASA a decade or 
so later — Dr. Homer E. Newell, Milton W. 
Rosen, Dr. John W. Townsend, Leopold Win- 
kler, Daniel G. Mazur, and others. (State- 
ment of T. E. Jenkins, formerly Administra- 
tive Officer of the Beltsville Space Center, July 
15, 1963.) 

24 Wernher von Braun, "The Redstone, Ju- 



136 



FOOTNOTES 



piter, and Juno," in Emme, op. cit., pp. 
108-109; Robert L. Perry, "The Atlas, Thor, 
Titan, and Minuteman," in Emme, op. cit., 
pp. 144-145. 

25 Frank J. Malina, "Origins and First Dec- 
ade of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory," in 
Emme, op. cit., pp. 63-65. 

26 R. Cargill Hall, "Early U.S. Satellite Pro- 
posals," in Emme, op. cit., pp. 67-93. 

27 Ibid., pp. 28-33. 
as Ibid., pp. 35-37. 
29 Ibid., pp. 40-41. 

so Kurt R. Stehling, Project Vanguard, 
Garden City, N. Y.: 1961, pp. 37-42. 

si The origins of the IGY are discussed in 
Walter Sullivan, Assault on The Unknown; 
The International Geophysical Year, New 
York: 1961, pp. 20-35. 

32 R. Cargill Hall, "Origins and Develop- 
ment of the Vanguard and Explorer Satellite 
Programs," Goddard Historical Essay Winner 
for 1963, published in The Airpower Histori- 
an (October 1964) , pp. 101-112. 

33 Documents on International Aspects of 
the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, 
1954-1962, Staff Report Prepared for the Com- 
mittee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 
U.S. Senate, 88th Congress, 1st Session, Wash- 
ington, D.C.: 1963, p. 27. 

34 The activities of the Stewart Committee 
are reported in Hall, "Origins and Develop- 
ment of the Vanguard and Explorer Satellite 
Programs," The Airpower Historian (October 
1964), pp. 101-112. 

as Stehling, op. cit., p. 50. The Office of Naval 
Research actually was a cosponsor with the 
Army of the "Project Orbiter" proposal, and 
also of the NRL proposal. 

36 Hagen, pp. 439, 449-450. 

37 On Dr. Hagen, see: Stehling, pp. 69-71. 
ss Hagen, p. 440. 

39 Ibid., pp. 440-441. 

40 Hall, "Origins and Development of the 
Vanguard and Explorer Satellite Programs," 



op. cit., 101-112. 

•4i Hagen, pp. 441-442. 

42 Hagen, pp. 442-444; Milton W. Rosen, 
"Placing the Satellite in its Orbit," Proceed- 
ings of the XLIV IRE, XL1V (1956), 749. 

43 Ibid., pp. 444-446; John T. Mengel, 
"Tracking the Earth Satellite, and Data 
Transmission, By Radio," Proceedings of the 
IRE, XLIV (1956), 755. 

44 Stehling, p. 79. 
*5 Ibid., pp. 80-81. 

46 Hagen, p. 447. 

47 Ibid. 

tslbid., pp. 447-448; Stehling, pp. 123, 142, 
143. 

49 Stehling, op. cit., pp. 25, 181. 

so David S. Akens, Historical Origins of the 
George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, 
Huntsville, Alabama: 1960, pp. 44-47; Stehl- 
ing, pp. 142-143; Wernher von Braun, "Red- 
stone, Jupiter, and Juno," in Emme, op. cit., 
pp. 107-121, and Eric Bergaust, Reaching for 
The Stars, Garden City, N.Y.: 1960. Studies 
of Air Force rocket technology during this 
same period include: Robert L. Perry, "The 
Atlas, Thor, and Titan," Technology and Cul- 
ture (Fall 1963) , pp. 466-477; and John L. 
Chapman, Atlas: The Story of a Missile, New 
York: 1960. 

5i Hagen, op. cit., pp. 448-449. 

52 Eugene M. Emme, Historical Sketch of 
NASA, NASA EP-29. Washington, D.C.: 1965, 
pp. 5-13; Documents on International Aspects 
of the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, 
1954-1962, pp. 66-80. 

53 See: First Semiannual Report to the 
Congress of the National Aeronautics and. 
Space Administration, Washington, D.C.: 1959, 
18-19; Second Semiannual Report of the Na- 
tional Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Washington, D.C.: 1960, pp. 13-15. 

54 Hagen, pp. 449-450. 
BR Ibid., p. 451. 



Chapter 3 



56 "NASA General Directive No. 1," Sep- 
tember 25, 1958. (Appendix H, Exhibit 2.) 

57 "Executive Order 10783," October 1, 
1958. (Appendix H, Exhibit 4) : "White 



House Press Release," October 1, 1958. (Ap- 
pendix H, Exhibit 3.) 

5S "NASA Release," October 1, 1958 (Appen- 
dix H, Exhibit 5.) 



137 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



59 Senator j. Glenn Beall, "Press Release," 

August 1, 1958. (Appendix H, Exhibit 1.) 

«o "NASA General Notice No. 1," January 
15, 1959. (Appendix H, Exhibit 6.) 

si "NASA General Notice," January 22, 
1959. (Appendix H, Exhibit 7.) 

62 Thomas E. Jenkins, "Memorandum for 
the Record," February 15, 1959. (Appendix 
H, Exhibit 8.) 

Thomas E. Jenkins, "Memorandum for All 
Concerned," March 6, 1959. (Appendix H, 
Exhibit 9.) 

03 T. Keith Glennan, "Memorandum from 
the Administrator," May 1, 1959; Abe Silver- 
stein, "Memorandum to Assistant Directors 
and Division Chiefs," May 1, 1959; NASA Re- 
lease No. 59-125, May 1, 1959; GSFC Release 
No. 3-10-61-5, March 12, 1961; GSFC Release 
No. 3-14-61-1, March 14, 1961. (Appendix H, 
Exhibits 10 through 14.) 



64 The Advanced Research Projects Agency 
(ARPA) of the Department of Defense, creat- 
ed in February 1958, was the first organiza- 
tional response to the challenge of 
Sputnik. This agency was directly in charge 
of the entire U.S. space effort between the 
time of its creation and the activation of 
NASA in October 1958. When NASA was acti- 
vated, ARPA turned over to the new agency 
Project Vanguard and several other projects 
in a germinal stage. Many of NASA's most 
successful programs, such as Tiros, originated 
in ARPA. The role ARPA played in the 
origins and development of the U.S. space 
program has not yet been fully analyzed. 
Such an analysis must be undertaken before 
the history of the U.S. effort in space can be 
considered complete. 

65 This and the following quotations from 
speeches at the dedication are taken from the 
respective speakers' texts. 



Chapter 4 



ss Address of Dr. T. Keith Glennan, Ad- 
ministrator, National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, to Science, Engineering, and 
New Technology Committee, Oregon State De- 



partment of Planning and Development at 
Portland, Oregon, on October 12, 1960. 

67 James M. Grimwood, Project Mercury: A 
Chronology, NASA SP-4001, Washington, 
D.C.: 1963, p. 120. 



Chapter 5 



68 Sir Eric Ashby, Daedalus, XCI (Spring 
962), 269. 

No. 174, 87th Congress, 1st Sess., 



Doc 



69 H 

p. 11. 

™ Speech at Rice University, Houston, 
Texas, Sept. 12, 1962. 

? i Eugene Wasielewski, text of speech deliv- 
ered at the National Rocket Club, Washing- 
ton, B.C., December 19, 1962. 

72 For the concept and origin of this per- 
sonnel series, see Robert L. Rosholt, An Ad- 
ministrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, 
NASA SP-4101, pp. 141-144. 

7 3 When President Eisenhower assigned re- 
sponsibility for the development and execu- 
tion of a manned space flight program, the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion was in the process of being orga- 
nized. Studies and plans for the manned sat- 
ellite program were presented to Dr. T. Keith 
Glennan, Administrator, NASA; and on Oc- 



tober 7, 1958, he gave orders to proceed with 
them. In November 1958, the Space Task 
Group was officially established to conduct the 
manned space flight program to be known as 
Project Mercury. The Space Task Group was 
organized under the Goddard Space Flight 
Center but was administratively supported by 
the Langley Research Center and physically 
located there. It later became evident that 
the scope and size of the manned space flight 
program required an entirely separate center, 
which subsequently led to the creation of the 
new Manned Spacecraft Center at Houston, 
Texas. Responsibilities for the Project Mer- 
cury worldwide tracking and data complex re- 
mained with the Goddard Space Flight 
Center. 

7* J. C. New, "Scientific Satellites and the 
Space Environment," NASA Technical Note 
D-1340, June 1962; J. H. Boeckel, "The Pur- 
poses of Environmental Testing for Scientific 



138 



FOOTNOTES 

Satellites," NASA Technical Note D-1900, Earth Satellites at Goddard Space Flight 

1963; A. R. Trimmins and K. L. Rosette, Center," NASA Technical Note D-1748, 1963. 

"Experience in Thermal-Vacuum Testing 



Chapter 6 



75 William R. Corliss, "The Evolution of 
STADAN," GSFC Historical Note No. 3, 1967, 
pp. 13-33. 

r 6 The radio interferometer measures two of 
the three direction cosines of a line from the 
center of the station to a satellite as a func- 
tion of time while the satellite passes through 
the beam pattern of the receiving antennas. 
The third direction cosine is thus defined, 
and the angular position of the satellite is 
determined. From a series of independent 
angle measurements from various ground 
stations, satellite orbital elements may be 
computed. 

Phase comparison techniques are used to 
measure the differences in arrival time of the 
wavefront of a distant point source at pairs of 
receiving antennas separated by known dis- 
tances in wavelengths of the transmitted 
frequency. Measurement of this radio path 
difference is accomplished by a comparison of 
the phase angle of the signal received at one 
antenna to that received at another. 

The antennas are aligned along baselines in 
the east-west and north-south direc- 
tions. Since the phase measurement system is 
capable of indicating phase difference to a 
small fraction of a wavelength, two pairs of 
antennas are aligned along orthogonal base- 
lines many multiples of a wavelength long to 
obtain good angular resolution. These are 
termed fine antennas. As a radio source 



passes through the antenna pattern, the rela- 
tive phase will cycle from to 360 degrees for 
each wavelength added to the radio path 
difference. The phase meters repeat their 
readings every 360 electrical degrees, so a 
number of different space angles will produce 
identical phase readings during a satellite 
transit. This ambiguity is resolved by em- 
ploying several progressively shorter baselines, 
which produce fewer integral numbers of 
wavelength change as the radio source passed 
through the antenna beam. These are 
termed medium and coarse antennas. Ambi- 
guity antenna information determines the 
number of full wavelengths to be added to 
the relative phase angle measured at the fine 
antennas to define a data point. See Corliss, 
op. cit., pp. 10 ff. 

■'■'Ibid., pp. 50-60. 

?s For the overall story of Project Mercury, 
see James M. Grimwood, Project Mercury: A 
Chronology, NASA SP-4001, Washington, 
D.C.: 1963; Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., James M. 
Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This 
New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, 
NASA SP-4201, Washington, D.C.: 1966. 

79 For the story of Mercury network devel- 
opment and equipment, see William R. Cor- 
liss, "The Beginnings of Manned Space Flight 
Tracking," unpublished GSFC Historical Note 
No. 4, 1967. 



Chapter 7 



so Memorandum for the Record, Feb. 16, 
1959. (Appendix H, Exhibit 8.) See Appen- 
dix A on the objectives of the United States 
space program. 

si This compilation is based primarily on 
the following annual reports to the Commit- 
tee on Space Research (COSPAR) : Goddard 
Space Flight Center Contributions to the 
COSPAR Meeting, May 1962, Washington, D.C.: 
National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 



tion, 1962 (TN D-1669) ; United States Space 
Science Program Report to COSPAR, Sixth 
Meeting, Warsaw, Poland, June, 1963, Wash- 
ington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences- 
National Research Council, 1963; Goddard 
Space Flight Center Contributions to the 
COSPAR Meeting, June, 1963, Washington, 
D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, 1963 (G-545) ; United States Space 
Science Program Report to COSPAR, Seventh 



139 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



Meeting, Florence, Italy, May, 1964, Washing- 
ton, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences-Na- 
tional Research Council, 1964. In addition to 
the COSPAR reports, much information in 
Goddard Space Flight Center's Goddard 
Projects Summary: Satellites and Sounding 
Rockets has been used. Also see Appendix B, 
"Chronology of Major NASA Launchings, Oc- 
tober 1, 1958 through December 31, 1962," in 
House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 
Astronautical and Aeronautical Events of 1962, 
Washington: 1963, pp. 299-305. 

82 For results of Explorer VI, see, among 
others, C. Y. Fan, P. Meyer, and J. A. Simp- 
son, Journal of Geophysical Research, LXVI, 
No. 9 (September 1961) ; A. Rosen and T. 
Farley, Journal of Geophysical Research, 
LXVI, No. 7 (July 1961) ; A. Rosen. T. Farley, 
and C. P. Sonett, in Space Research, Proceed- 
ings of the First International Space Science 
Symposium, Nice, 11-16 January 1960, ed. by 
H. K. Kallmann Bijl, Amsterdam: North-Hol- 
land Publishing Co., 1960, pp. 938-980; C. P. 
Sonett, E. j. Smith, D. L. Judge, and P. J. 
Coleman, Jr., Physical Review Letters, IV, No. 
4 (February 1960) , 161-163. 

sa "Geomagnetic-Field Studies Using Earth 
Satellites," IGY Bulletin, XCVI (April 1961) , 
6-12; J. P. Heppner, J. C. Cain, I. R. Shapiro, 
and J. D. Stolarik, "Satellite Magnetic Field 
Mapping," NASA TN D-696, May 1961; "IGY 
Satellite 1959 Eta," IGY Bulletin, XXVIII 
(October 1959), 10-14; H. E. LaGow and 
W. M. Alexander, "Recent Direct Measure- 
ments of Cosmic Dust in the Vicinity of 
the Earth Using Satellites," Space Research, 
Proceedings of the First International Space 
Science Symposium, Nice, 11-16 January 1960, 
ed. by H. K.. Kallmann Bijl, Amsterdam: 
North-Holland Publishing Co., 1960. 

84 "IGY Satellite 1959 Iota," IGY Bulletin, 
XXIX (November 1959) ; W. C. Lin, "Obser- 
vation of Galactic and Solar Cosmic Rays, Oc- 
tober 13, 1959 to February 17, 1961 with Ex- 
plorer VII (Satellite 1959 Iota) ," SUI-61-16, 
Department of Physics and Astronomy, State 
Univ. of Iowa (August 1961) ; G. H. Ludwig 
and W. A. Whelpley, "Corpuscular Radiation 
Experiment of Satellite 1959 Iota (Explorer 
VII) ," journal of Geophysical Research, LXV, 
No. 4 (April 1960), 1119; J. A. Van Allen 
and W. C. Lin, "Outer Radiation Belt and 



Solar Proton Observations with Explorer VII 
During March-April 1960," Journal of Geo- 
physical Research, LXV, No. 9 (September 
1960), 2998. 

85 C. Y. Fan, P. Meyer, and J. A. Simpson, 
Physical Review Letters, V, No. 6 (September 
1960), 269. 

so Ibid., p. 272. 

s? R. L. Arnoldy, R. A. Hoffman, and J. R. 
Winckler, unpublished communication. 

ssC. Y. Fan, P. Meyer, and J. A. Simpson, 
Journal of Geophysical Research, LXV, No. 6 
(June 1960), 1862. 

so R. L. Arnoldy, R. A. Hoffman, and J. R. 
Winckler, Journal of Geophysical Research, 
LXV, No. 9 (September 1960), 3004. 

so C. Y. Fan, P. Meyer, and J. A. Simpson, 
Physical Review Letters, p. 269. 

9i P. J. Coleman, Jr., C. P. Sonett, D. L. 
Judge, and E. J. Smith, Journal of Geophysi- 
cal Research, LXV, No. 6 (June 1960) , 1856. 

9-' Ibid. 

93 C. P. Sonett, E. J. Smith, D. L. Judge, 
and P. J. Coleman, Jr., Physical Review Let- 
ters, IV, No. 4 (February 1960) , 161. 

94 E. J. Smith, P. J. Coleman, Jr., D. L. 
Judge, and C. P. Sonett, Journal of Geophysi- 
cal Research, LXV, No. 6 (June 1960) , 1858. 

95 J. P. Coleman, Jr., C. P. Sonett, D. L. 
Judge, and E. J. Smith, Journal of Geophysical 
Research, LXV, No. 1 (January 1960), 1856. 

oe C. P. Sonett, D. L. Judge, A. R. Sims, and 
J. M. Kelso, Journal of Geophysical Research, 
LXV, No. 1 (January 1960) , 55. 

a? C. P. Sonett, Physical Review Letters, V, 
No. 2 (July 1960) , 46. 

asp. J. Coleman, Jr., L. Davis, Jr., and C. 
P. Sonett, Physical Review Letters, V, No. 2 
(July I960) , 43. 

99 P. J. Coleman, Jr., C. P. Sonett, and L. 
Davis, Jr., Journal of Geophysical Research, 
LXVI, No. 7 (July 1961) , 2043. 

ioo J. B. McGuire, E. R. Spangler, and L. 
Wong, Scientific American, CCIV, No. 4 
(April 1961) , 64. 

ioi For this and other Tiros satellites, see 
John Ashby, "A Preliminary History of the 
Evolution of the Tiros Weather Satellite Pro- 
gram," unpublished GSFC Historical Note No. 
1, 1964; Richard Chapman, "Tiros-Nimbus: 
Administrative, Political, and Technological 
Problems of Developing U.S. Weather Satel- 
lites," unpublished study in the Inter-Univer- 



14L 



FOOTNOTES 



sity Case Study Program, Inc., Syracuse, N.Y., 
1966. For Tiros I results, see IGY Bulletin, 
No. 51 (September 1961) , pp. 14-17, 23-24; 
"Roundup on Tiros I," Astronautics, V (June 
1960, 32-44. 

102 For results of Echo I, see R. Bryant, 
Journal of Geophysical Research, LXVI 
(1961), 3066-3069; IGY Bulletin, No. 39 (Sep- 
tember 1960) pp. 13-17; L. Jaffe, "Project Echo 
Results," Astronautics, VI, No. 5 (May 1961), 
32-33, 80; W. C. Jakes, Jr., "Project Echo," 
Bell Laboratories Record, XXXIX, No. 9 (Sep- 
tember 1961), 306-311. 

103 For Explorer Fill results, see "Iono- 
sphere Direct Measurement Satellite," IGY 
Bulletin, No. 42 (December 1960) , pp. 10-13; 
M. Melin, "Observing the Satellites," Sky and 
Telescope, XXI (January 1961), 11-12; R. E. 
Bourdeau and J. E. Donley, "Explorer VIII 
Measurements in the Upper Ionosphere," 
NASA TN D-2150, June 1964. 

104 xhe Manual, the Catalog, and copies of 
the magnetic tape data tabulations are availa- 
ble from the National Weather Records 
Center. For general information on the Tiros 
program, see footnote for Tiros I. For results 
of Tiros II, see W. R. Bandeen, R. A. Hanel, 
John Licht, R. A. Stampfl, and W. G. Stroud, 
"Infrared and Reflected Solar Radiation Meas- 
urements from the Tiros II Meteorological 
Satellite," Journal of Geophysical Research, 
LXV, No. 10 (October 1961), 3169-3185; Pro- 
ceedings of the International Meteorological 
Satellite Workshop, November 13-22, 1961, 
Washington: NASA and U.S. Department of 
Commerce, Weather Bureau, 1962; "The Tiros 
II Cloud-Cover and Infrared Satellite." IGY 
Bulletin, No. 43 (January 1961), pp. 9-13. 

los For Explorer IX results, see IGY Bulle- 
tin, No. 46 (April 1961) , pp. 12-16; STL 
Space Log, I, No. 5, June 1961; W. J. O'Sullivan, 
C. W. Coffee, and G. M. Keating, "Air Density 
Measurements from the Explorer IX Satellite," 
Space Research III, ed. by W. Priester. New 
York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1963, pp. 
89-95. 

i»6 J. P. Heppner, N. F. Ness, T. L. Skill- 
man, and C. S. Scearce, Goddard Space Flight 
Center Contributions to 1961 Kyoto Confer- 
ence on Cosmic Rays and the Earth Storm, 
Washington: NASA, 1961. The previous field 



computations are to be found in H. F. Finch 
and B. R. Leaton, Monthly Notices Royal As- 
tronomical Society, Geophysical Supplement, 
VII, No. 6 (November 1957) , 314. 

107 For other Explorer X results, see IGY 
Bulletin, No. 48 (June 1961) , pp. 1-4; STL 
Space Log, I, No. 5 (June 1961) . 

ios H. S. Bridge, C. Dilworth, A. j. Lazarus, 
E. F. Lyon, B. Rossi, and F. Scherb (Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology) , "Plasma 
Measurements from Explorer X," 1961 Kyoto 
Conference on Cosmic Rays and the Earth 
Storm. 

109 For Explorer XI results, see IGY Bulle- 
tin, No. 50 (August 1961), pp. 10-13; STL 
Space Log, I, No. 5 (June 1961) . 

no For general information on the Tiros 
program, see footnote to Tiros I. For results 
of Tiros III, see IGY Bulletin, No. 51 (Sep- 
tember 1961) , pp. 14-17; Sky and Telescope, 
XXII, No. 3 (September 1961), 143-145. 

111 For Explorer XII results, see Air Force 
Special Weapons Center Report No. 
TN-61-34; State University of Iowa Report 
No. 61-23. 

112 For Explorer XIII results, see "Explorer 
13 Micrometeoroid Satellite," IGY Bulletin, 
No. 50 (October 1961) , pp. 14-16; STL Space 
Log, I, No. 6 (September 1961) ; "The Mi- 
crometeoroid Satellite, Explorer 13 (1961 
Chi) ," NASA TN D-2468; "Micrometeoroid 
Satellite (Explorer XIII) Stainless Steel Pene- 
tration Experiment," NASA TN D-1986 (Octo- 
ber 1962) . 

us For Tiros program information, see foot- 
note to Tiros I. For Tiros IV results, see IGY 
Bulletin, No. 58 (April 1962) and No. 62 
(August 1962) ; U.S. Space Science Program 
(Report to COSPAR) , National Research 
Council, 1 May 1962; Sky and Telescope, 
XXIII (May 1962), 256-259; F. Bartko, V. 
Kunde, C. Catoe, and M. Halev, "The TIROS 
Low Resolution Photometer," NASA TN 
D-614 (September 1964) . 

H4 For OSO I results, see F. P. Bolder, O. E. 
Bartoe, R. C. Mercure, Jr., R. H. Gablehouse, 
and J. C. Lindsay, "The Orbiting Solar Ob- 
servatory Spacecraft," Space Research III, ed. 
by W. Priester, New York: John Wiley and 
Sons, Inc., 1963; W. A. White, "Solar X-Rays: 
Slow Variations and Transient Events," GSFC 
Report No. X-614-63-195, presented at the 



141 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



4th International Space Science Symposium, 
Warsaw, Poland, June 1963; W. M. Neupert, 
W. E. Behring, and J. C. Lindsay, "The Solar 
Spectrum from 50 Angstroms to 400 Ang- 
stroms," GSFC Report No. X-614-63-196, pre- 
sented at the 4th International Space Science 
Symposium, Warsaw, Poland, June 1963; W. 
M. Neupert and W. E. Behring, Solar Obser- 
vations with a Soft X-Ray Spectrometer, 
NASA TN D-1466, September 1966; J. C. Lind- 
say, "Scientific Results of the First Orbiting 
Solar Observatory," Transactions of the 
American Geophysical Union, XLIV (Sep- 
tember 1963) , 722-725. 

us For Ariel I results, see "Ariel-Joint Unit- 
ed Kingdom-United States Ionosphere Satel- 
lites," IGY Bulletin, No. 59 (May 1962) , pp. 
1-5; Elliott, Quenby, Mayne, and Durney, 
"Cosmic Ray Measurements in the U.K. Scout 
1 Satellite," Journal of British Institute of Ra- 
dio Engineers, XXII (September 1961) , 
251-256; M. O. Robins, "The Ariel 1 Satellite 
Project and Some Scientific Results," paper 
presented at 9th Anglo-American Conference, 
held at Cambridge, Mass., October 16-18, 
1963, and Montreal, Canada, October 21-24, 
1963; Ariel 1: The First International Satel- 
lite, NASA SP-43, 1963 (revised 1964). 

us For general information on the Tiros 
program, see the footnote for Tiros I. For re- 
sults of Tiros V, see IG Bulletin, No. 62 
(August 1962) ; "Weather Satellite Systems," 
Astronautics and Aerospace Engineering, I 
(April 1963) . 

u? For Telstar I results, see IG Bulletin, 
No. 62 (August 1962) ; Space /Aeronautics, 
XXXVIII (January 1963), 41; "Project Tel- 
star: Conimimications Experiment," Journal 
of the Society of Motion Picture and Televi- 
sion Engineers, LXXII (February 1963) , 
91-96; D. S. Peck, R. R. Blair, W. L. Brown, 
F. L. Smits, "Surface Effects of Radiation on 
Transistors," The Bell System Technical Jour- 
nal, XLII (January 1963), 95-129. 

us For general information on the Tiros 
program, see the footnote for Tiros I. For 
results of Tiros VI, see IG Bulletin, No. 66 
(December 1962) , 584-585. 

us For Alouette I program information, see 
Jonathan Casper, "History of Alouette: NASA 
Case-Study of an International Program," un- 
published NASA Historical Note No. 42, 1965; 



for Alouette I results, see J. O. Thomas, 
"Canadian Satellite: The Topside Sounder 
Alouette," Science, CXXXIX (January 18, 
1963), 229-232; E. S. Warren, "Sweep-Fre- 
quency Radio Soundings of the Topside of 
the Ionosphere," Canadian Journal of Physics, 
XL (1962), 1692. 

120 For Explorer XIV results, see Franck, 
Van Allen, Whelpley, and Craven, "Absolute 
Intensities of Geomagnetically Trapped Parti- 
cles with Explorer XIV," State University of 
Iowa Report No. 62-31 (December 1962) , and 
Journal of Geophysical Research, LXVIII 
(March 1963) , 1573-1579; "Collected Papers 
on the Artificial Radiation Belt from the 
July 9, 1963 Nuclear Detonation," Journal 
of Geophysical Research, LXVIII (February 
1, 1963) , 605 ft; "Explorer XIV Energetic 
Particles Satellite," IG Bulletin, No. 66 (De- 
cember 1962) , p. 585; H. Meyerson, "Energetic 
Particles Satellite, S-3a, Spacecraft Description 
and Preliminary Project Results," NASA Re- 
port N-90-013 (February 1963) . 

i2i For Explorer XV results, see IG Bulle- 
tin, No. 68 (February 1963) ; Study of the En- 
hanced Radiation Belt, Goddard Space Flight 
Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1962. 

123 For Syncom I, see "Syncom 1," STL 
"Communications Satellites," paper presented 
at the First World Conference on World 
Peace Through Law, Athens, Greece, June 30- 
July 7, 1963; R. C. Waddel, "Radiation Dam- 
age to Solar Cells on Relay I and Relay II," 
Radiation Effects on Solar Cells and Photovol- 
taic Devices, I, Proceedings of the Fourth Pho- 
tovoltaic Specialists Conference, NASA-Lewis 
Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2, 
1964; R. E. Warren and J. R. Burke, "Project 
Relay," British Communications and Electron- 
ics, VIII (August 1962) , 582-583. 

123 For Syncom I, see "Syncom I," STL 
Spacelog (June 1963) , pp. 31-33, (September 
1963) , pp. 41-42; "Syncom Lost and Found," 
Sky and Telescope (April 1963) , pp. 210-212; 
Donald D. Williams, "Control of the 24-hour 
Syncom Satellite," Missiles and Space (February 
1963) , pp. 14, 15, 58. 

124 For Explorer XVII results, see "Prelimi- 
nary Results of Explorer 17 Announced," 
NASA News Release No. 63-79, April 18, 1963; 
Spencer, Newton, Reber, Brace, and Horowitz, 
"New Knowledge of the Earth's Atmosphere 



142 



FOOTNOTES 



from the Aeronomy Satellite," paper presented 
at the Fifth International Space Science Sym- 
posium, Florence, Italy, May 1964 (also GSFC 
Report No. X-651-64-114, May 1964) . 

125 For Telstar II results, see Electronics, 
XXXVI (May 10, 1963) , 29; Bell Laboratories 
Record, XLI (April 1963) , 181; Aviation 
Week and Space Technology, LXXXI (May 6, 
1963) , 30. 

126 For Tiros VII results, see Sigmund Fritz, 
"Pictures from Meteorological Satellites and 
Their Interpretation," Space Science Reviews, 
III (November 1964) , 541-580; W. R. Ban- 
deen, B. J. Connath, and R. A. Hanel, "Ex- 
perimental Confirmation from the Tiros VII 
Meteorological Satellite of the Theoretically 
Calculated Radiance of the Earth within the 
15-micron Band of Carbon Dioxide," Journal 
of the Atmospheric Sciences, XX (November 
1963) , 609-614; W. Nordberg, W. R. Bandeen, 
G. Warnecke, and V. Kunde, "Stratospheric 
Temperature Patterns Based on Radiometric 
Measurements from Tiros VII Satellite," GSFC 
Report No. X-651-64-115 (May 1964); Sky 
and Telescope, XXVI (August 1963) , 76. 

127 For Syncom II results, see G. E. Mueller 
and E. R. Spangler, Communications Satel- 
lites, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 
1964; R. M. Bentley and A. T. Owens, "Syn- 



com Satellite Program," Journal of Spacecraft, 
I (July-August 1964) , 395-399; "Syncom II Sat- 
ellite," 1964 IEEE International Convention 
Record (March 23-26, 1964) , pp. 71-153. 

128 For Explorer XVIII results, see T. L. 
Cline, G. H. Ludwig, and F. B. McDonald, 
"Detection of Interplanetary 3- to 12-MeV 
Electrons," GSFC Report X-61 1-64-362, No- 
vember 1964; E. Ehrlich, "NASA Particles and 
Fields Spacecraft," AIAA Paper 64-337, First 
AIAA Annual Meeting, Washington, B.C., 
June-July 1964; "Initial Results from the First 
Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP 1)," 
International Geophysical Bulletin, No. 84, 
June 1964; "Interim Status Report, Inter- 
planetary Monitoring Platform, IMP 1, Ex- 
plorer 18," GSFC Report X-672-64-33, Febru- 
ary 1964; F. B. McDonald and G. H. Ludwig, 
"Measurement of Low-Energy Primary Cos- 
mic-Ray Protons on IMP-1 Satellite," Physical 
Review Letters, XIII (December 1964) , 
783-785; N. F. Ness and J. M. Wilcox, "Exten- 
sion of the Photospheric Magnetic Field into 
Interplanetary Space," GSFC Report X-61 2- 
65-79, February 1965. 

129 On Tiros VIII, see M. Tepper and D. S. 
Johnson, "Toward Operational Weather Satel- 
lites," Astronautics and Aeronautics, III (June 
1965) , 16-26. 



Chapter 8 



130 Launch Vehicles of the National Launch 
Vehicle Program (NASA SP-10) , November 
1962; Goddard Projects Summary: Satellites 
and Sounding Rockets, Goddard Space Flight 
Center; William S. Beller, "New Delta May 
Prove Most Economical," Missiles and Rockets 
(August 16, 1965), pp. 24-29. 

isi See Arnold W. Frutkin, International 
Cooperation in Space, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: 
Prentice-Hall, 1965, pp. 51-59. 

132 For further information on sounding 
rockets, see Goddard Space Flight Center Con- 
tributions to the COSPAR Meeting, May 1962, 
GSFC Technical Note D-1669, 1962; United 



States Space Science Program: Report to 
COSPAR, Sixth Meeting, Warsaw, Poland, 
June, 1963, Washington: National Academy of 
Sciences-National Research Council, 1963; 
United States Space Science Program: Report 
to COSPAR, Seventh Meeting, Florence, Italy, 
May, 1964, Washington: National Academy of 
Sciences-National Research Council, 1984. 

133 NASA Authorization for Fiscal Year 1961 
— Part I. 86th Congress, 2d Session — Senate. 
Testimony of Homer E. Newell, Jr., Deputy 
Director, Office .of. Space Flight Programs, 
NASA, pp. 23-24. 



Chapter 9 



is* Harry J. Goett, "Scientific Exploration 
of Space," paper presented before the Franklin 
Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., March 8, 1962. 

13S James E. Webb, Address before Ameri- 



can Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 
New York Lecture, October 21, 1963. 

136 Sperry scope, Sperry Rand Corporation, 
October 1966. 



143 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED 



APPEN 



Bill 



Man, being the servant and, inter- 
preter of Nature, can do and under- 
stand so much and so much only as 
he has observed in fact or in 
thought of the course of nature: be- 
yond this he neither knows anything 
nor can do anything. 

—Francis Bacon 



liiliiiHlil 



Appendix A 

Introduction to the United States 

Space Sciences Program* 

Excerpts from the report of the National Academy of Sciences dated March 
12, 1959, to the Committee cm Space Research 



... A space sciences program is being developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration on as broad a basis as possible. In the planning and programing, 
advantage is being taken of the advice of the National Academy of Sciences' Space 
Science Board and also of specialists and experts in the scientific community. In the 
conduct of satellite and space probe experiments broad participation of the scientific 
community and industry, along with government, is planned, and steps are being taken 
to secure such participation. The developing program uses and will increase the mo- 
mentum in space research developed during the International Geophysical Year. . . . 

Although the program planning is still in its preliminary stages, it is hoped that in 
each of the next 2 years between 75 and 100 sounding rockets may be launched and on 
the order of one or two satellite or space probes every two months. 

In the rocket sounding program, emphasis will be placed upon experiments relating to 
atmospheric structure, electric and magnetic fields, astronomy, energetic particles, and 
the ionosphere. 

The satellite program will emphasize atmospheres, ionospheres, astronomy, energetic 
particles, electric and magnetic fields, and gravitation. 

Space probes will investigate energetic particles, fields, and ionospheres. 

Although the approximate magnitude and emphasis of the program has been de- 
scribed, much remains uncertain regarding the special vehicles to be used, their orbits or 
trajectories, their specific schedules, launching sites, tracking and telemetering support, 
and special technology support. 



I. Atmospheres 
Objectives 

To determine and understand the origin, evolution, nature, spatial distribution, and 
dynamical behavior of the atmospheres of the earth, moon, sun, and planets; and their 



* Report on the second meeting of the Committee on Space Research, held at The Hague, 
March 12-14, 1959. 

147 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

relations to the medium of interplanetary space; to investigate atmospheric phenomena 
associated with interactions between photons, energetic particles, fields, and matter; to 
understand the relations between the earth's upper atmosphere and its surface meteor- 
ology; to evaluate atmospheric effects on space flight. 

Program 

(a) Long range 

Long-range plans for achieving the above objectives include: (1) instrumented satel- 
lite stations around other planets; (2) rocket probes deep into the atmospheres of other 
planets including soft landings onto the surface with automatic arid eventually manned 
recording stations; (3) probes deep into the solar atmosphere; (4) special probes for 
measuring the density and nature of gas and dust particles in interplanetary space and 
within comets; and (5) extensive theoretical studies to understand the basic natural 
phenomena taking place within the atmospheres. 

(b) Immediate 

Short-range plans include extensive and intensive studies of the structure and composi- 
tion of the earth's atmosphere by direct measurements with sounding rockets and with 
satellites. Diurnal, latitudinal, and temporal variations in these parameters will be stud- 
ied and will be correlated with energy and momentum balances in the earth's upper 
atmosphere. Models of the earth's atmosphere will be formulated for (1) providing 
basic data needed in understanding ionospheric, auroral, and other phenomena; and (2) 
providing guidance in the study of the atmospheres of other planets. 

Short-range plans for studies up to about 50 miles include scores of synoptic rocket 
flights and several cloud cover satellites to establish the relationships between surface 
meteorology and the structure and dynamics of the upper atmosphere. 



II. Ionospheres 

Objectives 

To determine and understand the source, nature, spatial distribution, and dynamical 
behavior of the ionized regions of the solar system, including the ionospheres of the 
earth, moon, and planets; to investigate ionospheric phenomena resulting from interac- 
tions between photons, particles, ions, and magnetic, electrostatic, and electromagnetic 
fields; to understand the relationship between solar activity and the terrestrial and other 
planetary ionospheres, magnetic fields, and upper atmospheric current systems; to evalu- 
ate ionospheric effects on space flight, including communications. 

Program 

(a) Long range 

The long-range program will exploit present techniques for determining the terrestrial 
Ionospheric structure, its propagation characteristics, and its influence on space flight by 
observation from below, within, and above. New techniques for evaluating the least 
known parameters will be developed. All of the applicable methods will then be used 
for the study of other planetary ionospheres. Eventually, propagation sounding stations 
may be established on the surface of the moon. All the data will then be applied to 

148 



APPENDIX A 

understand the interrelations between solar activity, magnetic fields, the aurora, the 
Great Radiation Belt, and other phenomena. 

(b) Immediate 

The immediate program is concerned -with obtaining electron density profiles at alti- 
tudes above the F 2 layer by inclusion of proven propagation experiments in space 
probes. Concurrently latitude and temporal variations of this parameter will be ob- 
tained by use of a polar orbiting satellite beacon. Topside sounders in satellite will be 
used for synoptic studies of electron density in the outer ionosphere. This technique 
promises less ambiguity than that obtainable from satellite beacons. Present knowledge 
of electromagnetic propagation will be extended by inclusion of very low frequency 
receivers in polar-orbiting satellites. Ion spectrum studies will be extended to lower 
mass numbers and higher altitudes by inclusion of rf mass spectrometers in space probes 
and satellites. Direct measurements using devices such as antenna probes, ion probes, 
and electric field meters will be made in rockets and satellites, to better define iono- 
spheric structure and to study the interaction between the ionosphere and space vehicles. 



III. Energetic Particles 
Objectives 

To determine and understand the origin, nature, motion, spatial distribution, and 
temporal variation of particles having energies appreciably greater than thermal; to 
understand their relation to the origin of the universe; to understand interactions be- 
tween such particles, fields, photons, and matter; to evaluate possible hazards to life and 
other effects of energetic particles and photons in space. 

Program 

(a) Long range 

Measurements using deep space probes will be made from the close proximity of the 
sun to the limits of the solar system. Extensive measurements in the vicinity of the 
planets, especially the earth, will be made to determine the interactions of the energetic 
particles with the atmospheres and fields of these bodies. These measurements will 
require satellite orbits around the earth, the moon, and other planets. The establish- 
ment of an observatory on the surface of the moon or on some other planet might be 
desirable, depending on the data previously acquired by artificial satellites. 

(b) Immediate 

In the near future the measurement of energetic particles will be pursued with satel- 
lites and rockets in the vicinity of the earth and with interplanetary probes. These 
measurements will be aimed at determining the interactions of these particles with the 
earth's atmosphere and field, their interactions with interplanetary fields, the types and 
energies of these particles, their spatial distribution, and the origin of the energetic 
particles. 

The immediate program includes specifically measurements of the cosmic ray intensity 
in interplanetary space; of time and latitude cosmic ray intensity variations; of the 
composition and spatial extent of the Great Radiation Belt; of the cosmic ray energy 
and charge spectrum; and of the nature of the particles producing auroras. 

149 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

IV. Electric and Magnetic Fields 



Objectives 



To determine and understand the origin, nature, method of propagation, spatial dis- 
tribution, and temporal variation of magnetic and electric fields throughout the uni- 
verse; to understand interactions between these fields and matter in space, and the 
influence of existing fields on solar and planetary atmospheres; to use these fields in the 
investigation of the internal constitution of astronomical bodies; to evaluate their effects 
and interactions on space flights. 

Program 

(a) Long range 

Results from satellites, probes, and rockets to be flown in 1959 will be an important 
factor in determining the long-range program for studying the earth's fields. One can, 
however, anticipate that an important item will be establishing an earth satellite observ- 
atory which will include instruments for measuring particle flux and solar radiations as 
well as magnetic and electric field instruments such that direct correlations can be made 
between the various phenomena. Also rocket soundings into the ionosphere will con- 
tinue to study details of ionospheric currents more thoroughly. 

Attempts will be made to measure the fields of the moon, Mars, and Venus from 
probes making those approaches and eventually from packages landing and serving as 
observatories. 

Probes will be launched toward the sun to obtain solar field measurements as close to 
the sun as feasible. 

Theoretical analyses and correlations between electric and magnetic field phenomena 
and other phenomena will be an integral part of the program. 

(b) Immediate 

The short-range magnetic field program includes the use of sounding rockets, satellites, 
and space probes to carry magnetometers for investigation of the existence of ring 
currents above the ionosphere during magnetic storms, ionospheric currents, information 
on radiation belt currents, for measuring electric currents and the form of the earth's 
field at great distances, interplanetary fields, and the moon's magnetic field, and to study 
the complete spectra of field variations and for comprehensive field mapping. 

it is also anticipated that simple magnetometers which can detect only the existence of 
a perceptible field will be placed in several rockets and space vehicles as secondary 
experiments. The short-range electric field program includes the use of electric field 
meters and Langmuir probes to explore satellite charging and ion sheath characteristics. 



V. Gravitational Fields 

Objectives 

To determine and understand the origin, nature, method of propagation, spatial dis- 
tribution, temporal variation, and effect of gravitational fields throughout the universe; 
to determine and understand the external form and internal constitution of the earth, 
planets, and stars; to determine and understand the relations between gravitational and 
electromagnetic fields; to evaluate effects of gravitational fields of different magnitudes, 
including weightlessness, on space flights. 

150 



APPENDIX A 

Program 

(a) Long range 

For the study of the fundamental nature of the gravitational fields, two avenues are 
opened by the ability to launch satellites and space probes. The first of these is the 
ability to try experiments on a scale of hundreds and thousands of kilometers by probing 
the fields of planetary masses with bodies capable of being accurately observed. This is 
significant because gravitational fields, except that of the earth, are almost unmeasurable 
in laboratory-scale experiments. In the second place, the periods of artificial satellites 
are so much shorter than those of the moon and other natural satellites that in a few 
years a number of revolutions corresponding to thousands of years for natural satellites 
may be observed. 

By the first avenue, it is possible to seek the links which must exist between the theory 
of the electromagnetic field and gravitational field. It is planned in particular to test 
the equality of gravitational and inertial masses by experiments in space which are a 
repetition of the experiment of Galileo in the Leaning Tower of Pisa. An attempt will 
be made to devise experiments which will reveal the velocity of propagation of gravita- 
tion, if any. 

It is planned to determine the masses of the inner planets by direct observation of 
probes passing near them or possibly around them. These probes will at the same time 
help to determine the value of the astronomical unit. 

It is planned to test the hypothesis that gravitational attraction depends on the aver- 
age density of matter in the universe and that it therefore is slowly weakening as the 
universe expands. For this purpose, it is planned to compare an atomic clock on the 
ground with a gravitational clock of some kind. A proposal for a gravitational clock 
consisting, in effect, of a high satellite with a very well measured orbit is being studied. 

It is planned to employ moon probes to obtain improved values for the overall mass 
of the moon and for the moments of inertia about its three principal axes. It is 
planned to attempt to determine the strength of the materials in the moon's interior 
from this information. 

It is planned to measure the mass of Venus and of Mercury in order to test Bullen's 
ideas about the nature of the cores of the planets. 

Using the second avenue, it is' planned to observe the motions of close satellites of the 
earth over a long period and to make precise comparison with theory, searching for 
systematic trends in the inclination and the eccentricity, which might shed light on the 
history of the solar system. 

(b) Immediate 

(1) Studies are now being made on existing satellites with the object of determining 
the low harmonics of the earth's field from tracking data. 

(2) It is also planned to put into orbit a special geodetic satellite which will be 
capable of refining the observations on the harmonics, and of determining intercontinen- 
tal distances with high precision. It should be possible to carry the study of the form of 
the geoid much further than has been possible to date. 

The information developed in (1) and (2) above will be applied to the question of 
the basic hypothesis of geodesy. This hypothesis, as formulated by some theorists, is in 
essence that the low harmonics of the earth's gravitational field have amplitudes of a 
meter or so. The hypothesis is not universally accepted; other theorists consider that 
the amplitudes are on the order of scores of meters. A decision between these two 
hypotheses is important because Heiskanen, in particular, proposes extensive work revolv- 
ing around the Stokes' Theorem— work which is only warranted if the basic hypothesis is 

151 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

satisfied. This information will also be used in an attempt to evaluate hypotheses of 
convection in the mantle. These hypotheses seem to go with the ideas of the first-men- 
tioned school of theorists, and it may be possible to decide between these hypotheses and 
the alternative contraction hypothesis on the basis of our information. 

(3) It is planned to put in orbit a satellite carrying a very precise clock in order to 
test the theory of Einstein which predicts a change in the clock's speed depending upon 
the strength of the earth's gravitational field. 

VI. Astronomy 

Objectives 

To determine the spatial distributions of matter and energy over the entire universe, 
and to understand their cosmological origins, evolutions, and destinies; to observe from 
above the earth's atmosphere the spectral distributions of energy radiated from objects in 
the solar system, in this and other galaxies, and in the intervening space, with emphasis 
on observations that are prevented or comprised by the absorption, background emission, 
and differential refraction of the earth's atmosphere; to determine and understand the 
geology of the planets; to determine the effects of meteors, radiations, and other astro- 
nomical influences on space flights. 

Program 

(a) Long range 

The first phase of the long-range program will be the development of an orbiting and 
stabilized platform. With such a platform, it will be possible to orient a wide range of 
telescopic instruments so as to make detailed observations of specific quantities of inter- 
est at selected locations on the celestial sphere. Command control for the platform will 
be incorporated so that redirection of the instrumentation will be possible. The ob- 
vious advantages of observations made beyond the earth's atmosphere will be available 
to us with such an orbiting observatory. There will still remain some observational 
difficulties because of the backscattered light of the sun and the Doppler shifts resulting 
from the high velocity of the satellite. 

(b) Immediate 

The immediate program will continue and extend to the Southern sky the survey of 
the newly discovered nebulosities in the far ultraviolet by means of rockets. These 
measurements are being undertaken to determine the nature and sources of these 
emissions. Concurrently stellar photometry measurements will be made in the near and 
far ultraviolet spectrum region to extend magnitude systems to ultraviolet. Emphasis is 
being given to extending observations into the previously unexplored far infrared and 
high energy gamma-ray spectral regions by means of scanning satellite and 
rockets. Apart from their intrinsic value, these surveys are essential as ground work for 
the satellite observatory program. 

Studies of the solar ultraviolet and x-ray spectra will be extended to include long term 
variations, line profiles, distribution across the disk, and the spectra of the coronal x-ray 
flux. These studies will be carried out in a series of rocket firings and with satellite- 
borne pointing devices. 

Deep space probes will be used to determine the nature of the interplanetary medium. 

Satellites will be used to map the emissions of the high atmosphere which arise from 
charged particle interactions and photochemical reactions. 

152 



APPENDIX A 

VII. Biosciences 
Objectives 

To determine the effects on living terrestrial organisms of conditions in the earth's 
atmosphere, in space and in other planetary atmospheres, and of flight through these 
regions; to investigate the existence of life throughout the solar system, and to study 
such life forms in detail; to develop information necessary to achieve and maintain 
healthful artificial environments for terrestrial organisms, including man, throughout the 
solar system. 



153 



'PRECEDING PAGE BLANK ROT FILMEf 



Appendix B 

Goddard Space Flip Center 
Satellite and Space Probe Projects 



GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER satellite launchings for 1959 through 1963 
are given in the following table. The listings include the name of the satel- 
lites, their international designation (the international designation changed after 1962), 
the NASA designation, the project manager, and project scientist. The tabulation 
also gives the date of launch, the date on which the satellite became silent, the 
launch vehicle, and launch site. The period of the satellite is given in minutes, unless 
otherwise designated, and the perigee and apogee are given in statute miles. Orbital 
elements change over time. Any inconsistencies between text and appendixes derive 
from the date of measurement. The following abbreviations have been used. 

Affiliations: 

AFCRL Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories 

ARC Ames Research Center 

BTL Bell Telephone Laboratories 

CRPL Central Radio Propagation Laboratory 

DRTE Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment 

DSIR Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 

ETR Eastern Test Range 

GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center 

JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory 

MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

NRC National Research Council 

NRL Naval Research Laboratory 

TRW/STL Thompson Ramo Wooldridge/Space Technology Laboratories 

WTR Western Test Range 

Scientific disciplines: 

R Aeronomy 

E Energetic Particles and Fields 

I Ionospheric Physics 

A Astronomy 

P Planetary Atmospheres 

S Solar Physics 

155 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 



Designation 



Explorer VI 
1959 Delta 1 
S-2 



Objectives 



Vanguard III 
1959 Eta 1 



To measure 
three specific 
radiation 
levels of 
earth's radi- 
ation belts; 
test scanning 
equipment 
for earth's 
cloud cover; 
map earth's 
magnetic 
field; meas- 
ure miero- 
meteoroids; 
study be- 
havior of 
radiowaves. 



Launch and orbit data 



Launch date/ 
silent date 



Aug. 7, 1959 



Oct. 6, 1959 



Vehicle and 
launch site 



Thor-Able 



ETR 



Period, 
min. 



12.5 
hours 



Statute miles 



Perigee 



Explorer VII 
1959 Iota 1 



To measure 
the earth's 
magnetic 
field, X-radi- 
ation from 
the sun, and 
several as- 
pects of the 
space envi- 
ronment 
through 
which the 
satellite 
travels. 



Sept. 18, 1959 
Dec. 11, 1959 



Vanguard 
ETR 



Variety of ex- 
periments, 
including 
solar ultra- 
violet, X-ray 
cosmic-ray, 
earth radia- 
tion, and 
micrometeor- 
oid experi- 
ments. 



Oct. 13, 1959 
Aug. 24, 1961 



Apogee 



27,357 



Project manager 

and 
project scientist 



Dr. John C. Lindsay 
Dr. John C. Lindsay 



319 



2,329 



Juno II 
ETR 



101.33 



680 



H. E. LaGow 



156 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects 



Experiment data 




Instrumentation 
summary 


Experiment and 
discipline 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 


Remarks 


Equipment to measure 


Triple coincidence tele- 


J. A. Simpson 


U. of Chicago 


Orbit achieved. All experi- 


radiation levels; TV- 


scopes— A 


C. Y. Fan 




ments performed. First 


type scanner; micro- 




P. Meyer 




complete televised cloud- 


meteoroid detector; 


Scintillation counter — E 


T. A. Farley 


TRW/STL 


cover picture was ob- 


two types of magne- 




Allan Rosen 




tained. Detected large 


tometers and devices 




C.P. Sonett 




ring of electrical current 


for space communi- 


Ionization chamber Geiger 


J. Winckler 


U. of Minne- 


circling earth; first de- 


cation experiments. 


counter— E 




sota 


tailed study of region 




Spin-coil magnetometer — 


E. J. Smith 


TRW/STL 


now known as the Van 




E 


D. L. Judge 




Allen radiation belt. 




Fluxgate magnetometer— 


P. J. Coleman 


TRW/STL 


Weight: 142 lb 




E 






Power: Solar 




Aspect sensor 




TRW/STL 






Image-scanning television 




TRW/STL 






system 










Micrometeoroid detector 




AFCRL 






— P 




TRW/STL 




Proton precession 


Proton magnetometer — E 


J. P. Heppner 


GSFC 


Orbit achieved. Provided 


magnetometer, ioni- 


Ionization chambers— E 


H. Friedman 


NRL 


comprehensive survey of 


zation chambers for 


Environmental measure- 


H. E. LaGow 


GSFC 


earth's magnetic field over 


solar X-rays, micro- 


ments 






area covered; surveyed 


meteorite detectors 








location of lower edge of 


and thermistors. 








Van Allen radiation belt. 
Accurate count of micro- 
meteoroid impacts. 
Power: Solar 


Sensors for measure- 


Thermal radiation balance 


V. Suomi 


U. of Wiscon- 


Orbit achieved. Provided 


ments of earth-sun 






sin 


significant geophysical 


heat balance; Ly- 


Solar X-ray and Lyman- 


H. Friedman 


NRL 


information on radiation 


man-alpha and X- 


alpha— S 


R. W. Kreplin 




and magnetic storms; 


ray solar radiation 




T. Chubb 




demonstrated method of 


detectors; micro- 


Heavy cosmic radiation— 


G. Groetzinger 


Martin Co. 


controlling internal tem- 


meteoroid detectors, 


E 


P. Schwed 




peratures; first micro- 


Geiger-Mueller tubes 




M. Pomerantz 


Bartol 


meteoroid penetration of 


for cosmic ray count; 






Research 


a sensor in flight. 


ionization chamber 


Radiation and solar- 


J. Van Allen 


St. U. of 


Weight: 91.5 lb 


for heavy cosmic 


proton observation — E 


G. Ludwig 


Iowa 


Power: Solar 


rays. 




H. Whelpley 








Ground-based ionosphere 


G. Swenson 


U. of Illinois 






observation — I 


C. Little 

C. Reid 

0. Villard, Jr. 

W. Ross 


Nat. Bu. of 
Standards 

U. of Alaska 

Stanford TJ. 

Perm. State 
IT. 

Linfleld Res. 








W. Dyke 










Inst. 





157 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 





Objectives 


Launch and orbit data 


Project manager 

and 
project scientist 


Designation 


Launch date/ 
silent date 


Vehicle and 
launch site 


Period, 
min. 


Statute miles 




Pergiee 


Apogee 


Explore! VII 

— com. 
















Pioneer V 
1980 Alpha 1 


To investigate 
interplane- 
tary space 
between or- 
bits of earth 
and Venus, 
test extreme 
long-range 
communica- 
tions, study 
methods for 
measuring 
astronomical 
distances. 


Mar. 11, 1960 
Jun. 26, 1960 


Thor-Able 
ETH 


311.6 
days 


Perihe- 
lion 
74.9 
mil- 
lion 
from 
sun 


Aphelion 
92.3 
million 
from 
sun 


Dr. JohnC. Lindsay 
Dr. John C. Lindsay 


Tiros I 
1960 Beta 2 
A-l 


To test ex- 
perimental 
television 
techniques 
leading to 
eventual 
worldwide 
meteorologi- 
cal informa- 
tion system. 


Apr. 1, 1960 
June 17, 1960 


Thor-Able 
ETR 


99.1 


428.7 


465.9 


W. Q. Stroud 
H. I. Butler 
S. Fritz 

(U.S. Weather 

Bureau) 


Echo I 
1960 Iota 1 
A-ll 


To place 100- 
foot inflat- 
able sphere 
Into orbit; 
measure re- 
flective char- 
acteristics of 
sphere and 
propagation; 
study effects 
of space en- 
vironment. 


Aug. 12, 1960 
Passive 
satellite 


Thor-Delta 
ETR 


110.3 


945 


1,049 


R. J. Mackey 


Explorer VIII 
1960 Xi 
S-3Q 


To investigate 
the iono- 
sphere by 
direct meas- 
urement of 
positive ion 
and electron 
composition; 
collect data 
on the fre- 
quency, mo- 
mentum, 


Nov. 3, 1960 
Dec. 28, 1960 


Juno II 
ETR 


112.7 


258 


1,423 


Robert E. Bourdeau 
Robert E. Bourdeau 



158 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 












Remarks 


In strumentation 


Experiment and 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 




summary 


discipline 










Micrometeoroid penetra- 


H. LaGow 


GSFC 






tion— P 








High-intensity radia- 


Triple coincidence pro- 


J. Simpson 


U. of Chicago 


Highly successful explora- 


tion counter, ioniza- 


portional counter cos- 






tion of interplanetary 


tion chamber Geiger- 


mic-ray telescope— E 






space between orbits of 


Mueller tube to 


Search-coil magnetometer 


D. Judge 


TEW/STL 


earth and Venus; estab- 


measure plasmas, 


and photoelectric cell 






lished communication 


cosmic radiation, 


aspect indicator— E 






record of 22.5 million 


and charged solar 


Ionization chamber and 


J. Winckler 


U. of Minne- 


miles on June 26, 1980; 


particles. Magne- 


G-M tube— E 




sota 


made measurements of 


tometer and miero- 


Micrometeoroid counter — 


E. Manring 


AFCEL 


solar flare effects, par- 


meteoroid measure- 


P 






ticle energies and dis- 


ments. 








tribution, and magnetic- 
field phenomena in inter- 
planetary space. 

Weight: 94.8 lb 

Power: Solar 


One wide and one nar- 


TV camera systems (2) 






Provided first global cloud- 


row angle camera, 








cover photographs (22,952 


each with tape re- 








total) from near-circular 


corder for remote 








orbit. 


operation. Picture 








Weight: ,170 lb 


data can be stored 








Power: Solar 


on tape or trans- 










mitted directly to 










ground stations. 










Two tracking beacons 


Communications 




JPL 


Demonstrated use of radio 


107.94 Mc and 107.97 






BTL 


reflector for global com- 


Mc. 






NEL 


munications; numerous 
successful transmissions. 
Visible to the naked eye. 
Orbit characteristics per- 
turbed by solar pressure 
due to high area-to-mass 
ratio. 

Still in orbit. 

Weight: 124 lb (including 
inflation powder) 

Power: Passive 


EF-impedance probe 


BF impedance— I 


J. Cain 


GSFC 


The micrometeoroid influx 


using a 20-foot dipole 


Ion traps— I 


E. Bourdeau 


GSFC 


rate was measured. 


sensor; single-grid 




G. Serbu 




Weight: 90.14 lb 


ion trap; four mul- 




E. Whipple 




Power: Battery 


tiple-grid ion traps; 




J. Donley 






Langmuir probe ex- 


Langmuir probe— I 


E. Bourdeau 


GSFC 




periment, rotating 




G. Serbu 






shutter electric field 




E. Whipple 






meter; photomulti- 




J. Donley 






plier and micro- 


Eotating-shutter electric 


J. Donley 


GSFC 




meteoroid micro- 


field meter— I 








phone; thermistors 


Micrometeoroid photo- 


M. Alexander 


GSFC 




for reading internal 


multiplier— I 


C. McCracken 







159 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 





Objectives 


Launch and orbit data 


Project manager 

and 
project scientist 


Designation 


Launch date/ 
silent date 


Vehicle and 
launch site 


Period, 
min. 


Statute miles 




Perigee 


Apogee 


Explorer VIII 
-—Cent. 


and energy 
of micro- 
meteoroid 
impacts; es- 
tablish the 
altitude of 
the base of 
the exo- 
sphere. 














Tiros II 
1960 Pi 1 
A-2 


To test experi- 
mental tele- 
vision tech- 
niques and 
infrared 
equipment 
leading to 
eventual 
worldwide 
meteorologi- 
cal informa- 
tion system. 


Nov. 23, 1960 
July 12, 1961 


Delta 
ETR 


98.2 


406 


431 


R. A. Stamfl 


Explorer IX 
1961 Delta 1 
S-56a 
(A project 
of the 
Langley 
Research 
Center 
with GSFC 
participa- 
tion) 


To study per- 
formance, 
structural in- 
tegrity, and 
environ- 
mental con- 
ditions of 
Scout re- 
search ve- 
hicle and 
guidance 
controls sys- 
tem. Inject 
inflatable 
sphere into 
earth orbit to 
determine 
density of 
atmosphere. 


Feb. 16, 1961 
April 9, 1964 
Passive 
satellite 


Scout 
Wallops 
Island 


118.3 


395 


1,605 




Explorer X 
1981 

Kappa 1 
P-14 


To gather defi- 
nite informa- 
tion on earth 
and inter- 
planetary 
magnetic 
fields and 
the way 
these fields 
affect and 
are affected 
by solar 
plasma. 


Mar. 25, 1961 
Mar. 27, 1961 


Thor-Delta 
ETR 


112 
hours 


100 


186,000 


J. P. Heppner 
J. P. Heppner 



16C 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 




Instrumentation 
summary 


Experiment and 
discipline 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 


Remarks 


and surface tem- 
peratures of the 
spacecraft, and de- 
spin mechanisms to 
reduce spin from 450 
to 30 rpm. 


Micrometeoroid micro- 
phone—I 


0. Berg 

M. Alexander 

C. McCracken 


GSFC 




Included one wide- 
angle and one nar- 
row-angle camera, 
each with tape re- 
corder for remote 
operation; infrared 
sensors to map radia- 
tion uwarious spec- 
tral bands; attitude 
sensors; experimental 
magnetic orienta- 
tion control. 


Two TV camera systems 
Widefleld radiometer 
Scanning radiometer 


W. Nordberg 
R. Hanel 


GSFC 
GSFC 


Orbit achieved. Narrow- 
angle camera and IR in- 
strumentation sent good 
data. Transmitted 36,156 
pictures. 

Weight: 277 lb 

Power: Solar 


Radio beacon on bal- 
loon and in fourth 
stage. 








Vehicle functioned as 
planned. Balloon and 
fourth stage achieved or- 
bit. Transmitter on bal- 
loon failed to function 
properly requiring opti- 
cal tracking of balloon. 

Weight: 80 lb 

Power: Passive 


Included rubidium 
vapor magnetom- 
eter, two fluxgate 
magnetometers, a 
plasma probe, and 
an optical aspect 
sensor. 


Rubidium- vapor mag- 
netometer and fluxgate 
magnetometers— E 

Plasma probe— E 

Spacecraft attitude 


J. P. Heppner 
T. L. Skillman 
C. S. Scearce 
H. Bridge 
F. Scherb 
B. Rossi 
J. Albus 


GSFC 
MIT 

GSFC 


Probe transmitted valuable 
data continuously for 52 
hours as planned. Demon- 
strated the existence of a 
geomagnetic cavity in 
the solar wind and the 
existence of solar proton 
streams transporting 
solar interplanetary mag- 
netic fields past the 
earth's orbit. 

Weight: 79 lb 

Power: Battery 



161 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 







Launch and orbit data 


Project manager 














Designation 


Objectives 


Launch date/ 
silent date 


Vehicle and 
launch site 


Period, 


Statute miles 


and 
project scientist 








Perigee 


Apogee 




Explorer XI 


To orbit a 


Apr. 27, 1961 


Juno II 


KIS.l 


304 


1,113.2 


Dr. J. Kupperian, 


1961 Nu 1 


gamma-ray 


Dec. 6, 1961 


ETE 








Jr. 


8-16 


astronomy 
telescope 
satellite to 
detect high- 
energy 
gamma rays 
from cosmic 
sources and 
map their 
distribution 
in the sky. 












Dr. J. Kupperian, 
Jr. 


Tirol III 


To develop 


July 12, 1961 


Delta 


100.4 


461.02 


506 M 


Robert Rados 


1961 Rho 1 


satellite 


Feb. 1962 


ETR 










A -3 


weather ob- 
servation 
system; ob- 
tain photos 
of earth's 
cloud cover 
for weather 
analysis; de- 
termine 
amount of 
solar energy 
absorbed, 
reflected 
and emitted 
by the earth. 














Explorer XII 


To investigate 


Aug, 15, 1961 


Thor-Delta 


26.45 


180 


47,800 


Paul Butler 


Energetic 


solar wind, 


Dec. 6, 1961 


ETR 


hours 






Dr. F. B. McDonald 


Particles 


interplane- 














Explorer 


tary magnet- 














1961 


ic fields, dis- 














Upsllon 1 


tant portions 














S-3 


of earth's 
magnetic 
field, ener- 
getic par- 
ticles in in- 
terplanetary 
space and in 
the Van 
Allen belts. 














Explorer XIII 


To test per- 


Aug. 25, 1961 


Scout 


97.5 


74 


722 


C. T. D'Aiutolo 


1961 Chi 1 


formance of 


Aug. 28, 1961 


Wallops 










CA project 


the vehicle 




Island 










of the 


and guid- 














Langley 


ance; to in- 














Research 


vestigate na- 














Center 


ture and ef- 














with GSFC 


fects on 















162 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 












Remarks 


Instrumentation 


Experiment and 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 




summary 


discipline 








Gamma-ray telescope 


Gamma-ray telescope— E 


W. Kraushaar 


MIT 


Orbit achieved. Detected 


consisting of a plas- 




G. Clark 




first gamma rays from 


tic scintillator, crys- 








space. Directional flux 


tal layers, and a 








obtained. Disproved one 


Cerenkov detector; 








part of "steady-state" 


sun and earth sen- 








evolution theory. 


sors; micrometeoroid 








Weight: 82 lb 


shields; temperature 








Power: Solar 


sensor; damping 










mechanism. 










Two wide-angle cam- 


Omnidirectional radiom- 


V. Suomi 


TJ. of Wis- 


Orbit achieved. Cameras 


eras, two tape re- 


eter 




consin 


and IE instrumentation 


corders and elec- 


Widefield radiometer 


R. Hanel 


GSFC 


transmitted good data. 


tronic clocks, infra- 


Scanning radiometer 


W. Nordberg 


GSFC 


Transmitted 35,033 pic- 


red sensors, five 


Two TV cameras 






tures. 


transmitters, atti- 








Weight: 285 lb 


tude sensors, mag- 








Power: Solar 


netic attitude coil. 










Ten particle detection 


Proton analyzer — E 


M. Bader 


ARC 


Orbit achieved. All in- 


systems for measure- 


Magnetometer — E 


L. Cahill 


TJ. of New 


strumentation operated 


ment of protons 






Hampshire 


normally. Ceased trans- 


and electrons and 


Cosmic ray — E 


B. O'Brien 


St. TJ. of Iowa 


mitting on Dec. 6, 1961, 


three orthogonally 




P. B. McDonald 


GSFC 


after sending 2,568 hours 


mounted fluxgate 


Ion-electron — E 


L. Davis 


GSFC 


of real-time data. Pro- 


sensors for correla- 


Solar cell 


G. Longanecker 


GSFC 


vided significant geo- 


tion with the mag- 








physical data on radia- 


netic fields, optical 








tion and magnetic fields. 


aspect sensor, and 








Weight: 83 lb 


one transmitter. 








Power: Solar 


PFM telemetry 










transmitting contin- 










uously. 










Micrometeoroid im- 


Cadmium sulfide photo- 


M. W. Alexander 


GSFC 


Orbit was lower than 


pact detectors; trans- 


conductor— A 


L. Secretan 




planned. Reentered 


mitters. 


Wire grid 






Aug. 28, 1961. 

Weight: 187 lb including 
50-lb 4th stage and 12-lb 
transition section. 

Power: Solar 



163 



Designation 



participa- 
tion) 
S-55a 



P-21 Electron 
Density 
Profile 
Probe 

P-21 



Tiros IV 
1962 Beta 1 
A-9 



Objectives 



space flight 
of micro- 
meteoroids. 



To measure 
electron den- 
sities and to 
investigate 
radio propa- 
gation at 12.3 
and 73.6 Me 
under day- 
time condi- 
tions. 



OSO I 
1962 Zeta 1 
OSO-1 



To develop 
principles of 
a weather 
satellite sys- 
tem; obtain 
cloud and 
radiation 
data for use 
in meteor- 
ology. 



P-21a Elec- 
tron 
Density 
Profile 
Probe 



To measure so- 
lar electro- 
magnetic ra- 
diation in the 
ultraviolet, 
X-ray and 
gamma-ray 
regions; to in- 
vestigate 
effect of dust 
particles on 
surfaces of 
spacecraft. 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 



Launch and orbit data 



Launch date/ 
silent date 



To measure 
electron den- 
sity profile, 
ion density, 
and intensity 



Oct. 19, 1961 
Oct. 19, 1961 



Vehicle and 
launch site 



Scout 
Wallops 
Island 



Feb. 8, 1962 
June 19, 1962 



Mar. 7, 1962 
Aug. 6, 1963 



Delta 
ETK 



Period, 
min. 



Statute miles 



Perigee Apogee 



100.4 



Delta 
ETK 



Mar. 20, 1962 
Mar. 20, 1962 



Project manager 

and 
project scientist 



John E. Jackson 
Dr. S. J. Bauer 



343.5 



Scout 
Wallops 
Island 



369 



Robert Rados 



Dr. John C. Lindsay 
Dr. John C. Lindsay 



John E. Jackson 
Dr. S. J. Bauer 



164 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 












Remarks 


Instrumentation 


Experiment and 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 




summary 


discipline 








Continuous-wave prop- 


RF probe— I 


H. Whale 


GSFC 


Probe achieved altitude of 


agation experiment 


CW propagation— I 


G. H. Spaid 


GSFC 


4,261 miles and trans- 


for the ascent por- 




J. E. Jackson 


GSFC 


mitted good data. Elec- 


tion of the trajectory, 








tron density was obtained 


and an RF-probe 








to about 1,500 miles, the 


technique for the 








first time such measure- 


descent. 








ments had been taken at 

this altitude. 
Weight: 94 lb 
Power; Battery 


Two TV camera sys- 


Omnidirectional radiom- 


V. Suomi 


U. of Wis- 


Orbit achieved. All sys- 


tems with clocks 


eter 




consin 


tems operated properly. 


and recorders for re- 


Widefield radiometer 


R. Hanel 


GSFC 


Tegea Einoptic lens used 


mote pictures, infra- 


Scanning radiometer 


W. Nordberg 


GSFC 


on one camera, Elgeet 


red sensors, heat 


Two TV camera systems 






lens on the other. Sup- 


budget sensors, mag- 








ported Project Mercury. 


netic orientation con- 








Weight: 285 lb 


trol horizon sensor, 








Power: Solar 


north indicator. 










Devices to conduct 13 


X-ray spectrometer— S 


W. Behring 


GSFC 


Orbit achieved. Experi- 


different experiments 




W. Neupert 




ments transmitted as 


for study of solar 


0.510 MeV gamma-ray 


K. Frost 


GSFC 


programed. 


electromagnetic ra- 


monitoring; 20-100 keV 


W. White 




Weight: 458 lb 


diations; investigate 


X-ray monitoring; 1-8A 






Power: Solar 


dust particles in 


X-ray monitoring— S. 








space and thermo- 


Dust particle— E 


M. Alexander 


GSFC 




radiation character- 




C. McCracken 






istics of spacecraft 


Solar radiation and solar 


W. White 


GSFC 




surface materials. 


ultraviolet— A 


K. Hallam 








Solar gamma rays, high- 


W. White 


GSFC 






energy distribution— A 


K. Frost 








Solar gamma rays, low- 


J. R. Winckler 


IT. of Minne- 






energy distribution— A 


L, Peterson 


sota 






Solar gamma rays, high- 


M. Savedoff 


V. of Roches- 






energy distribution— A 


G. Fazio 


ter 






Neutron monitor— E 


W. Hess 


U. of Cali- 
fornia 






Lower Van Allen belt— E 


S. Bloom 


U. of Cali- 
fornia 






Emissivity stability of 


G. Robinson 


ARC 






surfaces in a vacuum 










environment — E 








A continuous-wave 


CW propagation— I 


S. Bauer 


GSFC 


Probe achieved altitude of 


propagation experi- 


RF probe— I 


H. White 


GSFC 


3,910 miles. Afforded 


ment to determine 


Ion traps— I 


R. Bourdeau 


GSFC 


nighttime observations. 


electron density and 




E. Whipple 




Determined that charac- 


associated param- 




J. Donley 




teristics of the iono- 



165 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 





Objectives 


Launch and orbit data 


Project manager 

and 
project scientist 


Designation 


Launch date/ 
silent date 


Vehicle and 
launch site 


Period, 
mm. 


Statute miles 




Perigee 


Apogee 


P-21a Elec- 
tron 
Density 
Profile 
Probe — 
Con. 


ofionsinthe 
atmosphere. 














Arid I Inter- 
national 
Satellite 
1962 Omi- 
cron 1 
(TTK-1) 
S-51 


To study the 
relationships 
between iono- 
sphere and 
cosmic rays. 


Apr. 26, 1962 
Nov. 9, 1964 


Delta 
ETR 


100.9 


242.1 


754.2 


R. C. Baumann 
Robert E. Bourdeau 


Tiros V 
1962 Alpha 
Alpha 1 
A-50 


To develop 
principles of 
a weather 
satellite sys- 
tem; obtain 
cloud-cover 
data tor use 
in meteor- 
ology. 


June 19, 1962 
May 4, 1963 


Delta 
ETR 


100.5 


367 


604 


Robert Rados 


Telstar I 
(A project 
of AT&T) 
1962 Alpha 
Epsilon 1 
A-40 


Joint AT&T- 
NASA inves- 
tigation of 
wideband 
communica- 
tions. 


July 10, 1962 
Feb. 21, 1963 


Delta 
ETR 


157.8 


592.6 


3,503.2 


C. P. Smith, Jr. 



166 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 



Instrumentation 
summary 



Experiment and 
discipline 



Experimenter 



Affiliation 



Remarks 



eters of ionosphere. 
A swept-frequency 
probe for direct meas- 
urements of electron 
density and a posi- 
tive ion experiment 
to determine ion con- 
centration under 
nighttime conditions. 



G. Serbu 



sphere differ drastically 
from daytime state when 
the temperature of the 
ionosphere is mush cooler. 
(See P-21) 

Weight: 94 lb 

Power: Battery 



Electron density sen- 
sor, electron temper- 
ature gauge, solar 
aspect sensor, cos- 
mic-ray detector, ion 
mass sphere, Lyman- 
alpha gauges, tape 
recorder, X-ray sen- 
sors. 



Electron density sensor— I 

Electron temperature 
gauge— I 

Cosmic-ray detector— E 



Ion mass sphere— I 



Lyman-alpha gauge— I 



J. Sayers 

E. L. F. Boyd 

H. Elliot 

B. L. F. Boyd 

R. L. F. Boyd 



X-ray emission— I R. L. F. Boyd 



TJ. of Birming- 
ham (U.K.) 

U. College, 
London 
(U.K.) 

Imperial Col- 
lege, Lon- 
don (U.K.) 

U. College, 
London 
(U.K.) 

U. College, 
London 
(U.K.) 

U. College, 
London 
(U.K.) 



Orbit achieved. First inter- 
national satellite. Con- 
tained six British ex- 
periments launched by 
American Delta vehicle. 
All experiments except 
Lyman-alpha transmitted 
as programed. Lyman- 
alpha gauge failed dur- 
ing launch, ion mass 
sphere, Sept. 1962; X-ray 
emission, Oct. 1962; cos- 
mic-ray detector, Dee. 
1962, and electron den- 
sity sensor, Mar. 1963. 
Tracking and data ac- 
quisition stopped on re- 
quest of the project on 
June 30, 1964. Restarted 
on Aug. 25, 1964, for a 2- 
month period. Good data 
were acquired from 
electron temperature 
gauge. 



Two TV camera sys- 
tems with tape re- 
corders for recording 
remote picture areas, 
magnetic orientation 
control, horizon sen- 
sor, north indicator. 



Two TV camera systems 



Launched at a higher in- 
clination (58°) than pre- 
vious Tiros satellites, 
to provide greater cover- 
age. Time of launch 
chosen to include normal 
hurricane season for 
South Atlantic. One TV 
system transmitted good 
data 'for 10J4 months. 

Weight: 285 lb 

Power: Solar 



The system provided 
TV, radio, telephone 
and data transmis- 
sion via a satellite 
repeater system. 



Included electron detec- 
tor for range 0.25-1 
MeV; proton detectors 
in the following energy 
ranges: 2.5-25.0 MeV, 
ranges greater than 50 
MeV. 



W. Brown 



BTL 



Orbit achieved. Television 
and voice transmissions 
were made with com- 
plete success. BTL pro- 
vided spacecraft and 
ground stations facilities. 
Government was reim- 
bursed for cost incurred. 



167 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 





Objectives 


Launch and orbit data 


Project manager 
and 


Designation 


Launch date/ 


Vehicle and 


Period, 


Statute miles 














project scientist 












Perigee 


Apogee 


Telstar I — 
















Cont. 
















Tiros VI 


To study cloud 


Sept. 18, 1962 


Delta 


98.73 


425 


442 


Robert Rados 


1962 Alpha 


cover and 


Oct. 11, 1963 


ETR 










Psil 


earth heat 














A-51 


balance; 
measurement 
of radiation 
in selected 
spectral re- 
gions as part 
of a program 
to develop 
meteorologi- 
cal satellite 
systems. 














Alouette I 


To measure the 


Sept. 29, 1962 


Thor-Agena 


105.4 


620 


638 


John E. Jackson 


Swept Fre- 


electron den- 




WTR 










quency 


sity distribu- 














Topside 


tion in the 














Sounder 


ionosphere 














(Canada) 


between the 














1962 Beta 


satellite 














Alpha 1 


height (620 














S-27 


miles) and 
the F2 peak 
(approx. 180 
miles) and to 
study for a 
period of one 
year the var- 
iations of 
electron den- 
sity distribu- 
tion with 
time of day 
and with lati- 
tude under 
varying mag- 
netic and 
auroral con- 
ditions with 
particular 
emphasis on 
high-latitude 
effects. To 
obtain galac- 
tic-noise 
measure- 
ments, study 















168 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 












Remarks 


Instrumentation 


Experiment and 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 




summary 


discipline 
















Conducted more than 300 










technical tests and over 










400 demonstrations; 50 










TV programs — 5 to color. 










Weight: 175 lb 










Power: Solar 


Two TV camera sys- 


Two TV camera systems 






Inclination 58.3°; velocity 


tems (78° and 104° 








at perigee 16,822; apogee, 


lens), clocks and 








16,766. Medium-angle 


tape recorders for re- 








camera failed Dec. 1, 


mote operation, in- 








1962, after taking 1,074 


frared and attitude 








pictures. TV camera pro- 


sensors, magnetic- 








vided good data for 13 


attitude coil. 








months after launch . 
Weight: 300 lb 
Power: Solar 


The satellite was spin- 


Topside sounder— I 


E. S. Warren 


DETE 


The Alouette satellite was a 


Stabilized and con- 




G. L. B. Nelms 




project of the Canadian 


tained a swept-fre- 




G. E. Lockwood 




Defence Research Board. 


quency pulse sounder 




E. L. Hagg 




This international project 


covering the fre- 




h. E. Petrle 




was a part of NASA's top- 


quency range 1.6 to 




D. B. Muldrew 




side sounder program 


11.5 Mc. Sounder 




E. W. Kiiecht 


CEPL NBS 


and was the first NASA- 


data were trans- 




T.E.VanZandt 




launched satellite from 


mitted via a 2-watt 




W. Calvert 




the WTE. Alouette had 


I'M telemetry sys- 




J. W. King 


DSIK Eng- 


the distinction of being 


tem. Data from the 






land 


the first spacecraft de- 


other experiments 




S. J. Bauer 


GSFC 


signed and built by any 


and housekeeping 




Xj. Blumle 




country other than the 


data were trans- 




E. Fitzenreiter 




U.S. and the U.S.S.E. 


mitted through a H- 




J. E. Jackson 




Weight: 320 lb 


watt PM-telemetry 


Energetic particle coun- 


D. C. Eose 


NEC Canada 


Power: Solar 


system. There were 


ters— E 


I. B. McDiarmid 






two sets of sounder 


VLF receiver (whistler) 


J. S. Belrose 


DETE 




antennas, the longest 


—I 








set measuring 150 ft. 


Cosmic noise— A 


T. R. Hartz 


DETE 




tip to tip. Data were 










acquired on com- 










mand and in real 










time only. 











169 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 





Objectives 


Launch and orbit data 


Project manager 

and 
project scientist 


Designation 


Launch date/ 
silent date 


Vehicle and 
launch site 


Period, 
min. 


Statute miles 




Perigee 


Apogee 


Almette I — 
Cont. 


the flux of 
energetic par- 
ticles, and in- 
vestigate 
whistlers. 














Explorer XIV 
Energetic 
Particles 
Satellite 
1962 Beta 
Gamma 1 
EPE-B 
S-3a 


To correlate 
energetic par- 
ticles activity 
with obser- 
vations of the 
earth's mag- 
netic fields; 
to monitor 
the existence 
of transient 
magnetic 
fields asso- 
ciated with 
plasma 
streams. 


Oct. 2, 1962 
Feb. 1964 


Delta 
ETR 


36.68 
hours 


174 


61,090 


Paul G. Marcotte 
Dr. F. B. McDonald 


Explorer X V 
1962 Beta 
Lambda 1 
EPE-C 
S-3b 


To study arti- 
ficial radia- 
tion belt 
created by 
nuclear explo- 
sion. 


Oct. 27, 1962 
Feb. 9, 1963 


Delta 
ETR 


6 hours 


196 


10,950 


Dr. John W. 
Townsend 
Dr. Wilmot Hess 


Relay I 
1962 Beta 
Upsilon 1 

A-1S 


To investigate 
wideband 
communica- 
tions between 
ground sta- 
tions by 
means of low- 
altitude or- 
biting space- 
craft. Com- 
munications 
signal to be 
evaluated 
will be an 
assortment o] 
TV signals, 
multichannel 
telephony, 


Dec. 13, 1962 


Delta 
ETR 


186.09 


819.64 


4,612.18 


Wendell Sunderiin 
Dr. R. Waddel 



170 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 












Remarks 


Instrumentation 


Experiment and 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 




summary 


discipline 






— ■ 


A low-energy (0.1 to 


Proton analyzer— E 


M. Bader 


AEC 


Velocity at apogee 1,507 


20 keV) proton an- 


Magnetic field (magne- 


L. Cahill 


U. of New 


mph; perigee 23,734 mph. 


alyzer; a three-core 


tometer)— E 




Hampshire 


Inclination to equator 


magnetometer; one 


Trapped-particle radia- 


J. A. Van Allen 


State U. of 


33°. 


omnidirectional and 


tion— E 


B.J. O'Brien 


Iowa 


Weight: 89.25 lb 


three directional elec- 


Cosmic-ray, ion-electron 


F. B. McDonald 


GSFC 


Power: Solar 


tron-proton detec- 


detector, solar-cell, and 


L. R. Davis 






tors; a cosmic-ray 


electrolytic timer — E 


U. Desai 






package; an ion-elec- 










tron scintillation de- 










tector; and devices to 










determine the effects 










of radiation on solar 










cells and the effects 










of space on electro- 










lytic timers. 










Similar to Explorer 


Electron energy distribu- 


W. Brown 


BTL 


Good data received on 


XII 


tion— I 


U. Desai 


GSFC 


artificial radiation belt- 




Omnidirectional detector 


C. Mcllwain 


U. of Cali- 


Weight: 1001b 




-I 




fornia 


Power: Solar 




Angular detector— E 


W. Brown 


BTL 






Directional detector— I 


C. Mcllwain 


U. of Cali- 
fornia 






Ion-electron detector— E 


L. Davis 


GSFC 






Magnetic field— E 


L. Cahill 


U. of New 
Hampshire 






Solar cell damage— I 


H. K. Gummel 


BTL 




The spacecraft con- 


Determine radiation dam- 


E. Waddel 


GSFC 


Orbit achieved. TV, tele- 


tained an active com- 


age to solar cells and 






phone, teletype, facsimile, 


munications repeater 


semiconductor diodes— 






and digital-data trans- 


to receive and re- 


E 






missions were made with 


transmit communi- 


Measure proton energy 


W. Brown 


BTL 


very satisfactory results. 


cations between the 


(2.5-25.0 MeV)— E 






Conducted more than 2,000 


U.S. and Europe, 


Measure electron energy 


W. Brown 


BTL 


technical tests and 172 


U.S. and South 


(1.25-2.0 MeV)— E 






successful demonstra- 


America, U.S. and 


Measure integral omnidi- 


C. Mcllwain 


U. of Cali- 


tions. 


Japan, and Europe 


rectional proton flux en- 




fornia 


Weight: 1721b 


and South America; 


ergy (35.0-300.0 MeV) 






Power: Solar 


and an experiment 


— E 








to assess radiation 


Measure directional elec- 


C. Mcllwain 


U. of Cali- 




damage to solar cells, 


tron energy (0.5-1.2 




fornia 




and to measure pro- 


MeV)— E 








ton and electron en- 


Measure directional pro- 


C. Mcllwain 


U. of Cali- 




ergy. 


ton energy (15.0-60.0 
MeV)— E 




fornia 





171 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 



Designation 



Objectives 



Launch and orbit data 



Launch date/ 
silent date 



Vehicle and 
launch site 



Period, 
min. 



Statute miles 



Perigee Apogee 



Project manager 

and 
project scientist 



Relay I— 

Con. 



and other 
communica- 
tions. To 
measure the 
effects of the 
space envi- 
ronment on 
the system; 
to include ra- 
diation dam- 
age to solar 
cells and ra- 
diation flux 
density. To 
provide tests 
and demon- 
strations of 
low-altitude 
communica- 
tions satellite. 



Syncovi I 
1963 4A 
A-25 



To provide ex- 
perience in 
using com- 
munications 
satellites in a 
24-hour orbit. 
To flight-test 
a new, simple 
approach to 
satellite atti- 
tude and 
period con- 
trol. To de- 
velop trans- 
portable 
ground facili- 
ties to be used 
in conjunc- 
tion with 
communica- 
tions satel- 
lites. To de- 
velop capa- 
bility of 
launching 
satellites into 
24-hour orbit 
using existing 
vehicles, plus 
apogee kick 
techniques 
and to test 
components' 
life at 24-hour- 
orbit altitude. 



Feb. 14, 1963 
Feb. 14, 1963 



Delta 
ETR 



24 hours 



Near- 
syn- 
cbxo- 
nous 
orbit 



22,300 



E. J. Darcey 



172 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 












Remarks 


Instrumentation 


Experiment and 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 




summary 


discipline 










Measure directional pro- 


C. Mcllwain 


U. of Cali- 






ton energy (1.0-8.0 




fornia 






MeV)-— E 








The 24-hour communi- 








Twenty seconds after firing 


cations satellite con- 








apogee rocket, all satellite 


sists of a spin-stabi- 








transmissions stopped. 


lized active repeater 








The satellite was sighted 


in a near-synchro- 








on Feb. 28, 1963, and later 


nous low-inclination 








dates. It was traveling in 


orbit. The spacecraft 








a near-synchronous orbit 


Is in the form of a cyl- 








eastward at about 2.8° per 


inder 28 inches in 








day. 


diameter and 15 








Weight: 78 lb 


inches high. The re- 








Power: Solar 


peater consists of a 










7200-Mc receiver and 










an 1800-Mc trans- 










mitter with an out- 










put of 2 watts. In 










addition, the space- 










craft contains a ver- 










nier velocity control 










system for orienta- 










tion of spin axis and 










adjustment of the 










orbit. 











173 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 







Launch and orbit data 


Project manager 












Designation 


Objectives 


Launch date/ 


Vehicle and 


Period, 


Statute miles 


and 


























Perigee 


Apogee 




Explorer 


To measure the 


Apr. 3, 1963 


Delta 


96.4 


153.1 


598.5 


N. W. Spencer 


XVII 


density, com- 


July 10, 1963 


ETE 










Atmosphere 


position, 














Explorer 


pressure, and 














1963 9A 


temperature 














s-e 


of the earth's 
atmosphere 
from 135 to 
540 nautical 
miles and to 
determine the 
variations of 
these param- 
eters with 
time of day, 
latitude, and 
in part, sea- 
son. 














TeUtar II 


Joint AT&T- 


May 7, 1963 


Delta 


221 


575 


6,559 


C. P. Smith, Jr. 


1963 13 A 


NASA Inves- 




ETR 










(A project 


tigation of 














of AT&T) 


wideband 














A-41 


eommunica- 

tiODS. 














Tiros VII 


To launch Into 


June 19, 1963 


Delta 


97.4 


385.02 


401.14 


Robert Bados 


1963 24 A 


orbit a satel- 




ETE 










A-52 


lite capable 
of viewing 
cloud cover 
and the 
earth's sur- 
face and at- 
mosphere by 
means of tele- 
vision cam- 
eras and ra- 
diation sen- 
sors. To ac- 
quire and 
process col- 
lected data 
from satellite 
and to con- 
trol its atti- 
tude by mag- 
netic means. 














Syncom II 


To provide ex- 


July 26, 1963 


Delta 


24 hours 


22,300 near-syn- 


E, J, Darcey 


1963 31A 


perience in 




ETR 




chronous orbit 




A-26 


using com- 
munications 
satellites in a 
24-hour orbit. 















174 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 












Remarks 


Instrumentation 


Experiment and 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 




summary 


discipline 








Primary detectors 


Two mass spectrometers 


C. Reber 


GSFC 


Confirmed that the earth 


employed (two 


— P 






is surrounded by a belt 


each) are: Double 


Four vacuum (pressure) 


E. Horowitz 


GSFC 


of neutral helium at an 


focusing magnetic 


gauges— P 


G. Newton 


GSFC 


altitude of from ISO to 


sector mass spec- 


Two electrostatic probes 


N. Spencer 


GSFC 


600 miles. 


trometer, hot-cath- 


—I 


L. Brace 




Weight: 405 lb 


ode total-pressure 








Power: Silver-zinc batteries 


ionization gauges, and 










cold-cathode total- 










pressure ionization 










gauges. The remain- 










ing satellite instru- 










mentation converts 










the outputs from six 










detectors to radio 










signals. 










The system provides 


Included electron detec- 






Weight: 178 lb 


for TV, radio, tele- 


tor for energy range 






Power: Solar 


phone, and data 


0.75 to 2 MeV 








transmission via a 










satellite repeater 










system. 










Two vidicon camera 


Omnidirectional radiom- 


V. Suomi 


U. of Wis- 


TV coverage extended to 


systems with tape 


eter— P 




consin 


65° N and 65° S latitudes. 


recorder for record- 


Scanning radiometer 


A. McCulloch 


GSFC 


Launch date selected to 


ing remote picture 


Electron temperature ex- 


N. Spencer 


GSFC 


provide maximum north- 


area, five-channel 


periment— R 






ern hemisphere coverage 


medium-resolution 


Two TV camera systems 






during 1963 hurricane 


radiometer, electron 








season. Electron tem- 


temperature probe, 








perature probe malfunc- 


and magnetic atti- 








tion 26 days after launch. 


tude coil. 








First Tiros to have two 
operational camera sys- 
tems and fully function- 
ing I R subsystem 15 
months after launch. 

Weight: 297 lb 

Power: Solar 

Inclination: 58° to equator 


The 24-hour communi- 








Orbit and attitude control 


cations satellite con- 








of the spin-stabilized 


sists of a spin-stabi- 








synchronous satellite 


lized active repeater 








achieved. Data telephone 


in a near-synchro- 








and facsimile transmis- 


nous low-inclination 








sion were excellent. 



175 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 





Objectives 


Launch and orbit data 


Project manager 

and 
project scientist 


Designation 


Launch date/ 
silent date 


Vehicle and 
launch site 


Period, 
min. 


Statute miles 




Perigee 


Apogee 


Syncom II — 
Con. 


To flight- test 
a new, simple 
approach to 
satellite atti- 
tude and 
period con- 
trol. To de- 
velop trans- 
portable 
ground facili- 
ties to be 
used in con- 
junction with 
communica- 
tions satel- 
lites. To de- 
velop capa- 
bility of 
launching 
satellites into 
24-hour orbit 
using existing 
vehicles, plus 
apogee kick 
techniques 
and to test 
components' 
life at 24-hour 
orbit altitude. 














Explorer 
X VIII 
Interplane- 
tary Moni- 
toring 
Platform 
1963 46A 
I MP- A 


To study in de- 
tail the ra- 
diation en- 
vironment of 
cislunar space 
and to moni- 
tor this re- 
gion over a 
significant 
portion of a 
solar cycle. 
To study the 
quiescent 
properties of 
the inter- 
planetary 
magnetic field 
and its dy- 
namical rela- 
tionships 
with particle 
fluxes from 
the sun. To 
develop a so- 
lar flare pre- 
diction capa- 


Nov. 27, 1963 
May 1965 


Delta 
ETE 


93 hours 


122 


121,606 


Paul Butler 

Dr. F. B. McDonald 



176 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 












Remarks 


Instrumentation 


Experiment and 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 




summary 


discipline 








orbit. The space- 








Television video signals 


craft is in the form 








also were successfully 


of a cylinder 28 inches 








transmitted, even though 


in diameter and 15 








the satellite was not de- 


inches high. The re- 








signed for this capability. 


peater consists of a 








Weight: 70 lb 


7,200-Mc receiver and 








Power: Solar 


an 1,800-Mc trans- 










mitter with an out- 










put of 2 watts. In 










addition, the space- 










craft contains a ver- 










nier velocity-control 










system for orienta- 










tion of spin axis and 










adjustment of the 










orbit. 










To carry 10 experi- 


Plasma: measure thermal 


G. P. Serbu 


GSFC 


All experiments and equip- 


ments; essentially a 


ions and electrons 0.10 


E. Bourdeau 




ment operated satisfac- 


combination of the 


eV-I 






torily except for thermal 


successful GSFC 


Magnetic field experi- 


N. F. Ness 


GSFC 


ion experiment which 


Explorer X and XII 


ment (fluxgate magne- 






gave only 10 percent good 


satellites. It is spin- 


tometer)— E 






data. Continued to pro- 


stabilized and pow- 


Measure solar and galac- 


J. A. Simpson 


U. of Chicago 


vide significant data. 


ered by solar cells. 


tic protons and alpha 






First accurate measure of 


The system is de- 


particles— E 






the interplanetary mag- 


signed so that data 


Measure total ionization 


K. A. Anderson 


TJ. of Cali- 


netic field, and the shock 


can be received from 


produced per unit time 




fornia 


front. First satellite to 


apogee by the QSFC 


in a unit volume of 






survive a severe earth 


Minitrack stations. 


standard density air— E 






shadow of 7 hr 55 mill. 




Measure flux of low- 


H. S. Bridge 


MIT 


Electronics equipment 




energy interplanetary 






estimated to have cooled 




plasma — E 






to below -80° C. 




Measure solar and galac- 


F. McDonald 


GSFC 


Weight: 137.5 lb 




tic protons, electrons, 


G. Ludwig 




Power: 38 watts solar 




alpha particles, heavy 










primaries, and isotropy 










of solar proton events 










and of cosmic-ray mod- 










ulation— E 










Magnetic field (rubidium- 


N. F. Ness 


GSFC 






vapor magnetometer) — ■ 
E 









177 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Goddard Space Flight Center 




178 



APPENDIX B 

Satellite and Space Probe Projects (Cont.) 



Experiment data 




Instrumentation 
summary 


Experiment and 
discipline 


Experimenter 


Affiliation 


Remarks 




Solar-wind proton con- 
centrations — E 


John Wolfe 


ARC 




One standard Tiros 
vidieon with a wide- 
angle lens camera 
system, and one 
automatic picture 
transmission camera 
system; magnetic at- 
titude coil. 


One standard Tiros TV 

system 
One APT camera system 


G. Hunter 


QSFC 


This satellite proved for 
the first time the feasi- 
bility of AFT (automatic 
picture transmission), an 
inexpensive direct fac- 
simile readout. 

Weight: 265 lb 

Power: Solar 



179 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK ROT FILMED. 



Appendix 

NASA Sou 
Rocket Fli 




Notes 



Numbering System 

1. Aerobee-100 

2. Arcon 

3. Nike-Asp 

4. Aerobee-150, 150A 

5. Iris 

6. Aerobee-300 

7. Argo E-5 

8. Argo D-4 

9. Skylark 

Identifying Letters 

The letters which follow each rocket number identify (1) the instrumenting agency, 
and (2) the experiment according to the following list: 



10. Nike-Cajun 

11. Argo D-8 

12. Special Projects 

14. Nike-Apache 

15. Areas 

16. Astrobee-1500 

17. Aerobee-350 

18. Nike-Tomahawk 





Agency 


G 


Goddard 


N 


Other NASA Centers 


U 


College or University 


D 


DOD 


A 


Other Government Agency 


C 


Industrial Corporations 


I 


International 



ARG Chamical, Argentina 

ASC Ascension Island 

AUS Woomera, Australia 

BRZ Natal, Brazil 

EGL Eglin Air Force Base, Florida 

FC Fort Churchill, Canada 





Experiment 


A 


Aeronomy 


M 


Meteorology 


E 


Energetic Particles and Fields 


I 


Ionospheric Physics 


S 


Solar Physics 


G 


Galactic Astronomy 


R 


Radio Astronomy 


B 


Biological 


P 


Special Projects 


T 


Test and Support 


iring Sites 




IND 


Thumba, India 


Italy 


Sardinia, Italy 


NOR 


Andoya, Norway 


NZ 


Karikari, New Zealand 


PB 


Point Barrow, Alaska 


PMR 


Pacific Missile Range 



181 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



PAK 


Karachi, Pakistan 


WI 


SWE 


Kronogard, Sweden 


WS 


SUR 


Coronie, Surinam 


Abbreviations 



Wallops Island, Virginia 
White Sands Missile Range, 
New Mexico 



AFCRL Air Force Cambridge Research 
Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. 

Ames NASA, Ames Research Center, 

Moffett Field, Calif. 

AS&E American Science and Engineering, 

Inc., Cambridge, Mass. 

BRL Ballistics Research Laboratories, 

Aberdeen, Md. 

BuStds National Bureau of Standards, 
Boulder, Colo. 

CRPL Central Radio Propagation 

Laboratories, National Bureau of 
Standards, Boulder, Colo. 

AIL Airborne Instruments Laboratory, 

New York 

DRTE Canadian Defence Research Tele- 

communications Establishment, 
Ottawa, Canada 

GCA Geophysics Corporation of America, 

Bedford, Mass. 

NRL Naval Research Laboratory, Wash- 

ington, DC 

U. Colo. University of Colorado, Boulder, 
Colo. 

U. 111. University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

U. Mich. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Mich. 

UNH University of New Hampshire, 

Durham, N.H. 



U. Pitt. 



University of Pittsburgh, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wis. 

Varian Associates, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 

Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasa- 
dena, Calif. 

NASA, Langley Research Center, 
Hampton, Va. 

NASA, Lewis Research Center, 
Cleveland, Ohio 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Divi- 
sion, Palo Alto, Calif. 

University of Minnesota, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

New York University, New York, 
N.Y. 
Penn State Penn State University, University 

Park, Pa. 
Princeton Princeton University, Princeton, 
N.J. 

Rice University, Houston, Tex. 

Southwest Center for Advanced 
Studies, Dallas, Tex. 



U. Wise. 

Varian 

Harvard 

JHU 

JPL 

LaRC 

LeRC 

Lockheed 
U. Minn. 

NYU 



Rice 

SCAS 



182 



NASA Sounding Rocket Flights 







Firing 










NASA No. 








Experimenter 


NASA scientist 


Experiment 


Results'* 










and location 




Date 


Site 


Performance* 












1960 






Aeronomy 














4.09 GA 


Apr. 29 


WI 


S 


Horowitz, GSFC 


Horowitz, GSFC 


Atmospheric Composition 


S 


10.03 GA 


June 16 


WI 


P 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Grenade 


X 


10.04 GA 


July 9 


WI 


S 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Grenade 


S 


10.01 GA 


14 


WI 


S 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Grenade 


X 


4.14 GA 


Nov. 15 


WI 


S 


Taylor, GSFC 


Taylor, GSFC 


Atmospheric Composition 


s 


10.06 GA 


Dec. 14 
1961 


WI 


S 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.07 GA 


Feb. 14 


WI 


S 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.08 GA 


17 


WI 


P 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.33 GA 


Apr. 5 


WI 


s 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Nordberg, GSFC 


Grenade 


p 


10.34 GA 


27 


WI 


X 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


X 


10.02 GA 


May 5 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.28 GA 


"6 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.29 GA 


9 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


p 


10.30 GA 


July 13 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.31 GA 


14 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.32 GA 


20 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.35 GA 


21 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


X 



I 

1 

n 






S — Successful 

P — Partial success} Subject to interpretation. 

X — Unsuccessful I 



Oo 



NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Cont.) 







Firin 


y 










NASA No. 








Experimenter 


NASA scientist 
and location 


Experiment 


Results 8 














Date 


Site 


Performance' 1 












1961 






Aeronomy— 


-Continued 














10.36 GA 


Sept. 16 


WI 


P 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


P 


10.37 GA 


17 


WI 


S 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


X 


1.08 GA 


23 


FC 


s 


Varian Associates 


Martin, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


S 


1.09 GA 


30 


FC 


s 


Varian Associates 


Martin, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


s 


8.23 GA 


Oct. 10 


WI 


s 


Taylor, GSFC 


Taylor, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 


1.10 GA 


15 


FC 


s 


Varian Associates 


Martin, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


s 


1.07 GA 


17 


FC 


s 


Varian Associates 


Martin, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


s 


1.11 GA 


Nov. 2 


FC 


s 


Varian Associates 


Martin, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


s 


1.12 GA 


5 


FC 


s 


Varian Associates 


Martin, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


s 


10.64 GA 


Dec. 21 
1962 


WI 


s 


U. Mich. 


Spencer, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


s 


10.38 GA 


Mar. 2 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.39 GA 


2 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


4.18 GA 


19 


WI 


X 


U. Mich. 


Spencer, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


X 


10.40 GA 


23 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.41 GA 


28 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.42 GA 


Apr. 17 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


5.04 GA 


May 3 


WI 


p 


Taylor, GSFC 


Taylor, GSFC 


Atmospheric Structure 


s 


10.43 GA 


June 7 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.44 GA 


8 


WI 


s 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


s 


10.55 GA 


Nov. 16 


FC 


X 


Smith, GSFC 


Smith, GSFC 


Grenade 


X 


6.06 GA 


20 


WI 


s 


U. Mich. 


Brace, GSFC 


Thermosphere Probe 


s 



s 
o 

8 



10.45 GA 
10.68 GA 

10.46 GA 
10.67 GA 

10.47 GA 
10.66 GA 



10.48 GA 

10.58 GA 

10.53 GA 

10.59 GA 

10.54 GA 

10.60 GA 
6.07 GA 

10.55 GA 



10.72 NA 



10.79 NA 

1.13 NA 

1.14 NA 



10.80 NA 
10.92 NA 



Dec. 



1 


WI 


1 


FC 


4 


WI 


4 


FC 


6 


WI 


6 


FC 



1963 



Feb. 


20 


WI 




20 


FC 




28 


WI 




28 


FC 


Mar. 


9 


WI 




9 


FC 


Apr. 


18 


WI 


Dec. 


7 


WI 


1961 




Nov. 


18 


WI 



1962 

Apr. 5 
Sept. 6 
Nov. 20 

1963 

Jan. 17 
Sept. 25 



WI 
WI 
WI 



WI 
WI 



s 
s 
s 

X 

s 
s 



s 
s 

X 



Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 



Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
U. Mich. 
Smith, GSFC 



LaRC 



LeRC 

JPL 

JPL 



LeRC 
LaRC 



Smith, 
Smith, 
Smith, 
Smith, 
Smith, 
Smith, 



Smith, 
Smith, 
Smith, 
Smith, 
Smith, 
Smith, 
Brace, 
Smith, 



GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 



GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 



Hord, LaRC 



Potter, LeRC 
Dubin, HQ, 
Dubin, HQ 



Potter, LeRC 
LaRC 



Grenade 
Grenade 
Grenade 
Grenade 
Grenade 
Grenade 



Grenade 

Grenade 

Grenade 

Grenade 

Grenade 

Grenade 

Thermosphere Probe 

Grenade 



Airglow 



Ozone 

UV Airglow 

UV Airglow 



Ozone 

Chemical Release 



S 
X 
X 

S 

s 
s 



s 



s 
s 

X 



po 



S— Successful J 

P — Partial success } Subject to interpretation. 



X — Unsuccessful 



Oo 
ON 



NASA Sounding Rocket Plights (Cont.) 



NASA No. 




Firin 


y 


Experimenter 


NASA scientist 
and location 


Experiment 


Results* 




Date 


Site 


Performance" 






1963 






Aeronomy— 


-Continued 














10.93 NA 

14.102 NA 

14.103 NA 
4.85 NA 


Sept. 25 

Oct. 9 

10 

Nov. 18 

1960 


WI 
WI 
WI 
WI 


S 
S 
S 
S 


LaRC 
LeRC 
LeRC 
JPL 


LaRC 

Potter, LeRC 
Potter, LeRC 
Dubin, HQ 


Chemical Release 
Chemical Release 
Chemical Release 
Airglow 


S 

S 

s 

S 


10.09 UA 

10.10 UA 


Nov. 2 
16 

1961 


WI 
WI 


S 
S 


U. Mich. 
U. Mich. 


Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 


Atmospheric Composition 
Atmospheric Composition 


X 

X 


10.50 UA 

10.56 UA 

10.57 UA 


June 6 

9 

July 26 

1962 


WI 

WI 

wr 


S 
S 
S 


U. Mich. 
U. Mich. 
U. Mich. 


Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 


Atmospheric Structure 
Atmospheric Composition 
Atmospheric Composition 


s 

X 
X 


10.90 UA 

10.91 UA 

14.19 UA 

14.20 UA 
4.74 UA 


Feb. 20 
May 18 
June 6 
Dec. 1 
13 


WI 
WI 
WI 
WI 
WI 


S 
S 
S 
S 
X 


U. Mich. 
U. Mich. 
U. Mich. 
U. Mich. 
JHU 


Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Spencer, GSFC 
Spencer, GSFC 
Dubin, HQ 


Atmospheric Composition 
Atmospheric Composition 
Atmospheric Structure 
Atmospheric Structure 
Airglow 


X 

s 
s 
s 

X 



i 

to 

H 
O 

Oo 

2 

o 

fcrj 



4.73 UA 

14.08 UA 

14.09 UA 
4.98 UA 

4.75 UA 
10.75 UA 

4.76 UA 

14.10 UA 
10.131 UA 
14.21 UA 



14.140 DA 

14.141 DA 
10.130 DA 



3.13 CA 

3.14 CA 

3.15 CA 

3.16 CA 

3.17 CA 



3.23 CA 

3.24 CA 
10.05 CA 



1963 




Jan. 29 


WI 


Mar. 28 


WI 


28 


WI 


May 7 


WI 


July 20 


FC 


Aug. 2 


WI 


Nov. 12 


WI 


26 


WI 


26 


WI 


Dec. 7 


WI 


1963 




May 18 


EGL 


18 


EGL 


22 


EGL 


1959 




Aug. 17 


WI 


19 


WI 


Nov. 18 


WI 


19 


WI 


20 


WI 


1960 




May 24 


WI 


25 


WI 


Sept. 20 


WI 



X 


JHU 


s 


U. Mich. 


s 


U. Mich. 


s 


JHU 


X 


JHU 


s 


U. Mich 


s 


JHU 


s 


U. Mich. 


s 


U. Mich. 


s 


U. Mich. 



s 

X 

s 
s 
s 



X 

s 
s 



AFCRL 
AFCRL 
AFCRL 



GCA 
GCA 
GCA 
GCA 
GCA 



GCA 

GCA 
Nordberg, GSFC 



Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ. 
Dubin, HQ, 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Holtz, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Smith, GSFC 



Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 



Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 



Dubin, HQ 

Dubin, HQ 
Nordberg, GSFC 



Airglow 

Atmospheric Composition 

Atmospheric Composition 

Airglow 

Airglow 

Atmospheric Density 

Airglow 

Atmospheric Composition 

Atmospheric Density 

Atmospheric Structure 



Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 



Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 



Sodium Vapor 

Sodium Vapor 
Grenade 



X 

s 

X 

S 
X 

S 

s 
s 
s 
s- 



s 

X 

s 

X 
X 



X 

s 

X 









a S— Successful ] 

P — Partial success /Subject to interpretation. 
X — Unsuccessful j 



Qo 

Co 



NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Cont.) 







Firin 


J 










NASA No. 








Experimenter 


NASA scientist 
and location 


Experiment 


Results' 1 














Date 


Site 


Performance 1 * 












1960 






Aeronomy— 


-Continued 














8.04 CA 


Nov. 10 


WI 


S 


Lockheed 


Dubin, HQ 


Ionosphere 


P 


10.11 CA 


Dec. 9 


Wl 


X 


GCA 


Dubin, HQ. 


Sodium Vapor 


X 


10.12 CA 


9 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Dubin, HQ 


Sodium Vapor 


s 


8.05 CA 


10 
1961 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Dubin, HQ 


Sodium Vapor 


s 


3.05 CA 


Apr. 19 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Dubin, HQ 


Sodium Vapor 


s 


3.06 CA 


21 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Dubin, HQ 


Sodium Vapor 


s 


3.07 CA 


21 


WI 


X 


GCA 


Dubin, HQ 


Sodium Vapor 


X 


3.08 CA 


■ 21 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Dubin, HQ 


Sodium Vapor 


S 


8.06 CA 


Sept. 13 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


S 


8.22 CA 


13 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


S 


3.09 CA 


16 


WI 


X 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


X 


3.18 CA 


16 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


s 


3.19 CA 


17 
1962 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


s 


10.100 CA 


Mar. 1 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


S 


10.101 CA 


2 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


S 


10.102 CA 


23 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


S 


10.103 CA 


27 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


S 


3.20 CA 


Apr. 17 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Smith, GSFC 


Sodium Vapor 


s 



H 

to 

H 
O 

is 

k. 

O 

fa 



3.21 CA 

3.22 CA 
14.30 CA 

14.16 CA 

14.17 CA 

14.18 CA 



3.11 CA 
14.35 CA 

14.39 CA 
14.110 CA 

14.13 CA 

14.14 CA 

14.15 CA 

14.40 CA 

14.41 CA 

14.42 CA 
10.77 IA 

14.137 IA 

14.138 IA 

14.139 IA 
14.128 IA 



Rehbar l b 
Rehbar 2 b 



June 7 


WI 


7 


WI 


Aug. 23 


WI 


Nov. 7 


WI 


. 30 


WI 


Dec. 5 


WI 


1963 




Feb. 18 


WI 


20 


WI 


21 


WI 


May 8 


WI 


22 


FC 


22 


FC 


23 


FC 


24 


WI 


24 


WI 


25 


WI 


May 16 


PAK 


20 


Italy 


21 


Italy 


21 


Italy 


Nov. 21 


IND 


1962 




June 7 


PAK 


11 


PAK 



S 


GCA 


X 


GCA 


p 


Lockheed 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 



Oo 



" S — Successful I 

P — Partial success ("Subject to interpretation. 

X — Unsuccessful j 
b Nike-Cajun 



X 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


Lockheed 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


Pakistan 


s 


Italy 


s 


Italy 


s 


Italy 


s 


India 



Pakistan 

Pakistan 



Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Depew, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 



Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Bourdeau, GSFC 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ. 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ . 
Dubin, HQ 
Dubin, HQ 



Dubin, HQ 

Dubin, HO 



Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Atmospheric Structure 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 



Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Massenfilter 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 
Sodium Vapor 



Sodium Vapor 

Sodium Vapor 



S 
X 
X 

S 

s 
p 



X 

s 
s 

X 

s 
s 
s 
s 

X 

s 

X 

s 
s 
s 
p 



X 

X 









NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Cont.) 







Firin 


y 










NASA No. 








Experimenter 


NASA scientist 


Experiment 


Results" 












and location 








Date 


Site 


Performance* 












1960 






Energetic Particles and Fields 














10.17 GE 


June 6 


FC 


S 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


S 


8.07 GE 


30 


WI 


X 


Heppner, GSFC 


Heppner, GSFC 


Magnetic Field 


s 


10.18 GE 


July 22 


FC 


X 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.19 GE 


Sept. 3 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.20 GE 


3 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


11.01 GE 


19 


PMR 


s 


Naugle, GSFC 


Naugle, GSFC 


NERV 1 


s 


10.21 GE 


27 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.22 GE 


Nov. 11 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.23 GE 


11 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


p 


10.24 GE 


12 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.15 GE 


12 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.16 GE 


13 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.13 GE 


16 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.14 GE 


17 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.26 GE 


18 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


10.27 GE 


18 


FC 


s 


Fichtel, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


SBE 


s 


8.08 GE 


Dec. 12 
1961 


WI 


s 


Heppner, GSFC 


Heppner, GSFC 


Magnetic Fields 


s 


10.76 GE 


Dec. 10 


FC 


s 


Ogilvie-Fichtel, GSFC 


Ogilvie-Fichtel, GSFC 


Cosmic Ray 


s 



i 

o 

I 

8 



4.91 GE 



4.16 UE 



14.03 UE 

14.04 UE 

14.05 UE 



11.06UE 
14.06 UE 



4.08 GI 
4.07 GI 



1.01 GI 

1.02 GI 



1963 




Sept. 4 


FC 


1960 




Aug, 23 


WI 


1961 




July 14 
14 
20 


WI 
WI 
WI 


1963 




Feb. 12 
Sept. 9 


PMR 
WI 


19S9 




Sept. 11 
14 


FC 
FC 


1960 




Nov. 23 
27 


FC 
FC 



Fichtcl, GSFC 


Fichtel, GSFC 


NYU 


Meredith, GSFC 


UNH 


Heppner, GSFC 


UNH 


Heppner, GSFC 


UNH 


Heppner, GSFC 


U. Minn. 


Cline, GSFC 


UNH 


Schardt, HQ 


Ionospheric Physics 


Jackson, GSFC 


Jackson, GSFC 


Jackson, GSFC 


Jackson, GSFC 


Whipple, GSFC 


Whipple, GSFC 


Whipple, GSFC 


Whipple, GSFC 



Heavy Cosmic Rays 



Cosmic Ray 



Magnetic Field 
Magnetic Field 
Magnetic Field 



Electron Spect. 
Electrojet 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 



S 



tf 



1 S — Successful 
P — Partial success J Subject to interpretation. 
X — Unsuccessful J 



?\3 



NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Cont.) 



NASA No. 




Firin 


o- 


Experimenter 


NASA scientist 
and location 


Experiment 


Results" 




Date 


Site 


Performance* 






1961 






Ionospheric Phy 


sics — Continued 














8.10 GI 

8.09 GI 

10.74 GI 


Apr. 27 
June 13 
Dec. 21 

1962 


WI 
WI 
WI 


S 
S 

s 


Jackson, GSFC 
Jackson, GSFC 
Kane, GSFC 


Jackson, GSFC 
Jackson, GSFC 
Kane, GSFC 


Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 


P 
P 

S 


10.110 GI 


Apr. 26 


WI 


s 


Serbu, GSFC 


Serbu, GSFC 


Electron Temperature 


S 


8.21 GI 


May 3 


WI 


s 


Serbu, GSFC 


Serbu, GSFC 


ELF Electron Trap 


s 


10.112 GI 


16 


WI 


s 


Serbu, GSFC 


Serbu, GSFC 


Electron Temperature 


s 


10.111 GI 


17 


WI 


s 


Serbu, GSFC 


Serbu, GSFC 


Electron Temperature 


s 


14.12 GI 


June 15 


WI 


s 


Kane, GSFC 


Kane, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 


K62-l b 


Aug. 7 


SWE 


s 


Sweden 


Witt, Sweden 


Air Sample 


s 


K62-3 b 


11 


SWE 


s 


Sweden 


Smith, GSFC 


Air Sample 


s 


K62-4 b 


11 


SWE 


s 


Sweden 


Smith, GSFC 


Air Sample 


p 


K62-5 b 


31 


SWE 


s 


Sweden 


Smith, GSFC 


Air Sample 


X 


14.31 GI 


Oct. 16 


WI 


s 


Bauer, GSFC 


Bauer, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 


14.32 GI 


Dec. 1 
1963 


WI 


s 


Bauer, GSFC 


Bauer, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 


14.107 GI 

14.108 GI 


Mar. 8 
Apr. 9 


WI 

WI 


s 
s 


Whipple, GSFC 
Kane, GSFC 


Whipple, GSFC 
Kane, GSFC 


Ionosphere 
D-Region 


p 

s 


4.44 GI 


23 


WI 


s 


Bauer, GSFC 


Bauer, GSFC 


Electron Density 


s 


8.14 GI 


July 2 


WI 


s 


Bauer, GSFC 


Bauer, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 



1 

§ 

hi 
o 

Co 

O 



6.08 GI 
K63-l b 
K63-2 b 
K63-3 b 
K63-4 b 

4.65 GI 

4.64 GI 

8.18 GI 
14.37 GI 



6.01 UI 
3.10 UI 

6.02 UI 

6.03 UI 



6.04 UI 

6.05 UI 



4.58 UI 

4.59 UI 





20 


WI 


July 


27 


SWE 




29 


SWE 


Aug. 


1 


SWE 




7 


SWE 


Sept. 


25 


WI 




28 


WI 




29 


WI 


Dec. 


13 


WI 


1960 




Mar. 


16 


FC 




17 


FC 


June 


15 


FC 


Aug. 


3 


WI 


1961 




Mar. 


26 


WI 


Dec. 


22 


WI 


1963 




Apr. 


3 


WI 


July 


10 


WI 



Brace, GSFG 

Sweden 
Sweden 
Sweden 
Sweden 
GSFG 

GSFC 

Bauer, GSFC 
Whipple, GSFC 



s 


U. Mich. 


X 


U. Mich. 


s 


U. Mich. 


s 


U. Mich. 



U. Mich. 
U. Mich. 



Stanford 

Stanford 



Brace, GSFG 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFC 
Smith, GSFG 
Smith, GSFC 
Serbu, GSFC 
Hirao, Japan 
Serbu, GSFC 
Hirao, Japan 
Bauer, GSFG 
Whipple, GSFC 



Bourdeau, GSFC 
Bourdeau, GSFC 
Bourdeau, GSFC 
Bourdeau, GSFC 



Bourdeau, GSFC 
Wright, GSFC 



Bourdeau, GSFC 
Bourdeau, GSFC 



Thermosphere Probe 

Grenade 

Grenade 

Grenade 

Heavy Cosmic Rays 

Ionosphere 

Ionosphere 

Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 



-o 



s 

X 

s 
s 



V3 



a g — Successful I 

P- Partial success? Subject to interpretation 

X. — Unsuccessful J 
b Nike-Cajun 



-4i 



NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Cont.) 



NASA No. 




Firm 


r 


Experimenter 


NASA scientist 
and location 


Experiment 


Results'* 




Date 


Site 


Performance" 






1963 






Ionospheric Physics — Continued 














14.36 DI 


Oct. 7 
1961 


FC 


S 


BRL 


Bourdeau, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


P 


8.15 AI 
8.17 AI 


June 24 
Oct. 14 

1962 


WI 
WI 


S 
S 


CRPL/AIL 
Jackson, GSFC 


Jackson, GSFC 
Jackson, GSFC 


Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 


S 
S 


8.16 AI 


Feb. 7 
1960 


WI 


S 


Jackson, GSFC 


Jackson, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


X 


3.12 CI 


Aug. 22 


WI 


X 


GCA 


Bourdeau, GSFC 


Langmuir Probe 


X 


10.25 CI 


Dec. 8 
1961 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Bourdeau, GSFC 


Langmuir Probe 


S 


10.51 CI 


Aug. 18 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Bourdeau, GSFC 


Langmuir Probe 


S 


10.52 CI 


Oct. 27 
1962 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Bourdeau, GSFC 


Langmuir Probe 


s 


10.99 CI 


Nov. 7 


WI 


s 


GCA 


Bourdeau, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 



I 

s 
o 



10.108 CI 

10.109 CI 



14.86 CI 

14.87 CI 

14.88 CI 

14.89 CI 

14.90 CI 

14.91 CI 

14.92 CI 

14.93 CI 

14.94 CI 



4.02 II 

4.03 II 



8.13 II 



4.79 II 

4.80 II 
Ferdinand III b 
Ferdinand II b 



30 


WI 


Dec. 5 


WI 


1963 




Feb. 27 


WI 


Mar. 28 


WI 


July 14 


FC 


20 


FC 


20 


FC 


20 


FC 


20 


FC 


20 


FC 


20 


FC 


1959 




Sep. 17 


FC 


20 


FC 


1961 




June 15 


WI 


1962 




Nov. 16 


WI 


Dec. 11 


WI 


11 


NOR 


14 


NOR 



S 


GCA 


P 


GCA 


P 


GCA 


X 


GCA 


X 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 


s 


GCA 



X 
X 

s 
s 



GCA 
GCA 



DRTE 
DRTE 



DRTE 



Australia 
Australia 
Norway 
Norway 






" S — Successful | 

P — Partial success ^Subject to interpretation. 

X — Unsuccessful J 
b Nike-Cajun 



Bourdeau, GSFC 
Bourdeau, GSFC 



Bourdeau, 
Bourdeau, 
Bourdeau, 
Bourdeau, 
Bourdeau, 
Bourdeau, 
Bourdeau, 
Bourdeau, 
Bourdeau, 



GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 



Jackson, GSFC 
Jackson, GSFC 



Jackson, GSFC 



Cartwright, Australia 
Cartwright, Australia 
Kane, GSFC 
Kane, GSFC 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 
Eclipse Ionosphere 
Eclipse Ionosphere 
Eclipse Ionosphere 
Eclipse Ionosphere 
Eclipse Ionosphere 
Eclipse Ionosphere 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 



Antenna Test 



Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 
Ionosphere 
NASA T/M only 



S 
S 

p 

X 
X 

s 
s 
s 
s 



s 

X 



X 

X 

s 
s 



1 



<3\ 



NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Cont.) 







Firin 


3- 










NASA No. 








Experimenter 


NASA scientist 
and location 


Experiment 


Results" 














Date 


Site 


Performance" 












1963 






Ionospheric Phy 


sics — Continued 














4.96 II 


Apr. 12 


WI 


S 


Australia 


Cartwright, Australia 


VLF 


S 


4.97 II 


May 9 


WI 


S 


Australia 


Cartwright, Australia 


VLF 


S 


Ferdinand V b 


Sept. 8 


NOR 


S 


Norway 


Kane, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


X 


Ferdinand IV 


11 


NOR 


S 


Norway 


Kane, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 


4.93 II 


Oct. 17 


WI 


S 


France 


Shea, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 


4.94 II 


31 
1960 


WI 


S 


France 


Shea, GSFC 


Ionosphere 


s 




Solar Physics 












3.01 GS 


Mar. 1 


WI 


S 


Hallam, GSFC 


Hallam, GSFC 


Solar Study 


X 


3.02 GS 


3 


WI 


S 


Hallam, GSFC 


Hallam, GSFC 


Solar Study 


X 


3.03 GS 


Apr. 27 


WI 


X 


Hallam, GSFC 


Hallam, GSFC 


Solar Study 


X 


3.04 GS 


May 25 
1961 


WI 


X 


Hallam, GSFC 


Hallam, GSFC 


Solar Study 


X 


4.25 GS 


Sept. 30 
1963 


WI 


s 


Behring, GSFC 


Behring, GSFC 


Solar Studies 


s 


4.77 GS 


July 20 


WI 


s 


Hallam, GSFC 


Hallam-Wolff, GSFC 


Solar Studies 


X 


4.78 GS 


Oct. 1 


WI 


s 


Hallam, GSFC 


Hallam, GSFC 


Solar Studies 


p 



i 

o 



4.33 GS 



4.23 US 
4.21 US 



4.22 US 



4.61 AS 

4.62 AS 



4.40 GG 

4.05 GG 

4.06 GG 
4.11 GG 



4.34 GG 

9.01 GG 

9.02 GG 



15 


WI 


1962 




July 24 


WI 


Nov. 27 


WI 


1963 




Sept. 6 


WI 


1963 




June 20 


WI 


28 


WI 


1960 




Apr. 27 


WI 


May 27 


WI 


June 24 


WI 


Nov. 22 


WI 


1961 




Mar. 31 


WI 


Sept. 18 


AUS 


Oct. 4 


AUS 



p 

s 
s 



Muney, GSFC 



U. Colo. 
Harvard 



Harvard 



NRL 

NRL 



Muney, GSFC 



Lindsay, GSFC 
Lindsay, GSFC 



Lindsay, GSFC 



Packer, NRL 
Packer, NRL 



Galactic Astronomy 



Kupperian, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 
Stecher, GSFC 



Boggess, GSFC 
GSFC 
;ess, GSFC 



Kupperian, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 
Stecher, GSFC 



Boggess, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 



Solar Studies 



Sunfollower 
Solar 



Solar Studies 



Coronagraph 
Coronagraph 



Stellar Fluxes 
Stellar Fluxes 
Stellar Fluxes 
Stellar Spectra 



Stellar Fluxes 
Stellar Photo 
Stellar Photo 



P 
X 



P 

P 



1 






8 S — Successful J 

P — Partial success J- Subject to interpretation. 

X — Unsuccessful J 
Nike-Apache 



NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Cont.) 



NASA No. 



9.03 GG 

9.04 GG 



4.35 GG 

4.36 GG 



4.30 GG 
4.37 GG 
4.29 GG 

4.31 GG 



4.54 UG 



4.69 CG 



Date Site 



1961 

Nov. 1 
20 

1962 

Feb. 7 
Sept. 22 

1963 

Mar. 28 

July 19 

23 

Oct. 10 

1962 
Oct. 30 

1962 
Sept. 30 



Firing 



AUS 
AUS 



WI 
WI 



WI 
WI 
WI 
WI 



WI 



WI 



Performance" 



X 

S 



S 
S 

s 

X 



Experimenter 



NASA scientist 
and location 



Galactic Astronomy — Continued 



Boggess, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 



Stecher, GSFC 
Stecher, GSFC 



Boggess, GSFC 
Stecher, GSFC 
Stecher, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 



U. Wise. 



Lockheed 



Boggess, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 



Stecher, GSFC 
Stecher, GSFC 



Boggess, GSFC 
Stecher, GSFC 
Stecher, GSFC 
Boggess, GSFC 



Kupperian, GSFC 



Dubin, HQ, 



Experiment 



Stellar Photo 
Stellar Photo 



Stellar Spectra 
Stellar Photo 



Stellar Spectra 
Stellar Spectra 
Stellar Spectra 
Stellar Spectra 



Stellar Studies 



Results 8 



Night Sky Mapping 



X 

S 



S 
S 

s 

X 



I 

§ 
O 

s 

ft) 



4.70 CG 



11.04 GB 

11.05 GB 



1.03 GP 
1.05 GP 
4.43 GP 



1.04 GP 
1.06 GP 



4.38 NP 

4.39 NP 
4.42 NP 

4.40 NP 



1963 




Mar. 16 


WI 


1961 




Nov. 15 


Pt. A 


18 


Pt. A 


1960 




Sept. 15 


FC 


24 


FC 


Oct. 5 


FG 


1961 




May 17 


FC 


19 


FG 


1961 




Feb. 5 


WI 


Apr. 21 


WI 


Aug. 12 


WI 


Oct. 18 


WI 



s 
p 



Lockheed 


Depew, GSFC 


Biological 


Ames 


Smith, HQ. 


Ames 


Smith, HQ, 


Special Projects 


Baumann, GSFC 


Baumann, GSFC 


Baumann, GSFC 


Baumann, GSFC 


NRL 


Baumann, GSFC 


Baumann, GSFC 


Baumann, GSFC 


Baumann, GSFC 


Baumann, GSFC 


LeRC 


Gold, LeRC 


LeRC 


Gold, LeRC 


LeRC 


Plohr, LeRC 


LeRC 


Regetz, LeRC 



Stellar Spectra 



BIOS 1 
BIOS 1 



AMPP 
AMPP 
AMPP 



AMPP 
AMPP 



Hydrogen Zerog 
Hydrogen Zerog 
Hydrogen Zerog 

Hydrogen Zerog 



X 
X 



s 
P 

s 



I 






a S — Successful ) 

P — Partial success \ Subject to interpretation. 
X — Unsuccessful J 



to 



NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Coni.) 







Firin 


ff 










NASA No. 








Experimenter 


NASA scientist 


Experiment 


Results" 










and location 








Date 


Site 


Performance" 












1962 






Special Projects — Continued 














4.41 NP 


Feb. 17 


WI 


S 


LeRC 


Dillon, LeRC 


Hydrogen Zerog 


S 


4.46 NP 


May 8 


WI 


P 


JPL 


Brown, JPL 


Radar 


X 


4.26 NP 


June 20 


WI 


S 


LeRC 


Flagge, LeRC 


Hydrogen Zerog 


p 


4.47 NP 


July 10 


WI 


s 


JPL 


Brown, JPL 


Radar 


X 


4.27 NP 


Nov. 18 
1963 


WI 


s 


LeRC 


Corpas, LeRC 


Hydrogen Zerog 


S 


4.66 NP 


May 14 


WI 


s 


LaRC 


Kinard, LaRC 


Paraglider 


X 


4.28 NP 


June 19 


WI 


s 


LeRC 


Corpas, LeRC 


Hydrogen Zerog 


p 


4.32 NP 


Sept. 11 
1962 


WI 


s 


LeRC 


Corpas, LeRC 


Hydrogen Zerog 


s 


4.71 UP 


June 29 


WI 


s 


JHU 


Depew, GSFC 


Airglow 


s 


4.72 UP 


29 
1959 


WI 


s 


JHU 


Depew, GSFC 


Airglow 


s 




Test and Support 












2.01 GT 


May 14 


WI 


X 


Medrow, GSFC 


Medrow, GSFC 


Rocket Test 


s 


2.02 GT 


15 


WI 


X 


Medrow, GSFC 


Medrow, GSFC 


Rocket Test 


s 



H 
CJ 

to 
hi 

§ 
O 

2 

o 

hi 



2.03 GT 

2.04 GT 

2.05 GT 

2.06 GT 
8.01 GT 



8.02 GT 
4.01 GT 
4.12 GT 
4.10 GT 

5.01 GT 

3.28 GT 

5.02 GT 

3.29 GT 



3.36 GT 

5.03 GT 

10.49 GT 

4.19 GT 
12.01 GT 

14.01 GT 

4.20 GT 

14.02 GT 



4.68 GT 
10.69 GT 



15 


WI 


Aug. 7 


WI 


7 


WI 


7 


WI 


Dec. 22 


WI 


1960 




Jan. 26 


WI 


Feb. 16 


WI 


Mar. 25 


WI 


Apr. 23 


WI 


July 22 


WI 


Aug. 9 


WI 


Oct. 18 


WI 


Nov. 3 


WI 


1961 




Jan. 17 


WI 


19 


WI 


Mar. 15 


WI 


Apr. 14 


WI 


May 2 


WI 


25 


WI 


June 26 


WI 


Aug. 16 


WI 


1962 




Jan. 13 


WI 


Mar. 1 


WI 



X 
X 

X 
X 

s 



s 

X 

s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 



s 

X 

s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 



s 

X 



Medrow, GSFC 
Medrow, GSFC 
Medrow, GSFC 
Medrow, GSFC 
GSFC/NRL/DRTE 



GSFC/NRL/DRTE 
Medrow, GSFC 
Medrow, GSFC 
Medrow, GSFC 
Sorgnit, GSFC 
Sorgnit, GSFC 
Sorgnit, GSFC 
Sorgnit, GSFC 



Sorgnit, GSFC 
Sorgnit, GSFC 
Sorgnit, GSFC 
Russell, GSFC 
U. Mich. 
Sorgnit, GSFC 
Russell, GSFC 
Sorgnit, GSFC 



Russell, GSFC 
Bonn, GSFC 



Medrow, GSFC 
Medrow, GSFC 
Medrow, GSFC 
Medrow, GSFC 
Winkler, GSFC 



Winkler, 

Medrow. 

Medrow. 

Medrow. 

Sorgnit, 

Soi'gnit, 

Sorgnit, 

Sorgnit, 



GSFC 
GSFC 
, GSFC 
, GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 
GSFC 



Sorgnit, 
Sorgnit, 
Sorgnit, 
Russell, 
Spencer. 
Sorgnit, 
Russell, 
Sorgnit, 



GSFC 

GSFC 

GSFC 

GSFC 

, GSFC 

GSFC 

GSFC 

GSFC 



Russell, GSFC 
Donn, GSFC 



Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
X248 Vibration Test 



X248 Vibration Test 
Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 



Rocket Test 
Rocket Test 
Cajun Fin Test 
Attitude Control 
Cone Test 
Rocket Test 
Attitude Control 
Rocket Test 



Attitude Control 
Water Launch 



X 
X 

X 

S 

s 



s 

X 

s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 



s 
p 
s 
p 
s 
s 
p 
s 



I 






a S — Successful | 

P — Partial success \ Subject to interpretation 
X — Unsuccessful I 






NASA Sounding Rocket Flights (Cont.) 



NASA No. 




Fir in 


% 


Experimenter 


NASA scientist 
and location 


Experiment 


Results" 














Date 


Site 


Performance" 












1962 






Test and Support — Continued 














10.70 GT 


Mar. 2 


WI 


S 


Donn, GSFC 


Donn, GSFC 


Water Launch 


S 


4.48 GT 


May 25 


WI 


S 


Pressly, GSFC 


Pressly, GSFC 


Sea Recovery 


S 


4.60 GT 


Aug. 8 
1963 


WI 


P 


Russell, GSFC 


Russell, GSFC 


Attitude Control 


P 


16.01 GT 


Apr. 8 


WI 


X 


Sorgnit, GSFC 


Sorgnit, GSFC 


ACS Test 


X 


4.87 GT 


June 17 


WI 


s 


Russell, GSFC 


Russell, GSFC 


Attitude Control 


s 


14.1 11 GT 


Oct. 31 


WI 


s 


Williams, GSFC 


Williams, GSFC 


Vibration Test 


s 



a S — Successful I 
P — Partial success >Subject to interpretation. 
X — Unsuccessful J 



8 

H 
§ 

§ 
H 
O 

s 

O 

ft 



Appendix D 

A Chronology of Events 
Related to tie 

Goddard Space Flip Center 



THE FOLLOWING CHRONOLOGY is parallel and supplementary to the 
text. Events considered important for the achievements and early history of 
Goddard Space Flight Center and its missions have been included. 



1915 

April 15: The Secretary of War called the first 
meeting of the National Advisory Commit- 
tee for Aeronautics (NACA) in his 
office. Brig. Gen. George P. Scriven, Chief 
Signal Officer, was elected temporary Chair- 
man, and Dr. Charles D. Walcott, Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, was elected 
first Chairman of the important NACA Ex- 
ecutive Committee. 

1918 

November 6-7: Robert H. Goddard fired sev- 
eral rocket devices before representatives of 
the Signal Corps, Air Service, Army Ord- 
nance, and others at Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, Md. 

1919 

May 26: Date of Dr. Robert H. Goddard's 
progress report to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion entitled "A Method of Reaching Ex- 
treme Altitudes." It was published by the 
Smithsonian in January 1920. 

1923 

November 1: Robert H. Goddard successfully 
operated a liquid oxygen and gasoline rock- 



et motor on a testing frame, both fuel com- 
ponents being supplied by pumps installed 
on the rocket. 

1926 

March 16: Robert H. Goddard launched the 
world's first liquid-fueled rocket at Auburn, 
Mass., which traveled 184 feet in 2i/ 2 
seconds. This event was the "Kitty Hawk" 
of rocketry. 

1929 

July 17: A liquid-fueled, 11-foot rocket, fired 
by Robert Goddard at Auburn, Mass., car- 
ried a small camera, thermometer, and a ba- 
rometer which were recovered intact after 
the flight. Much "moon rocket" publicity 
was made of this flight. 

1930 

December 30: Robert H. Goddard fired 11- 
foot liquid-fueled rocket to a height of 2,000 
feet and a speed of almost 500 mph near 
Roswell, N.Mex. 

1932 

April 19: First flight of Goddard rocket with 
gyroscopically controlled vanes for automati- 
cally stabilized flight, near Roswell, N.Mex. 



203 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1935 
March 28: Robert Goddard launched the first 
rocket equipped with gyroscopic controls, 
which attained a height of 4,800 feet, a 
horizontal distance of 13,000 feet, and a 
speed of 550 mph, near Roswell, N.Mex. 

1936 

March 16: Robert H. Goddard's classic report 
on "Liquid Propellant Rocket Develop- 
ment," reviewing his liquid-fuel rocket re- 
search and flight testing since 1919, was 
published by the Smithsonian Institution. 

1940 

May 28: Robert H. Goddard offered all his 
research data, patents, and facilities for use 
by the military services at a meeting ar- 
ranged by Harry Guggenheim with repre- 
sentatives of Army Ordnance, Army Air 
Corps, and Navy Bureau of Aeronau- 
tics. Nothing resulted from this except an 
expression of possible use of rockets in jet- 
assisted takeoffs of aircraft. 

1943 

During September: Rocket Development 
Branch was created in Army Ordnance to 
direct and coordinate development of rock- 
ets. 

1945 

May 8: At time of Germany's surrender, more 
than 20,000 V- weapons (V-l's and V-2's) 
had been fired. Although figures vary, best 
estimate is that 1,115 V-2 ballistic rockets 
had been fired against England and 1,675 
against continental targets. Great disparity 
between production figures and operational 
missions was caused by series production 
and development testing being performed 
concurrently, there being as many as 12 ma- 
jor modifications in basic design features. 

August 10: Dr. Robert H. Goddard, American 
rocket pioneer, died. 

December 17: Rocket Sonde Research Branch 
was constituted in Naval Research Labora- 
tory to conduct scientific exploration of the 
upper atmosphere. 

1946 

March 22: First American rocket to escape 
earth's atmosphere, the JPL-Ordnance Wac, 



reached 50-mile height after launch from 
WSPG. 

May 17: Original design and development of 
Aerobee sounding rocket began when con- 
tract was given to Aerojet Engineering 
Corp. 

June 6: Joint Army-Navy Research and Devel- 
opment Board was created for purpose of 
coordinating all activities of joint interest in 
fields of aeronautics, atomic energy, elec- 
tronics, geographical exploration, geophysi- 
cal sciences, and guided missiles. 

September 25: First successful firing of Ap- 
plied Physics Laboratory Aerobee research 
rocket at White Sands Proving Ground, 
N.Mex. 

During September: After completing studies, 
Project RAND reported that earth satellites 
were technically feasible. 

November 14: First complete Aerobee rocket 
was fired to a height of 190,000 feet from 
White Sands Proving Ground, N.Mex. 

1948 

October 19: Photographs of the earth's sur- 
face, taken from altitudes between 60 and 
70 miles by cameras installed in rockets, 
were released by the Navy. 

1949 

May 11: President Harry S Truman signed a 
bill providing a 5,000-mile guided-missile 
test range, subsequently established at Cape 
Canaveral, Fla. 

1950 

June 13: Department of Defense assigned 
range responsibilities to the armed services: 
Army: White Sands (N.Mex.) Proving 
Ground and nearby Holloman AFB at Ala- 
mogordo; Navy: Point Mugu, Calif.; Air 
Force: Long-Range Proving Ground at Ba- 
nana River, Fla. (later called Cape Canaver- 
al). 

1954 

March 17: President Dwight D. Eisenhower 
signed Executive Order 10521 on the "Ad- 
ministration of Scientific Research by Feder- 
al Agencies," which gave the National 
Science Foundation major responsibility in 
pure scientific research. 



204 



APPENDIX D 



During April: Bell Laboratories announced 
invention of the silicon solar battery. 

August 26: The Supplemental Appropriations 
Act, 1955, appropriated $2 million to the 
National Science Foundation to support the 
U.S. IGY program sponsored and coordi- 
nated by the National Academy of Sciences. 

During October: NRL Aerobee fired at White 
Sands took photographs at 100-mile alti- 
tude, first picture taken of complete hurri- 
cane, off the Texas gulf coast. 

1955 

During March: The Navy proposed a program 
for the launch of an elementary uninstru- 
mented satellite in 2 or 3 years. This pro- 
gram, jointly developed by the Office of Na- 
val Research and the Army, was known as 
Project Orbiter. It called for the use of the 
Redstone booster and Loki rockets (small 
solid-propellant rockets) . 

April 26: Moscow Radio reported U.S.S.R. 
planned to explore the moon with a tank 
remotely controlled by radio, foresaw trips 
by man in 1 to 2 years and reported forma- 
tion of scientific team to devise satellite able 
to circle earth. 

July 20: President Eisenhower endorsed IGY 
earth satellite proposal, the White House 
announced: "The President has approved 
plans by this country for going ahead with 
the launching of small, unmanned, earth- 
circling satellites as part of the U.S. partici- 
pation in the International Geophysical 
Year which takes place between July 1957 
and December 1958." Scientific responsi- 
bility was assumed by the National Acad- 
emy of Sciences, fiscal responsibility by the 
National Science Foundation, and responsi- 
bility for logistic and technical support by 
the Department of Defense. 

July BO: U.S.S.R. announced that it planned 
to launch an earth satellite in connection 
with IGY. 

September 9: Project Vanguard was born 
when the Department of Defense wrote a 
letter to the Secretary of the Navy authoriz- 
ing him to proceed with the Naval Research 
Laboratory proposal for launch of at least 
one U.S. satellite in the IGY, which was to 
end in December 1958. 

October 2: National Academy of Sciences' IGY 



committee established Technical Panel for 
the Earth Satellite Program, with Richard 
W. Porter as Chairman, to plan the 
scientific aspects of the program, including 
the selection of experiments, the establish- 
ment of optical tracking stations, and the 
handling of international and interdiscipli- 
nary relations. 
During November: Naval Research Laboratory 
transmitted transcontinental communica- 
tions from Washington, D.C., to San Diego, 
Calif., by reflecting teletype messages off the 
moon. 

1956 

Spring: A plan was developed, at NRL for 
seven test vehicles and six satellite-launch- 
ing vehicles in Project Vanguard. 

September 10-15: Scientists from 40 nations, 
including the U.S. and U.S.S.R., at a meet- 
ing in Barcelona of the Special Committee 
for the IGY (CSAGI) , approved resolutions 
calling for, among other things, countries 
having satellite programs to use tracking 
and telemetering radio systems compatible 
with those announced at the current CSAGI 
meeting, and to release technical informa- 
tion on tracking equipment and scheduling 
and planning information essential to prep- 
aration for and execution of optical and ra- 
dio observations. 

December 8: NRL Test Vehicle (TV-0) , a 
Viking rocket carrying no Vanguard compo- 
nents, was successfully fired in a . test of 
range facilities, telemetry, and instrumenta- 
tion. 

1957 

April 11: U.S.-IGY scientific satellite equip- 
ment, including a radio transmitter and in- 
struments for measuring temperature, pres- 
sure, cosmic rays, and meteoric dust 
encounters, was tested above earth for the 
first time, as a rocket containing this equip- 
ment was fired by the Navy to a 126-miie 
altitude. 

During April: Upper Atmosphere Rocket Re- 
search Panel was renamed the Rocket and 
Satellite Research Panel. Its chairman was 
James A. Van Allen of the State University 
of Iowa. 

May I: NRL TV-1, with a Viking first stage, 
launched a Vanguard third stage in a suc- 
cessful test of the control system and of the 



205 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1957 Continued 

third-stage separation, spin-up, ignition, and 
propulsion. 

October 4: Sputnik I, the first manmade earth 
satellite, was launched by the U.S.S.R. It 
remained in orbit until January 4, 1958. 

October 14: The American Rocket Society pre- 
sented to President Dwight D. Eisenhower a 
program for outer space research which pro- 
posed establishment of an Astronautical Re- 
search and Development Agency similar to 
NACA and AEC, with responsibility for all 
space projects except those directly related 
to military defense. 

October 23: The launch of NRL TV-2 was 
the first successful launch of the complete 
Vanguard configuration — a successful test of 
the first-stage engine, control system, and 
vehicle structure; second and third stages 
were dummies. A 109-mile altitude was 
reached at 4,250 mph. 

During October: Project Vanguard worldwide 
tracking system became operational. 

November 21: The National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics (NACA) authorized 
establishment of a special committee on 
space technology, headed by H. Guyford 
Stever. 

December 4: The American Rocket Society's 
proposal for an Astronautical Research and 
Development Agency, which had been pre- 
sented to President Eisenhower on October 
14, 1957, was announced. 

December 6: An attempt to launch NRL 
TV-3, the first test of the complete Van- 
guard vehicle and control system, failed 
when the first engine lost thrust after 2 sec- 
onds and the vehicle burned on the 
pad. This was the first Vanguard vehicle 
with three live stages and orbit capability. 

1958 

January 4: The American Rocket Society and 
the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel is- 
sued a summary of their proposals for a 
National Space Establishment. Preferably 
independent of DOD, but in any event not 
under one of the military services, this es- 
tablishment would be responsible for the 
"broad cultural, scientific, and commercial 
objectives" of outer space research. 

January 9: In his State of the Union message, 



President Eisenhower reported: "In recogni- 
tion of the need for single control in some 
of our most advanced development projects, 
the Secretary of Defense has already decided 
to concentrate into one organization all an- 
timissile and satellite technology undertaken 
within the Department of Defense." 

January 16: NACA adopted a resolution rec- 
ommending that the national space program 
could be most effectively implemented by 
the cooperative effort of DOD, the National 
Academy of Sciences, the National Science 
Foundation, and NACA, together with uni- 
versities, research institutions, and industrial 
companies of the Nation. Military develop- 
ment and operation of space vehicles would 
be the responsibility of DOD, and research 
and scientific space operations the responsi- 
bility of NACA. 

January 31: Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, 
was launched by an Army Ballistic Missile 
Agency-Jet Propulsion Laboratory team on 
a modified Jupiter C, with the U.S.-IGY 
scientific experiment of James A. Van Allen 
which would discover the radiation belt re- 
gion around the earth. 

February 5: NRL TV-3 backup was a repeat 
of the TV-3 launch attempt on Dec. 6, 
1957. It failed when a control malfunc- 
tioned after 57 seconds of flight; the vehicle 
broke up at about 20,000 feet. 

March 17: The second U.S.-IGY satellite, Van- 
guard I, was launched into orbit with a life 
expectancy of perhaps 1,000 years. A highly 
successful scientific satellite, its data proved 
the earth to be slightly pear shaped. Operat- 
ing on solar-powered batteries, it transmitted 
for more than 6 years. 

March 26: The third U.S.-IGY satellite, Ex- 
plorer HI, another joint ABMA-JPL project, 
was successfully launched by an Army Juno 
II rocket. It yielded valuable data on the 
radiation belt region, micrometeoroid im- 
pacts, and temperatures before reentering 
on June 27. 

April 2: In a message to Congress, President 
Eisenhower proposed the establishment of a 
national aeronautics and space agency into 
which NACA would be absorbed. This 
agency was to have responsibility for civil- 
ian space science and aeronautical 
research. It would conduct research in 



206 




Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, 
launched January 31, 1958. 



these fields in its own facilities or by con- 
tract and would also perform military re- 
search required by the military departments. 
Interim projects pertaining to the civilian 
program which were under the direction of 
the Advanced Research Projects Agency 
(ARPA) would be transferred to this civil- 
ian space agency. 

April 14: A proposal for a National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Agency, drafted by the Bu- 
reau of the Budget, was submitted to the 
Congress by the President. 

April 28: Project Vanguard's TV-5 failed to 



put its 21.5-pound spacecraft into orbit 
when the control system release failed and 
the third stage was not ignited. 

May 1: Scientific findings from the two Ex- 
plorer satellites (I and 111) disclosed an un- 
expected band of high-intensity radiation 
extending from 600 miles above the earth to 
possibly 8,000 miles. 

— Responsibility for the Project Vanguard 
portion of the U.S.-IGY scientific satellite 
program was transferred within DOD from 
the Navy to ARPA. 

May 27: The first Vanguard satellite launch 
vehicle (NRL SLV-1) generally was success- 
ful in its launch with exception of prema- 
ture second-stage burnout, which prevented 
achievement of satisfactory orbit. 

June 26: The NRL Vanguard SLV-2 launch 
failed when the second stage cut off prema- 
turely because of low chamber pressure, ter- 
minating the flight. 

July 26: Explorer IV, under the project direc- 
tion of the DOD's ARPA, was launched for 
the purpose of studying radiation belts de- 
tected by Explorer I and Explorer III and 
for measurement of artificial radiation creat- 
ed by DOD nuclear experiments. 

July 29: President Eisenhower signed the Na- 
tional Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. 

Summer 1958: At Langley, Edmond C. Buck- 
ley unofficially formed a network study 
group for the embryonic manned satellite 
program (later to become Project 
Mercury) . Key technical personnel were: 
George B. Graves, Jr. (network arrange- 
ment) ; Robert L. Kenimer (tracking) ; 
James H. Schrader (telemetry and capsule 
communication) ; William J. Boyer (ground 
communication) ; Eugene L. Davis, jr. 
(computing) ; Howard C. Kyle (control 
center) . 

August 1: U.S. Senator J. Glenn Beall, Mary- 
land, announced that the new "outer space 
agency" would establish its laboratory and 
plant in Maryland. The location at Green- 
belt, Md., was considered as "ideal" for the 
new agency. The Greenbelt laboratory was 
to employ 650 technicians, mostly electronic 
engineers and some chemists, the announce- 
ment stated. Construction on the plant was 
expected to start immediately in view of the 
fact that legislation authorizing appropri- 



207 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1958 Continued 

ations of 147,800,000 for construction of the 
"space projects center" (S4208) had passed 
the Senate and was expected to clear the 
House of Representatives shortly. 

August 14: Public Law 85-657 was approved, 
authorizing appropriations to NASA for 
construction and other purposes and spe- 
cifically for a "space projects center in 
the vicinity of Washington, D.C.": a space 
projects building; research projects labora- 
tory; posts and appurtenances; utilities; 
equipment and instrumentation, $3,750,000. 

August 19: T. Keith Glennan was sworn in as 
Administrator and Hugh L. Dryden as Dep- 
uty Administrator. Forty days later, Oc- 
tober i, 1958, NASA was declared ready to 
function. 

August 21: NACA held its final meeting and 
invited T. Keith Glennan, newly appointed 
Administrator of NASA, to attend. 

September 24: First meeting of the senior staff 
of the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration (NASA) was held, with T. 
Keith Glennan, Administrator, and Hugh L. 
Dryden, Deputy Administrator. 

September 26: The third Vanguard satellite 
launch vehicle (SLV-3) reached an altitude 
of 265 miles, and was believed to have made 
one orbit and to have been destroyed 9,200 
miles downrange over Central Africa on 
reentry into the atmosphere. 

October 1: First official day of NASA. By ex- 
ecutive order of the President, DOD respon- 
sibilities for the remaining U.S.-IGY satellite 
and space probe projects were transferred to 
NASA; included were Project Vanguard and 
the four lunar probes and three satellite 
iGY projects which had previously been as- 
signed by ARPA to the Air Force Ballistic 
Missile Division and the Army Ballistic Mis- 
sile Agency (ABMA) . Also transferred 
were a number of engine development re- 
search programs. 

October 21: Three weeks after NASA officially 
began operating, prospective contractors 
were invited to a briefing at NASA Hq. on 
development of a 1.5-million-pound-thrust 
F— I engine for Saturn V. 

November 7: A bidders' conference was held 
by NASA on a manned-satellite capsule for 
Project Mercury. 



November 17: Senator Lyndon B. Johnson pre- 
sented U.S. proposal for the international 
control of outer space before the United 
Nations in New York. 

December 3: The President transferred the 
functions and facilities of the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory (JPL) of the California Insti- 
tute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., from 
the Army to NASA. 

December 3: NASA and the Army reached an 
agreement whereby the Army Ordnance 
Missile Command (AOMC) , Huntsville, 
Ala., would be responsive to NASA require- 
ments. 

December IS: Project Score, the fifth U.S.- 
IGY satellite — under the project direc- 
tion of ARPA — was launched at 12:45 a.m. 
from AMR by a Juno II rocket. 

December 19: President Eisenhower's Christ- 
mas message was beamed from the Score 
satellite in orbit— the first voice transmitted 
from a satellite to earth. 

December 31: IGY had been scheduled to end 
on this date; but in October 1958 the Inter- 
national Council of Scientific Unions, meet- 
ing in Washington, approved extension of 
operation through 1959 (IGC-59) and also 
approved establishment of the Committee on 
Space Research (COSPAR) to continue in- 
ternational cooperation in the scientific ex- 
ploration of space. 

1959 

January 8: NASA requested eight Redstone 
launch vehicles from the Army to be used 
in Project Mercury development. 

January 15: In General Notice No. 1 signed 
by T. E. Jenkins, Administrative Officer, it 
was announced that "four divisions (Con- 
struction Division, Space Sciences Division, 
Theoretical Division, Vanguard Division) 
have been designated as comprising the 
Beltsville Space Center of the National Aer- 
onautics and Space Administration. . . ." 

February 17: Vanguard II was successfully 
launched. It was a 21.5-pound satellite 
with infrared sensors for cloud-cover meas- 
urement. 

February 28: Discoverer I, a 1,450-pound 
USAF satellite, was successfully launched 
into first near-polar orbit by a Thor-Hustler 



208 



APPENDIX D 



booster from PMR; stabilization difficulties 
hampered tracking acquisition. 

March 3: Pioneer IV, the fourth U.S.-IGY 
space probe, a joint AMBA-JPL project 
under direction of NASA, was launched by 
a Juno II rocket from AMR and achieved 
an earth-moon trajectory, passing within 
37,000 miles of the moon before going into 
a permanent solar orbit. Radio contact was 
maintained to a record distance of 406,620 
miles. 

March 11: NASA granted $350,000 to the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences-National Re- 
search Council for a program of research 
appointments in theoretical and experimen- 
tal physics to stimulate basic research in the 
space sciences. 

March 24: NASA announced that Wallops Is- 
land, Va., had made 3,300 rocket firings 
since 1945. 

April 10: The first construction contract for 
the Beltsville Space Center was awarded. 

April 13: Vanguard's SLV-5 launch failed 
when the second stage did not operate 
properly and the vehicle tumbled. The 
23.3-pound payload included a 13-inch ball 
with a magnetometer attached for mapping 
the earth's magnetic field and a 30-inch 
inflatable sphere to measure atmospheric 
drag. 

— Discoverer II was successfully placed into 
a polar orbit by a Thor-Agena A booster 
but capsule ejection malfunctioned, causing 
it to impact in the vicinity of the Spitsber- 
gen Islands (Arctic Ocean) on Apr. 14 in- 
stead of in the vicinity of Hawaii. It was 
the first vehicle known to have been placed 
in a polar orbit and was the first attempt to 

. recover an object from orbit. 

April 15: A NASA-DOD joint working group 
discussed procedures for search and recovery 
aspects of Project Mercury involving Army, 
Navy, and Air Force units. 

April 20: NASA announced acceptance of pro- 
posals by the Canadian Defence Research 
Telecommunications Establishment for con- 
tinuing joint rocket and satellite ionospheric 
experiments of a nonmilitary nature. 

April 24: Construction began at Goddard 
Space Flight Center on Buildings 1 and 2, 
the Space Projects Building, and Research 
Projects Laboratory, respectively. 



April 28: NASA announced the signing of a 
$24-million contract with Douglas Aircraft 
Company, Inc., for a three-stage Thor-Van- 
guard launching rocket called "Delta." 

During April: The Tiros meteorological satel- 
lite program was transferred from DOD to 
NASA. 

May 1: NASA Administrator Glennan an- 
nounced that the Beltsville Space Center 
was renamed "Goddard Space Flight Center," 
in commemoration of Dr. Robert H. God- 
dard, the American pioneer in rocket re- 
search. John W. Townsend, Jr., was named 
Assistant Director for Space Science and 
Satellite Applications; John T. Mengel was 
named Assistant Director for Tracking and 
Data Systems; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth 
was named Assistant Director for Manned 
Satellites. The three Assistant Directors re- 
ported to the Director of Flight Develop- 
ment, NASA Hq. The announcement also 
stated that Dr. Michael J. Vaccaro would 
head the Office of Business Administration. 

June 1: The Smithsonian Optical Tracking 
Station at Woomera, Australia, successfully 
photographed Vanguard I at the apogee of 
its orbit, nearly 2,500 miles from the 
earth. This feat has been compared with 
taking a picture of a golf ball 600 miles 
away. 

July 7: A four-stage rocket with an Air Re- 
search and Development Command payload 
was fired from Wallops Island to an altitude 
of 750 miles. This was the first in a series 
of launchings to measure natural radiation 
surrounding the earth. 

July 20: NASA selected the Western Electric 
Company to build its worldwide network of 
tracking and ground instrument stations to 
be used in Project Mercury. 

During August: A conference of the Interna- 
tional Telecommunication Union at Gene- 
va, Switzerland, allocated radio frequency 
bands for space and earth-space use. 

August 7: Explorer VI was launched. All ex- 
periments performed; it provided the first 
complete televised cloud-cover pictures. A 
better map of the Van Allen radiation 

■ belt region was obtained. This was the 
first scientific satellite under the project di- 
rection of the Goddard Space Flight Center. 

August 14: While Explorer VI was passing 



209 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^P^^^ m ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^B^^^^^^ 






m 



'; / » , '/f *.*■*" ',',"{'/. 'J 



III 






Building 1 under construction; below, Building 2 under construction. 




APPENDIX D 



1959 Continued 

over Mexico at an altitude of about 17,000 
miles, it successfully transmitted a crude 
picture of a sunlit, crescent-shaped portion 
of the North Central Pacific Ocean. The 
area of the earth photographed was 20,000 
square miles. 
August 17: The first of the Nike- Asp sounding 
rockets, which were to provide geophysical 
information on wind activity between 50 
and 150 miles high, was launched success- 
fully from Wallops Island. 
September 1; Dr. Harry J. Goett was appoint- 
ed Director of GSFC. Dr. Goett came from 
the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett 
Field, Calif., where he had been Chief of 
the Full Scale and Flight Research Division 
since 1948. 
September 16: Goddard's Building 2, the Re- 
search Projects Laboratory, was fully occu- 
pied. 
September IS: Vanguard III was successfully 
launched. It had a 50-pound payload 
which measured the earth's magnetic field, 
solar x-rays, and space environmental con- 
ditions. This vehicle was SLV-7, the TV-4 
backup vehicle, and had a more powerful 
third stage than previous Vanguards. 
September 21: Construction began on Build- 
ing 3, the Central Flight Control and Range 
Operations Building, at GSFC. 
October 13: Explorer VII, the seventh and 
last U.S.-IGY earth satellite, under the di- 
rection of NASA with the Army as execu- 
tive agent, was launched into an earth orbit 
by a modified Army Juno II booster. 
October 28: A 100-foot-diameter inflatable 
sphere for Project Echo was launched on a 
suborbital test flight from Wallops Island to 
an altitude of 250 miles by the first Ser- 
geant-Delta rocket. It was an aluminum- 
coated Mylar-plastic sphere; when in orbit, 
such a sphere would be used as a passive 
electronic reflector. 
December 11: The transmitters of Vanguard 
III, launched Sept. 18, became silent after 
providing tracking signals and scientific data 
for 85 days. The satellite was expected to 
remain in orbit 40 years. 
December 17: T. Keith Glennan, NASA Ad- 
ministrator, offered the services of the U.S. 
worldwide tracking network in support of 



any manned space flight the U.S.S.R. might 
plan to undertake, in a speech before the 
Institute of World Affairs in Pasadena, 
Calif. 

December 22: In a Canadian-U.S. cooperative 
project, NASA launched a four-stage Javelin 
sounding rocket from Wallops island to 
measure the intensity of galactic radio noise. 

December 31: Approximately 300 research 
rockets were launched during the 30-month 
IGY and IGC-59 periods; 221 of these had 
been launched during IGY. 

1960 

February 27: A 100-foot-diameter inlatable 
sphere for Project Echo was launched on 
the third suborbital test from Wallops Is- 
land. 

March 11: Pioneer V space probe was success- 
fully launched by Thor-Able on a historic 
flight that measured radiation and magnetic 
fields in space and that communicated over 
great distances. 

March 24: Pioneer V radio signals were re- 
ceived 2,000,000 miles from earth, more than 
4 times the distance radio signals had pre- 
viously been transmitted from a satellite. 

April 1: Tiros I, a weather observation satel- 
lite, was launched into orbit by a Thor-Able 
and took pictures of the earth's cloud cover 
on a global scale from about 450 miles 
above the surface. 

— Fourth suborbital test of the 100-foot- 
diameter Echo sphere was launched from 
Wallops Island to an altitude of 235 miles. 

April 23: NASA fired the first of five Aerobee- 
Hi sounding rockets from Wallops Island in 
a program to measure ultraviolet radiation. 

May 8: A 150-MW transmitter on Pioneer V, 
commanded at 5:04 a.m. EDT, worked satis- 
factorily at 8,001,000 miles from the earth. 

May 19: Tiros I spotted a tornado storm sys- 
tem in the vicinity of Wichita Falls, Tex. 

May 23: Construction began on Building 4, 
the Boiler House and Electric Substation, at 
GSFC; it would house service shops, a cen- 
tral powerplant, a refrigeration plant, and 
office areas. 

May 31: NASA launched a Project Echo 100- 
foot inflatable sphere to an altitude of 210 
miles to test a payload configuration carry- 
ing two beacon transmitters. 










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Vanguard vehicle in a gantry. 



I960 Continued 

June 26: A 6-rainute message was received by 
the Jodrell Bank tracking station, England, 
from Pioneer V, the last communication re- 
ceived from this spacecraft, then 22.5 mil- 
lion miles from the earth, moving at a rela- 
tive velocity of 21,000 mph. 



June 28: The Smithsonian Institution posthu- 
mously awarded its highest honor, the 
Langley Medal, to Robert H. Goddard. 
— Building 1, the Space Projects Building at 
GSFC, was fully occupied. 

July 1: The first complete Scout rocket vehicle 
was launched from Wallops Island, but the 






APPENDIX D 



fourth-stage separation and firing were not 
accomplished. 

July 21: A Nike-Cajun sounding rocket was 
fired from Fort Churchill, Manitoba, Cana- 
da, containing an instrumental payload to 
measure data on energetic particles during a 
period of low solar activity. 

August 12: Echo I, the first passive communi- 
cations satellite, was successfully launched 
into orbit; it reflected a radio message from 
President Eisenhower across the nation, thus 
demonstrating the feasibility of global radio 
communications via satellites. Echo I, visi- 
ble to skywatchers, provided reflection for 
numerous long-range radio transmissions by 
private and Government research agencies. 

August 24: Echo I first went into the earth's 
shadow, with its two tracking beacons still 
operating. Since going into orbit on Au- 
gust 12, it had bounced back hundreds of 
telephonic experiments and transmissions. 

October 4: The second complete NASA Scout 
rocket was fired successfully from Wallops 
Island to its predicted 3,500-mile altitude 
and 5,800-mile impact range. 

October 12: NASA Administrator Glennan an- 
nounced that communications satellites de- 
veloped by private companies would be 
launched by NASA at cost to assist private 
industry in developing a communications 
network. 

November 3: Explorer VIII was launched. 
Measurements were taken of the electron 
density, temperature, ion density and com- 



position, and charge on the satellite in the 
upper atmosphere. 

November 19: Construction began on Building 
6, the Space Sciences Laboratory, at GSFC 

November 22: An Aerobee-Hi was fired to a 
105-mile altitude from Wallops Island, with 
four stellar spectrometers developed for an 
experiment by the University of Rochester's 
Institute of Optics. 

November 23: Tiros II was launched by 
Thor-Delta booster from AMR — the four- 
teenth successful U.S. satellite launched in 
1960. 

November 26: Construction began on Building 
5, the Instrument Construction and Installa- 
tion Laboratory, at GSFC. 

— Patent awarded to Stephen Paull, GSFC's 
Spacecraft Technology Division, for a Vari- 
able Frequency Multivibrator Sebcarrier 
Oscillator for Telemeter System. 

1961 

January 29: The Goddard Institute for Space 
Studies was established in New York City. 

January 31: A contract was awarded for con- 
struction of Buildings 7 and 10, the Payload 
Testing Facility and Environmental Testing 
Laboratory at GSFC. 

— Experiments with Echo I were discon- 
tinued except for occasional checks, having 
provided innumerable communications since 
launch on August 12, 1960. 

February 5: The orientation of Tiros II made 
it impossible to obtain Northern Hemi- 



Arcfaitect's drawing of Buildings 7 and 10. 




VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1961 Continued 

sphere pictures, and malfunctions made re- 
mote picture taking undesirable; use of the 
satellite's cameras was suspended until orbit 
precession again made Northern Hemi- 
sphere pictures possible. 
February 10: A voice message was sent from 
Washington to Woomera, Australia, by way 
of the moon. NASA Deputy Administrator 
Hugh L. Dryden spoke on telephone to 
Goldstone, Calif., which "bounced" it off 
the moon to the deep space instrumentation 
station at Woomera. The operation was 
held as part of the official opening cere- 
mony of the Deep Space Instrumentation 
Facility site in Australia. 




Antenna at Goldstone, California. 



February 15: James E. Webb was sworn in as 
second NASA Administrator. 

February 16: Explorer IX, a 12-foot inflatable 
sphere of Mylar and aluminum, painted 
with white "polka dots," was placed in orbit 
by a four-stage Scout booster from Wallops 
Island. This was the first satellite launch- 
ing from Wallops and the first satellite 
boosted by a solid-fuel rocket. 
— France and NASA agreed to establish a 
joint program to test NASA communications 
satellites in Projects Relay and Rebound, to 
be launched by NASA in 1962 and 1963. 



February 17: Explorer IX was located in orbit, 
by visual and photographic means, after 
failure of its radio beacon delayed orbit 
confirmation. 

February 23: NASA Administrator James E. 
Webb and Deputy Secretary of Defense Ros- 
well L. Gilpatric signed a letter of under- 
standing confirming the national launch ve- 
hicle program — the integrated development 
and procurement of space boosters by DOD 
and NASA. Neither DOD nor NASA would 
initiate the development of a launch vehicle 
or booster for use in space without the writ- 
ten acknowledgment of the other agency. 
— Tiros II completed 3 months in orbit, 
continuing useful observations beyond the 
original estimate of useful life. 

February 27: A memorandum of under- 
standing between the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission and NASA delineating 
and coordinating civil communication space 
activities was signed. It stated that "ear- 
liest practicable realization of a commer- 
cially operable communications satellite sys- 
tem is a national objective." 

During February: Dr. Joseph W. Siry, Head of 
GSFC's Theory and Analysis Office, received 
the Arthur S. Flemming award "For accom- 
plishments in the field of orbit determi- 
nation and prediction." 

March 1: The installation of computer equip- 
ment was completed in Building 3 at GSFC. 

March 6: Direct-mode pictures by the Tiros II 
camera were resumed after a month of 
inoperation. The quality of the pictures 
showed slight improvement, supporting the 
theory that foreign matter might have been 
deposited on the lens and was gradually 
evaporating. 

March 16: The Goddard Space Flight Center 
was officially dedicated at Greenbelt, Md.; 
the dedication address was delivered by Dr. 
Detlev Bronk, President of the National 
Academy of Sciences. It was the 35th anni- 
versary of Dr. Goddard's successful launch- 
ing of the world's first liquid-fuel 
rocket. Mrs. Goddard accepted the Con- 
gressional Medal honoring her husband. 

March 23: Tiros II had completed 4 months 
in orbit and continued to provide useful 
cloud pictures and radiation data. A signal 
from Tiros II was used on orbit 1763 to 



214 



APPENDIX D 



trigger dynamite to break ground for new 
RCA Space Environment Center at Prince- 
ton, NJ. 

March 25: Explorer X, on a Thor-Delta, 
launched into a highly elliptical orbit (apo- 
gee 186,000 miles, perigee 100 miles) with 
instruments to transmit data on the nature 
of the magnetic field and charged particles 
in the region of space where the earth's 
magnetic field merges with that of inter- 
planetary space. 

March 27: Its instruments recording a magnet- 
ic impulse, Explorer X became the first sat- 
ellite to measure the shock wave generated 
by a solar flare. 

March 28: GSFC scientists reported that Ex- 
plorer X had encountered magnetic fields 
considerably stronger than expected in its 
elongated orbit which carried it 186,000 
miles from the earth (almost halfway to the 
moon) . 

March 31: All stations in the Goddard-man- 
aged worldwide Mercury tracking network 
became operational. 

April 19: Preliminary data from Explorer X 
indicated that solar wind blows the sun's 
magnetic field past the orbit of the earth. 

April 27: Explorer XI was launched. It de- 
tected directional gamma rays from space. 

May 1: Tiros operations at Belmar, N.J., were 
terminated to begin the move of equipment 
to Wallops Island. 

May IS: The first test inflation of a 135-foot 
rigidized inflatable balloon (Echo II series) 
in a dirigible hangar was conducted by 
NASA Langley Research Center and G. T. 
Schjeldahl Co. at Weeksville, N.C. 
— The GSFC Institute for Space Studies in 
New York announced that its first major 
project, a 2-month seminar on the origin 
of the solar system, would be held in the 
fall of 1961. 

May 22: Construction began on Building 7, 
the Payload Testing Facility, at GSFC. 

May 24: FCC endorsed the ultimate creation 
of a commercial satellite system to be owned 
jointly by international telegraph and tele- 
phone companies and announced a meeting 
for June 5 to explore "plans and procedures 
looking toward early establishment of an 
operable commercial communications satel- 
lite system." 



May 25: In his second State of the Union 
message President Kennedy set forth an 
accelerated space program based upon the 
long-range national goals of landing a man 
on the moon and returning him safely to 
earth, "before this decade is out"; early de- 
velopment of the Rover, a nuclear rocket; 
speed-up of the use of earth satellites for 
worldwide communications; and providing 
"at the earliest possible time a satellite sys- 
tem for worldwide weather observation." 

— An additional $549 million was request- 
ed for NASA over the new administration's 
March budget requests; $62 million was re- 
quested for DOD for starting development 
of a solid-propellant booster of the Nova 
class. (Nova would be capable of placing 
100,000 pounds on the moon; its first stage 
would have six 1,500,000-pound- thrust en- 
gines.) 

June 8: NASA announced accelerated recruit- 
ing of qualified scientists and engineers at 
its field centers to fill anticipated manpower 
requirements in the expanded space ex- 
ploration program. During 1960 NASA had 
interviewed 3,000 persons on 100 college 
campuses. 

— Astronomers of Lick Observatory posi- 
tioned a 36-inch refractor telescope to inter- 
sect the path of Echo I at its predicted 
point of maximum elevation. The predic- 
tion of GSFC was confirmed at the exact 
time and within 10 minutes of arc. 

June 9: A NASA press conference revealed 
that data from Vanguard III (November 15 
to 17, 1960) and Explorer VIII (also during 
November 1960) indicated that high-veloc- 
ity clouds of micrometeoroids moved near 
the earth, perhaps in a meteor stream 
around the sun. These new data had just 
been discovered from completed analysis. 

June 14: The Argentine Comisi6n National de 
Investigaciones Espaciales and NASA signed 
a memorandum of understanding for a co- 
operative space science research program us- 
ing sounding rockets. 

— A four-stage Javelin fired to 560-mile 
altitude from Wallops Island tested the ex- 
tension of two 75-foot antenna arms on ra- 
dio command, a test flight in the Canadian- 
U.S. Alouette satellite program. 

June 15: President Kennedy directed the Na- 



215 




Br. Robert Jastrow addresses the Conference on Origins of the Solar System 
held shortly after the Institute for Space Studies began operation in New York. 



1961 Continued 

tional Aeronautics and Space Council to un- 
dertake a fall study of the Nation's com- 
munications satellite policy; he stated that 
leadership in science and technology should 
be exercised to achieve worldwide communi- 
cations through the use of satellites at the 
earliest practicable date. Although no com- 
mitments as to an operational system should 
be made, the Government would "conduct 
and encourage research and development to 
advance the state of the art and to give 
maximum assurance of rapid and continu- 
ing scientific and technological progress." 

During June: NASA entered a letter contract 
with RCA for four Tiros satellites. 

July 9: The National Science Foundation re- 
leased a forecast of the Nation's scientific 
needs for the next decade, which predicted 
that the United States would need nearly 
twice as many scientists in 1970 (168,000) as 
in 1981 (87,000) . 

July 12: Tiros III weather satellite was suc- 
cessfully launched into a near-circular orbit 
by the Tfaor-Delta booster from Cape Ca- 
naveral. 

July 13 to 14: Two Nike-Cajun rockets 
launched Univ. of N.H.-GSFC payloads 
from Wallops Island. 

July 19: Tiros II photographed tropical storm 
Liza in the Pacific Ocean, pinpointing its 
location for meteorologists. 



July 23: NASA Administrator Webb, in 
congressional testimony, pointed out that 
the Tiros cloud-cover program was known 
to the entire world, involved no surveil- 
lance, and promised great benefits to all 
nations. He said data from the Tiros satel- 
lites had been made available to all, includ- 
ing the Soviet Union. 

July 28: NASA and AT&T signed a coopera- 
tive agreement for the development and 
testing of two, possibly four, active com- 
munications satellites during 1962. AT&T 
would design and build the TSX satellites 
at its own expense and would reimburse 
NASA for the cost of the launchings by 
Thor-Delta vehicles at Cape Canaveral. 

July 31: NASA awarded a contract to the 
Univ. of Michigan to continue to provide re- 
search instrumentation for measurement of 
temperatures and winds at altitudes up to 
150 kilometers with Nike-Cajun and other 
sounding rockets. 

August 8: Over 100 foreign weather services 
were invited by NASA and the U.S. 
Weather Bureau to participate in the Tiros 
III experiment for a x 9-week period begin- 
ning today. The program provided cooper- 
ating services with an opportunity to con- 
duct special meteorological observations 
synchronized with passes of the satellite. 

August 11: NASA announced negotiation of a 
contract with Hughes Aircraft Co. for con- 



216 




Italy and the Mediterranean as seen from a Tiros satellite. 



straction of three experimental synchronous 
communications satellites (Syncom) . 
August 12: Echo I completed its first year in 
orbit, still clearly visible to the naked eye, 
after traveling 4,480 orbits and 138 million 
miles. Echo I had provided the basis for 
over 150 communications experiments, re- 
cent ones indicating only a 40 percent re- 
duction in transmission reflection, caused by 
the changed shape. It also provided signifi- 
cant data on atmospheric drag and solar 
pressure. 



— Aerobee 150A, with a liquid-hydrogen 
experiment, was fired from Wallops Island. 
August IS: Explorer XII was placed into a 
highly eccentric orbit by a Thor-Delta 
booster from AMR; would provide detailed 
evaluation of the behavior of energetic par- 
ticles between a 180- and 47,800-mile 
altitude. Under GSFC management this 
"windmill" satellite carried six experiments 
developed by Ames Research Center, State 
Univ. of Iowa, Univ. of N.H., and 
GSFC. Several days were required to 



217 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1961 Continued 

confirm the orbit. All instrumentation 
operated normally. 

August 17: NASA announced that Explorer 
XII had successfully completed its first orbit 
and was sending data on magnetic fields 
and solar radiation from an apogee near 
54,000 miles and a perigee within 170 miles 
of the earth. 

August 21: NASA held a news conference on 
Explorer XII, at which the great amount of 
continuous coverage of interrelated data in 
its eccentric orbit was pointed out. 

August 25: Explorer XIII was placed into or- 
bit by the Scout rocket from Wallops Is- 
land; it was a micrometeoroid counting sat- 
ellite developed by the Langley Research 
Center with GSFC participation. 

August 29: NASA announced Explorer XIII 
had reentered the atmosphere. Transmitting 
data on micrometeoroids, the spacecraft was 
last heard from on August 27 by the Mini- 
track facility at Antofagasta, Chile. 

During August: With the successful launch of 
Explorer XII on August 15, the Delta 
launch, vehicles had successfully launched 
five satellites in six attempts, the only fail- 
ure being the first attempt. Delta's high 
reliability record began with Echo I on Au- 
gust 12, I960, and included Tiros II and 
Tiros III and Explorer X and Explorer 
XII. Built by prime contractor Douglas 
Aircraft, the NASA Delta launch vehicle 
consisted of a Thor first stage (Rocketdyne 
MB-3 liquid-fuel engine) , Aerojet-General 
second stage (AJ-10-118, an improved Van- 
guard second stage) , and an Allegany Ballis- 
tics Laboratory third stage (X-248 rocket 
is a spin-stabilized version of the Vanguard 
third stage) . 

September 13: Two experiments to measure 
atmospheric winds, temperature, and density 
in relatively high altitudes were conducted 
from Wallops Island in two four-stage Argo 
D-4 rocket launches. Sodium clouds were 
released at near 120 miles and again at 228 
miles in the first launch, and at 118 and 230 
miles in the second launch. French scien- 
tists participated by using special optical in- 
struments to observe the brilliant orange 
and yellow clouds which stirred a rash of 
public inquiries from hundreds of miles. 



September 16 to 29: Construction began on 
Building 8, the Satellite Systems Laboratory, 
at GSFC. 

— A pair of spin-up rockets on Tiros II 
were fired after more than 10 months in 
orbit. 

During September: Congress appropriated 
funds to the U.S. Weather Bureau for 
implementation of the National Operational 
Meteorological Satellite System. To phase 
in as early as technology warranted and to 
continue expanding the operational capabil- 
ity through the early Nimbus (advanced 
weather satellite) launchings by NASA, the 
system was planned to be fully operational 
by 1966, when the Nimbus system would 
become operational. The system would in- 
clude data acquisition stations in northern 
latitudes, communications for transmitting 
the data, and a National Meteorological 
Center to receive, process, analyze, and dis- 
seminate the derived information over 
domestic and international weather circuits. 

October 11: The final report of the House 
Committee on Science and Astronautics re- 
lating to their hearings on "Commercial Ap- 
plications of Space Communications Sys- 
tems" was released, having among its 
conclusions: 

(1) Because of the worldwide interest 
and potential usefulness of a space com- 
munications system, the U.S. Government 
must "retain maximum flexibility regarding 
the central question of ownership and 
operation of the system." 

(2) NASA would not only evaluate the 
various commercial proposals but would 
"conduct all space launches and retain di- 
rect control over all launching equipment, 
facilities, and personnel." 

(3) Research and development of mili- 
tary space communications systems should 
continue to be conducted by DOD, but all 
research and development in space com- 
munications "should be conducted under 
the general supervision of NASA in accord- 
ance with its statutory mandate to plan, di- 
rect, and conduct aeronautical and space ac- 
tivities" as well as evaluate the technical 
merits of proposed systems. 

October 13: The Ad Hoc Carrier Committee 
established by FCC to make an industry 



218 



APPENDIX D 



proposal on the development and operation 
of commercial communications satellites rec- 
ommended a nonprofit corporation be 
formed, to be owned by companies engaged 
in international communications, with the 
U.S. Government having one more repre- 
sentative on the board of directors than any 
single company. Western Union filed a mi- 
nority statement proposing a public stock 
company arrangement to prevent dominance 
of the corporation by any one company. 

— After its second year, Explorer VII was 
still transmitting, although the predicted 
lifetime of its transmitters had been only 
one year. 

October 14: An Argo D-4 launched from Wal- 
lops Island carried a Canadian-U.S. topside 
sounding satellite payload to 560-mile alti- 
tude. 

October 19: P-21, the Electron Density Profile 
Probe, was launched, with good data 
received. Electron density measurements 
were obtained to about 1,500 miles. 

— Construction began on Building 10, the 
Environmental Testing Laboratory, at 
GSFC. 

October 23: NASA announced it had ordered 
14 additional Delta launch vehicles for Re- 
lay, Syncom, Telstar, and Tiros satellites. 

October 27: GSFC and the Geophysics Corp. 
of America launched a Nike-Cajun rocket 
from Wallops Island with a 60-pound pay- 
load that reached a 90-mile altitude in a 
study of electron density and temperature 
in the upper level of the atmosphere. 

October 29: NASA announced that the first 
Mercury-Scout launch to verify the readiness 
of the worldwide Mercury tracking network 
would take place at AMR. 

November 23: Tiros II had completed its first 
year in orbit, still transmitting cloud-cover 
photographs of usable quality, although it 
had been expected to have a useful lifetime 
of only 3 months. Tiros II had completed 
5,354 orbits and had transmitted over 36,000 
photographs. 

November 27: Sen. Robert Kerr announced 
that he would introduce legislation to au- 
thorize private ownership in the U.S. por- 
tion of the proposed worldwide communica- 
tions satellite system. His bill would create 



the "Satellite Communications Corporation," 
which the participating firms would buy into. 

December 18: NASA announced that the first 
station in a network of data-gathering sta- 
tions for use with second-generation (ad- 
vanced) satellites had been completed near 
Fairbanks, Alaska. The site for the second 
of the $5 million installations (each had a 
high-gain antenna 85 feet in diameter) was 
announced to be Rosman, N.C., 40 miles 
southwest of Asheville. 

During December: The West German Post 
Office indicated it would construct near Mu- 
nich by late 1963 or early 1964, a ground 
station capable of handling up to 600 phone 
calls simultaneously for operations with Tel- 
star and Relay satellites. 

1962 

January 18: GSFC selected Rohr Aircraft 
Corp. to negotiate the manufacture and 
erection of three 85-foot-diameter parabolic 
antenna systems at Pisgah National Forest 
(Rosman, N.C.) ; Fairbanks, Alaska; and ae 
undetermined location in eastern Canada. 

January 19: At a NASA press conference, 
scientists described preliminary scientific re- 
sults obtained by Explorer XII, based on a 
study of 10 percent of the data. It ap- 
peared that instead of the two radiation 
belts (previously called the inner and outer 
Van Allen belts) there was one magneto- 
sphere extending roughly from 400 miles 
above the earth to 30,000 to 40,000 miles 
out. 

January 23: GSFC announced the selection of 
Motorola, Inc., Military Electronics Division, 
of Scottsdale, Ariz., as contractor for re- 
search and development on the Goddard 
range and range-rate tracking system. In- 
tended for tracking satellites in near-space 
and cislunar space, the system would meas- 
ure spacecraft position to within a few feet 
and velocity to within fractions of a foot 
per second, by measuring carrier and side- 
tone modulations. 

— Dr. Sigmund Fritz of the U.S. Weather Bu- 
reau reported that Tiros III had spotted 
fifty tropical storms during the summer of 
1961. 

January 25: Explorer X detected a "shadow" 
on the side of the earth away from the sun; 



219 












Rosman tracking facility. 



1962 Continued 

this shadow was marked by an absence of 
the solar wind, a belt of plasma moving out 
from the sun at about 200 miles per second 
but deflected around the earth by the 
earth's magnetic field and creating a cone- 
shaped "shadow" some 100,000 miles across 
at its larger end. The Explorer X findings 
were reported to the annual meeting of the 
American Physical Society in New York by 
Dr. Bruno Rossi of MIT. 
— "Satellite Communications Corporation" 
bills were introduced by Sen. Robert 
Kerr (S. 2650) and by Rep. George Miller 
H.R. 9696) , which would amend the 
NASA Act by adding a new section declaring 
that it is "the policy of the United States to 
provide leadership in the establishment of a 
worldwide communications system involving 
the use of space satellites." The section 
would create a "Satellite Communications 
Corporation" which would be privately 
owned and managed, and which would de- 
velop and operate a communications satel- 
lite system. 
January 31: Explorer I had completed its 



fourth year in orbit and had a life expect- 
ancy of several more years. 

During January: The Nimbus meteorological 
satellite underwent a rigorous test program 
at General Electric's Missile and Space Vehi- 
cle Center, Valley Forge, Pa. 
— NASA awarded a contract to the Kolls- 
man Instrument Division for a 38-inch- 
diameter primary mirror in the space 
telescope to be used in the Orbiting Astro- 
nomical Observatory (OAO) . 

February 8: Tiros IV was launched by a 
three-stage Thor-Delta rocket from Cape 
Canaveral into a near-circular orbit with an 
apogee of 525 miles and a perigee of 471 
miles. It featured the same basic types of 
equipment as previous Tiros satellites, in- 
cluding cameras for cloud-cover photography 
and infrared sensors to measure tempera- 
tures at various levels in the atmosphere. 
The principal innovation was a camera with 
new type of wide-angle lens covering an 
area 450 miles on a side, which was ex- 
pected to provide minimum distortion. The 
quality of Tiros IV pictures was good. 

February 16: Explorer IX was launched. The 



220 



APPENDIX D 



balloon and fourth stage orbited. Trans- 
mitter on the balloon failed to function 
properly, so the satellite required optical 
tracking. 

February 25: Soviet scientists claimed to have 
discovered the third radiation belt around 
the earth and published such findings 2 
years before the findings of Explorer XII 
were made public by NASA on January 19, 
1962. 

February 28: James S. Albus, an engineer at 
GSFC, was awarded $1,000 for his invention 
of a digital solar aspect sensor. 



The digital solar aspect sensor. 



«*'% 



D, = DARK 

D 2 = ILLUMINATED 

D, = ILLUMINATED 




PHOTO-DUO-DIODES 



LIGHT MASK' 



(a) A 3 BIT FAN TYPE GRAY CODE SENSOR 
D, D z D 3 D, Dj D 3 



March 7: OSO I (Orbiting Solar Observatory 
I) was successfully launched into orbit from 
Cape Canaveral, marking the seventh 
straight success for the Thor-Delta booster. 

March 8: The tracking network that operated 
during John Glenn's orbital Mercury flight 
(MA-6) would be sufficient to handle the 
18-orbit manned flights to follow, according 
to Edmond C. Buckley, NASA's Director of 
Tracking and Data Acquisition, in testi- 
mony before a subcommittee of the House 
Committee on Science and Astronautics. 

March 11: NASA announced that Echo I, the 
100-foot balloon-type passive communica- 
tions satellite launched on August 12, 1960, 
had recently become increasingly difficult to 
see. The sphere now presented only one- 
half to one-fourth its original size; this was 
due either to shrinkage or distortion during 
its li/ 2 years in orbit. 



March 14: A press conference of Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory and NASA scien- 
tists reported that Explorer IX, launched on 
February 16, 1961, had provided new and 
refined information on the density of the 
upper atmosphere. Explorer IX, a 12-foot 
aluminum-foil sphere 'painted with white 
"polka dots," was expected to have an orbit- 
al life of 2 more years. As it spiraled down 
into denser atmosphere, it was expected to 
provide much more information on density 
at altitudes down to 100 miles. 

March 16: First anniversary of the dedication 
of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 
During this year, seven Goddard satellites 
were orbited and the Center successfully op- 
erated the new 18-station world tracking 
network for the first manned orbital flight; 
began expansion of the 13-station scientific 
satellite tracking and data network; saw some 
70 of its sounding rocket payloads launched 
from Wallops Island; established the Insti- 
tute for Space Studies in New York; and 
added three buildings and 700 persons to its 
staff. 

March 27: NASA fired a Nike-Cajun rocket 
from Wallops Island, releasing a sodium 
vapor cloud between 25- and 74-mile alti- 
tude. Rays of the setting sun colored the 
sodium cloud red (instead of sodium vapor's 
normal yellow). 

March 28: The Senate Aeronautical and Space 
Sciences Committee unanimously approved a 
bill for ownership and operation of the Na- 
tion's commercial communications satellites. 

March 29: A four-stage NASA Scout rocket 
carried the P-21A probe payload 3,910 miles 
into space and 4,370 miles downrange from 
Wallops Island. 

During March: NASA completed work on its 
first major launching facility on the West 
Coast, a Thor-Agena pad at Vandcnberg 
AFB, Calif. A used gantry was shipped 
from Marshall Space Flight Center and in- 
stalled at a fl million saving over cost of 
new construction. This pad would be used 
for NASA polar-orbit launches, such as for 
Echo II, Nimbus, and POGO (Polar Orbit- 
ing Geophysical Observatory) . 

During March: William G. Stroud, Chief of 
GSFC's Aeronomy & Meteorology Division, 
was awarded the Astronautics Engineer 



221 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1962 Continued 

Achievement Award "For his personal con- 
tribution to the technology of meteor- 
ological satellites which are now culminat- 
ing in rapid development of an operational 
system." Bernard Sisco, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Administration at GSFC, was 
awarded the Distinguished Service Award of 
Prince Georges County Junior Chamber of 
Commerce, "In recognition of his con- 
tributions to the general community welfare 
during the year." 

April I: Beginning of the third year of suc- 
cessful weather satellite operation by Tiros 
satellites; Tiros /, launched on Apr. 1, 1960, 
performed beyond all expectations, operated 
for 78 days, transmitted almost 23,000 cloud 
photos, of which some 19,000 were useful to 
meteorologists. Tiros II, launched Nov. 23, 
I960, had transmitted more than 33,000 
photos and one year after launch was still 
occasionally taking useful photos. Tiros 
til, launched July 12, 1961, took 24,000 
cloud photos and was most spectacular as a 
"hurricane hunter," Tiros IV, launched Feb. 
8, 1962, had averaged 250 operationally use- 
ful photos per day. 

April 2: OSO 1, launched Mar. 7, 1962, was 
reported by NASA to be performing 
well. As of this date, 360 telemetry data 
tapes had been recorded from 403 
orbits. About one year would be required 
for complete analysis of the data. 

April 11: NASA Administrator James E. Webb, 
testifying before the Senate Commitec on 
Commerce, supported the President's bill 
setting up a communications satellite corpora- 
tion and approved of the Senate amend- 
ments, but noted his reservations on the one 
that would direct the FCC to encourage com- 
munications common carriers to build and 
own their own ground stations. 

April 13: NASA Administrator James E. Webb, 
addressing the National Conference of the 
American Society for Public Administration 
in Detroit, said: "No new department or 
agency in the recent history of the Execu- 
tive Branch of the Federal Government was 
created through the transfer of as many 
units from other departments and agencies 
as in the case of NASA. Three and one- 
half years ago, NASA did not exist. Today 



NASA comprises approximately 20,500 em- 
ployees, ten major field centers, and an an- 
nual budget approaching the $2 billion 
mark." 

April 15: U.S. Weather Bureau began daily 
international transmissions of cloud maps 
based on photos taken by Tiros IV. 

April 17: NASA launched a Nike-Cajun 
sounding rocket from Wallops Island which 
detonated 12 grenades at altitudes from 25 
to 57 miles. 

April 24: The first transmission of TV pic- 
tures in space was made via orbiting Echo 
I, Signals were beamed from MIT's Lincoln 
Laboratory, Camp Parks, Calif., bounced off 
Echo I, and received at Millstone Hill near 
Westford, Mass. 

April 26: Ariel I, the first international satel- 
lite (a joint U.K. -U.S. effort) , was launched 
into orbit from Cape Canaveral by a Thor- 
Delta booster. The 136-pound spacecraft 
was built by GSFC and carried six British 
experiments to make integrated measure- 
ments in the ionosphere. 

— Japan and the U.S. launched their first 
joint sounding rocket from Wallops Island. 
NASA provided the Nike-Cajun rocket, 
launch facilities, data acquisition, and a 
Langmuir probe to measure electron tem- 
perature. Japan furnished other instrumen- 
tation. The altitude of the flight was 75.6 
miles. 

— NASA graduated its first group of Proj- 
ect Mercury tracking personnel from the 
new course conducted at the Wallops Island 
training facilities; the seven graduates were 
personnel from firms having contracts with 
DOD and NASA. 

During April: Tiros IV continued in opera- 
tion and, to a great extent, provided excel- 
lent data. Over 20.000 pictures had been 
received. A total of 217 ncphanalyses had 
been prepared up to March 26, and 199 had 
been transmitted over national and interna- 
tional weather circuits. Tiros II was turned 
on late in April by an unknown spurious 
source. An engineering investigation was 
run in early May before turning it off 
again. An analysis of the data indicated 
that some usable I R data were obtained. 

— Robert W. Hutchison, GSFC's Person- 
nel Director, was awarded the Federal Civil 



222 




Dr. Kunio Hirao and Toshio Muraoka at the launch of the first U.S.- Japanese 
sounding rocket experiment in the joint program. 



Servant of the Year-State of Maryland, "In 
recognition of outstanding achievements in 
contributing to the rapid growth and estab- 
lishment of Goddard Space Flight Center." 

May 2: NASA scientists reported to the 
COSPAR session that data from Explorer IX 
indicated that the upper atmosphere was 
heated by sunspot activity. 

May 3: Two GSFC scientific sounding rockets 
were launched from Wallops Island. An 
Iris research rocket launched with test in- 
strumentation did not achieve its programed 
altitude and landed 175 statute miles down- 
range. 

— House of Representatives passed the 
Communications Satellite Act of 1962 by a 
vote of 354 to 9. 

May 17: The second and third joint Japan- 
U.S. space probes were successfully launched 
from Wallops Island; the second Nike-Cajun 
reached a 76-mile altitude and the third, 
and last — a night shot — reached an 80-mile 
altitude. The first of a series of 80 rocket 
probes to determine wind patterns over 
Cape Canaveral was initiated with the 
launch of a single-stage Nike to 80,000 feet, 
where it released a white smoke screen for 
photographic study. 

May 18: Geophysics Corp. of America reported 



receipt -of a Weather Bureau contract to 
study and explain the formation of vast 
bands of cloud patterns in the upper atmos- 
phere, a phenomenon first revealed in pho- 
tographs relayed by Tiros I. 

May 20: Building 5 at GSFC was completed. 

May 22: OSO I, launched March 7, 1962, ex- 
perienced telemetry failure; it had provided 
1,000 hours of data from its solar-pointed 
experiments. 

May 29: NASA announced that Ariel I, the 
U.K.-U.S. ionosphere satellite launched on 
April 26, was functioning well except for 
one experiment, the solar ultraviolet detec- 
tor. 

During May: Checkout was completed for the 
Alaska Data Acquisition Facility near Fair- 
banks, and the Univ. of Alaska assumed re- 
sponsibility. Part of the GSFC system, the 
Alaskan facility was an 85-foot dish; its asso- 
ciated electronics system would be used on 
tracking and data acquisition of the polar- 
orbiting Nimbus, EGO (Eccentric Geophysi- 
cal Observatory) , and POGO (Polar-Orbit- 
ing Geophysical Observatory) satellites. 

June 6: Three sounding rockets were launched 
from Wallops Island. The first, a Nike- 
Apache, launched at 7:40 p.m. (EDT) with a 
70-pound payload containing a pitot-static 



223 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1962 Continued 

probe, reached a 78-mile altitude. The 
second, a Nike-Cajun, launched at 8:05 p.m., 
consisted of 11 explosive charges and a bal- 
loon, released between 25 and 64 miles 
altitude. The third, a Nike-Asp, was 
launched at 8:56 p.m. and released sodium 
vapor clouds to measure atmospheric winds 
and diffusion, at about 20 miles and extend- 
ing to a peak altitude of about 100 miles. 

June 7: A Nike-Cajun vehicle with an experi- 
ment to measure winds and temperatures in 
the upper atmosphere was launched from 
Wallops Island. In the night flight, 12 spe- 
cial explosive charges were ejected and deto- 
nated at intervals from about 25 up to 58 
miles altitude. 

— • NASA announced selection of Bendix 
Corp.'s Radio Division, Towson, Md., for a 
contract to operate five of NASA's world- 
wide Project Mercury tracking and com- 
munications stations. 

June 14: Tiros IV was no longer transmitting 
pictures usable for global weather forecast- 
ing, although it was still taking "direct" 
pictures on command which were suitable 
for limited U.S. weather analysis. 

June 15: A two-stage Nike-Apache sounding 
rocket was launched from Wallops Island 
with a 95-pound payload to a 89-mile alti- 
tude with a GSFC experiment to measure 
electron density and electron collision fre- 
quency in the ionosphere under undisturbed 
conditions. 

— NASA launched the first two of six 
tests on the performance of the Canadian 
Black Brant sounding rocket. The first car- 
ried a payload to 58 miles above Wallops 
Island, the second reached 62 miles. 

— In preparation for the 1962 hurricane sea- 
son, the Weather Bureau arranged to trans- 
mit satellite cloud photographs by photo- 
facsimile to warning centers in San Juan, 
New Orleans, and Miami, where they would 
be used in forecasting and tracking tropical 
storms. 

June 18: NASA selected Hughes Aircraft Co. 
for negotiation of a $2.5 million, 6-month 
study contract on an Advanced Syncom 
(synchronous communications) satellite. 
The contract covered satellite subsystems 
which would require long lead-time de- 



velopmental and feasibility work. This 
second-generation Syncom would be a 500- 
pound, spin-stabilized satellite capable of 
relaying hundreds of telephone calls or car- 
rying several TV channels. (The first-gen- 
eration Syncom, for which Hughes was 
prime contractor, was limited to single tele- 
phone channel relay.) The Syncom project 
was under the technical direction of GSFC. 

June 19: Tiros V was launched into orbit by a 
Thor-Delta booster from Cape Canaveral. 
A faulty guidance system placed it into an 
elliptical orbit (apogee, 604 miles; perigee, 
367 miles; period, 100.5 minutes) instead of 
a 400-mile circular orbit. 

June 20: An Aerobee 150A was launched from 
Wallops Island with a 271 -pound payload 
boosted to 97-mile altitude; it Carried a 
camera to study the behavior of liquid hy- 
drogen under conditions of symmetrical 
heating and zero gravity. 

June 24: OSO I began transmitting real-time 
data on solar observations after 5 weeks of 
intermittent transmittal. 

July 1: OSO I was transmitting continuous 
signals, and 20 percent of real-time data was 
being acquired from each 95-minute orbit. 

July 5: Ariel I discovery of a new ion belt at 
an altitude of 450 to 500 miles was an- 
nounced at the International Conference on 
the Ionosphere, London, by Prof. James 
Sayers of Birmingham University. 

July 9: Tiros V stopped transmitting pictures 
from the Tegea-lens, medium-angle camera. 
The Tegea camera system transmitted 4,701 
pictures of which 70 percent were considered 
of excellent quality. The wide-angle Elgeet- 
lens camera, which still functioned, had 
transmitted 5,100 pictures to date, some of 
which aided in the analysis of Typhoon 
Joan over the western Pacific. 

July 10: Telstar I, the first privately financed 
satellite, was launched by a Goddard launch 
team, from AMR on a Delta booster. The 
satellite was funded by AT&T and launched 

. under a NASA-AT&T agreement of July 27, 
1961. Telstar I made the world's first com- 
mercial transmission of live TV via satellite 
and the first transatlantic TV transmission 
on the same day it was launched. In one 
test, pictures were telecast from Andover, 
Me., to Telstar I, then returned and placed 



224 






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VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1962 Continued- 
oii all three major TV networks in the U.S. 

July 18: NASA launched a rigidized Echo-type 
balloon on a Thor booster to 922 miles in 
an inflation test. Nicknamed "Big Shot," 
the 135-foot balloon was inflated successfully 
and was visible for 10 minutes from Cape 
Canaveral. A movie film capsule parachut- 
ed into the sea, northeast of San Salvador, 
was recovered by three "pararescue" men of 
the Air Rescue Service. This was the larg- 
est man-made object sent into space, the 
previous record being held by the 100-foot 
Echo. I. 

July 20: The Weather Bureau transmitted 
Tiros. V photographs to Australia from Suit- 
land, Md., the first time Tiros photographs 
had been transmitted abroad for current 
weather analysis by a foreign country. The 
photographs were of cloud formations west 
of Australia. 

July 23: Telstar I relayed two 20-minute live 
TV shows, the first formal exchange of pro- 
grams across the Atlantic via. Telstar 
I. The United States Information Agency 
reported that U.S.S.R. had been invited to 
participate in the Telstar I broadcasts but 
had never answered the invitation. 

July 24: Three major TV networks in the U.S. 
telecast separate 5-minute newscasts via 
Telstar I, each featuring their respective 
Paris news correspondents. 

July 27: GSFC awarded a contract to IBM's 
Federal Systems Division for computer sup- 
port services of Mercury flights, nonrendez- 
vous Gemini flights (orbital flights of two 
men in one capsule) , and the unmanned 
lunar flights scheduled as part of Project 
Apollo. 

July 31: Former President Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower spoke on the people-to-people bene- 
fits to be gained by live international com- 
munications in a broadcast televised to the 
U.S. via Telstar I from Stockholm, Sweden. 

August 3: It was announced that the Ad-. 
vanced Syncom Satellite, being developed 
for NASA by the Hughes Aircraft Co., prob- 
ably would carry four radio signal repeaters 
and would provide up to 300 two-way tele- 
phone channels or one TV channel. 

August 7: General Electric announced that the 
control system for the first Orbiting Astro- 



nomical Observatory (OAO) had successful- 
ly completed its first simulated space flight. 

August 8: NASA launched an Aerobee 150A 
sounding rocket from Wallops Island. Its 
256-pound payload rose to 92-mile altitude 
and traveled a 60-mile distance downrange. 

August 12: Five NASA representatives, led by 
Ozro M. Covington of GSFC, arrived in 
Australia to inspect proposed sites for new 
tracking stations. 

August 15: NASA announced that GSFC had 
awarded three 3-month study contracts on 
the design of an Advanced OSO, to be 
launched into polar orbit during 
1965. The Advanced OSO would aid devel- 
opment of a method of predicting flares. 

August 16: Construction began on Building 
11, the Applied Sciences Laboratory, at 
GSFC. 

August 19: NASA launched a Scout vehicle 
from Wallops Island in an experiment to 
make direct measurements of radiative heat- 
ing during atmospheric entry. 

August 22: The French government an- 
nounced its first satellite, weighing 150 
pounds, would be launched in March 1966 
and would be followed by others three and 
four times as large. GSFC was to assist in 
the training of the project staff. 

August 27: GSFC announced it was training 
Italian scientists and engineers for the 
launching of Italy's first satellite. The 
165-pound satellite would be launched by 
1965 from a platform in the Indian Ocean 
off the eastern coast of Africa. 

September 5: An agreement establishing the 
Italy-U.S. cooperative space program, signed 
in May, was confirmed in Rome by Italian 
Foreign Minister Attilio Piccioni and U.S. 
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson. The 
Memorandum of Understanding between 
the Italian Space Commission and NASA 
provided a three-phase program, expected to 
culminate in the launching of a scientific 
satellite into equatorial orbit. Generally, 
NASA would provide Scout rockets and per- 
sonnel training; Italians would launch the 
vehicle with its Italian payload and would 
be responsible for data acquisition as well 
as for a towable launch platform located in 
equatorial waters. Subsequently the satel- 
lites in this series were named "San Marco." 



226 



APPENDIX D 



September 6: ITT announced plans for a 
NASA Project Relay satellite communication 
experiment to link North America and South 
America. 

September 15: Signals from Ariel I were re- 
ceived again. The satellite had stopped 
transmitting after radiation from a U.S. 
high-altitude nuclear test damaged the satel- 
lite's solar cells. Although resumed trans- 
mission was not continuous, it did demon- 
strate Ariel I's regained capability to return 
scientific data from space. 
— NASA announced that the sixth Tiros 
weather satellite would be launched into or- 
bit from Cape Canaveral on Sept. 18, at the 
earliest. The launch date was moved 2 
months ahead to provide backup for Tiros 
V cloud-cover photography during the last 
half of current hurricane season and to pro- 
vide weather forecasting support for Astro- 
naut Walter M. Schirra's orbital space flight 
Sept. 28. The wide-angle TV camera in 
Tiros V continued to operate, but its me- 
dium-angle Tegea lens had stopped func- 
tioning on July 2 because of "random elec- 
trical failure in the camera's system." 

September 18: Tiros VI was placed in orbit by 
a three-stage Delta vehicle from Cape Ca- 
naveral. 

September 22: An Aerobee 150A was launched 
from Wallops Island; the rocket reached a 
177-mile altitude in an experiment to meas- 
ure the absolute intensity of the spectrum 
of stars with 50A resolution and to measure 
ultraviolet fluxes. 

September 28: NASA announced plans to 
launch two Project Echo balloons during 
October. To be filled with helium while 
on the ground near the White Sands Missile 
Range, N. Mex., one balloon would be like 
Echo I, measuring 100 feet in diameter and 
the other would be an Advanced Echo type 
measuring 135 feet in diameter. 

September 29: Alouette I, the Swept Fre- 
quency Topside Sounder, was placed in po- 
lar orbit by a Thor-Agena B from Vanden- 
berg AFB. It was a Canadian Defence 
Research Board project. 

September BO: NASA launched an Aerobee 
sounding rocket from Wallops Island. The 
259-pound instrumented payload reached a 
106-mile altitude in a test to map sources of 



photons of specific wavelengths in the 
nighttime sky. 

October 2: Explorer XIV, an Energetic Parti- 
cles Satellite, was launched. It was to study 
trapped corpuscular radiation, solar parti- 
cles, cosmic radiation, and solar winds. 

October 16: A Nike-Apache two-stage sound- 
ing rocket carried a 65-pound instrumented 
payload to 103 miles above Wallops Island. 

October 20: An Echo /-type balloon launched 
from the White Sands Missile Range rap- 
tured at a 21 -mile altitude and fell back to 
earth 91 minutes after launch. The 100- 
foot-diameter balloon was to have reached 
24 miles in structural test. 

October 21: NASA announced that Swedish 
and U.S. experimenters were studying sam- 
plings of noctilucent clouds obtained in 
four Nike-Cajun sounding rocket flights 
during August. Preliminary analysis indi- 
cated that samples taken when noctilucent 
clouds were observed contained significantly 
more particles than when noctilucent clouds 
were not visible. Analysis of the origin and 
structure of the particles might take up to a 
year. Participants would include scientists 
from the Univ. of Stockholm Institute of 
Meteorology, Kiruna (Sweden) Geophysical 
Observatory, GSFC, and USAF Cambridge 
Research Laboratories. 

October 22: Construction was begun on Build- 
ing 12, the Tracking and Telemetry Labora- 
tory, at GSFC. 

October 27: Explorer XV was placed in orbit 
by a Thor-Delta vehicle launched from 
Cape Canaveral. 

October 29: An Aerobee sounding rocket 
launched from Wallops Island carried a 
230-pound payload to 116 miles. It landed 
in the Atlantic Ocean 59 miles from the 
launch site. 

—NASA officials said that five experiments 
aboard Explorer XV were working well but 
that two others had been adversely affected 
by the satellite's excessive spin rate. 

October 31: Explorer XIV had transmitted 
589 hours of data to GSFC, which had re- 
leased about 240 hours of data to the var- 
ious experimenters. 

During October: Patents were awarded to the 
following GSFC employees: Harold j. Peake, 
Space Technology Division, for a Data Con- 



227 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1962 Continued 

version Unit; William A. Leavy, Aeronomy 
and Meteorology Division, for a Switching 
Mechanism; and Stephen Paull, Spacecraft 
Technology Division for a V/F Magnetic 
Multivibrator. 

— Robert E, Bourdeau, Head of the Iono- 
spheres Branch, Space Sciences Division, was 
awarded the NASA Medal for Exceptional 
Scientific Achievement, for: "Major scientific 
advances in the study of the ionosphere and 
significant progress in the understanding of 
the plasma sheath about satellites." 
— Dr. John C. Lindsay, Associate Chief, 
GSFC's Space Sciences Division, was awarded 
the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific 
Achievement, "For the achievement of a 
major scientific advance in the study of the 
Sun and for significant technological prog- 
ress in highly precise satellite attitude con- 
trol." 

— Dr. John W. Townsend, Jr., Assistant Di- 
rector, GSFC's Space Science and Satellite 
Applications Directorate, was awarded the 
NASA Medal for Outstanding Leadership, 
"For outstanding and dynamic leadership in 
planning, developing, and directing a com- 
plex scientific organization whose notable 
achievements have significantly contributed 
to the preeminent position of this country 
in the space sciences, the development of 
space technology, and the practical applica- 
tion of such research and development." 
— The Directorate for Tracking and Data 
Systems received the NASA Group Achieve- 
ment Award, "For superior technical and 
administrative leadership and outstanding 
results in the operation of the global 
manned spacecraft tracking network." 

November 1: NASA reported that Explorer 
XV radiation satellite was spinning at the 
rate of 73 rpm instead of a desired 10 rpm 
because of failure of the despin weights to 
deploy. Preliminary data indicated most 
experiments were functioning and that data 
received were of good quality. 

November 5: GSFC announced the award of 
contracts totaling S12 million for tracking- 
network modifications in preparation for 
lengthy manned space flights. 

November 7: NASA launched two experimen- 
tal Nike-Apache rockets into the upper at- 



mosphere within i/ 2 hour of each other, to 
obtain a comparison of electron density and 
wind profiles measured at about the same 
time. 

November 8: GSFC announced it would con- 
duct experiments using a laser in tracking 
the S-66 ionosphere beacon satellite, to be 
launched into a polar orbit early next year. 

November 9: NASA reported Canadian 
Alouette I topside-sounder satellite was per- 
forming as expected. Launched Sept. 28, it 
was considered "a very successful experi- 
ment since it is producing not only iono- 
spheric data but also information about the 
earth's magnetic field. . . . Operation of 
the satellite continues to be normal. . . ." 

November 12: It was reported that TAVE 
(Thor-Agena Vibration Experiment) , flown 
with the Thor-Agena launching Alouette I, 
measured low-frequency vibrations to the 
Agena stage and measured spacecraft inter- 
faces during the Thor boost phase. 

November 14: In a news conference at MIT, 
Dr. James A. Van Allen predicted the radia- 
tion caused by the U.S. atmospheric nuclear 
test in July should be "undetectable" by 
July 1963. Dr. Van Allen reported that sig- 
nals from Injun, Telstar I, Explorer XIV, 
and Explorer XV showed that the electronic 
stream had disappeared within a few days 
of the U.S. explosion and that the electrons 
at a 600-mile altitude were now undetect- 
able. Electrons at a 900-mile altitude were 
still creating radio-astronomy interference, 
he acknowledged, but this should be gone 
by next July. 

November 16: A Nike-Cajun sounding rocket 
was launched from Fort Churchill, Canada, 
under direction of GSFC. The second stage 
failed to ignite, so the rocket reached an 
altitude of only about 9.5 miles. 

November 30: Franco-American scientific 
sounding rocket launchings were coordi- 
nated when two U.S. launchings were made 
from Wallops Island while France launched 
one from Algeria (and failed to launch one 
from France) . The first U.S. rocket (a 
Nike-Cajun) , fired at 5:57 a.m., carried a 
Langmuir probe to determine electron den- 
sity and the temperature of the E layer of 
the ionosphere (50- to 100-mile altitude) ; 
the second (a Nike-Apache) , launched at 



225' 



6:15 a.m., released a sodium vapor cloud to 
a 106-mile altitude, which spread over 100 
miles of the Eastern seaboard. 

December 1: The medium-angle camera on 
Tiros VI stopped transmitting pictures dur- 
ing orbit 1,074, but the wide-angle camera 
was still sending pictures of "excellent qual- 
ity." 

December 4: GSFC launched two Nike-Cajun 
sounding rockets, one from Wallops Island, 
and one from Fort Churchill, Canada, for 
the purpose of comparing data on winds 
and temperatures in the upper atmosphere. 

December 13: Relay I was launched. Its pur- 
pose was to investigate wideband communi- 
cations between ground stations at a low 
altitude. 

December 15: The power supply on Relay I 
remained too low to operate the satellite's 
instrumentation properly. 

December 16: Explorer XVI was launched 
into orbit by a four-stage Scout vehicle from 
Wallops Island and it began measuring mi- 
crometeoroids in space. 

— The Relay I 136-Mc beacon was detected 
by tracking stations at Santiago, Johannes- 
burg, and Woomera, indicating the beacon 
had spontaneously turned itself on. 

December 17: Although the Relay I power 
supply remained low, the Nutley, N.J., 
ground station was able to obtain about 10 
minutes of usable telemetry data. 

December 19: U.S. Weather Bureau an- 
nounced the development of an infrared 
spectrometer, to be flight-tested in new bal- 
loons during the next 6 months. The 
100-pound "flying thermometer" was planned 
for use in Nimbus weather satellites. 

December 21: Canada and the U.S. announced 
a cooperative venture to build a data ac- 
quisition station for the Nimbus meteor- 
ological satellite program at Ingomish, Nova 
Scotia. 

December 31: Goddard Space Flight Center 
had over 2,850 people employed or commit- 
ted for employment. 



Aerobee sounding rocket fired from 
Wallops Island, Va. 



1963 

January 3: Both U.S. communications satel- 
lites, Telstar I and Relay I, came to 
life. Telstar, silent since Nov. 23, respond- 



ed to signals sent by Bell Telephone Labo- 
ratories; later in the day, Relay, silent since 
first being orbited Dec. 13, responded twice 
to television test patterns sent from New 
Jersey and Maine. 



229 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

January 5: Relay I communications satellite 
made two successful intercontinental televi- 
sion test transmissions between Andover, 
Me., and Goonhilly Downs, England, one for 
25 minutes and the other for 1 hour; tele- 
type tests were also successfully made from 
Nutley, N.J., to Fucino, Italy. NASA said 
Relay J's power difficulty had apparently 
corrected itself, but "project officials have 
experienced difficulties with Relay I re- 
sponding properly to commands. Tests dur- 
ing the past 3 years were possible by em- 
ploying special operational procedures and 
altering command sequences to the satellite. 
Experiments will continue to evaluate com- 
munications and command systems." 

January 7; U.K. sent television signals across 
the Atlantic for first time via Relay I com- 
munications satellite. Signals sent from 
Goonhilly Downs to Nutley, N.J., were de- 
scribed as "very good" and "extremely 
clear"; they were also dearly received at 
ground station of Italian space communica- 
tions agency Telespazio in Fucino. 



January S: NASA reported Relay I communi- 
cations satellite's low battery voltage had 
been result of faulty voltage regulator in 
one of its twin transponders. Continued 
tests by RCA and NASA engineers pinpoint- 
ed the difficulty; the regulator failed to 
function properly when it became too hot 
or too cold. Engineers would attempt live 
television transmission via Relay I by send- 
ing special command signals to the satellite 
and concentrating on the remaining good 
transponder. Relay I communications satel- 
lite transmitted its first transatlantic televi- 
sion programs, sending British and French 
viewers clear pictures of ceremonial unveil- 
ing of "Mona Lisa" in its visit to Washington 
and 10 minutes of network program "To- 
day." 

January 10: Explorer XIV energetic particles 
satellite developed radio transmission 
difficulty, not correctable by remote con- 
trol. Exact cause of difficulty, apparently 
in one of the binary counters of satellite's 
encoder system, was not determined, 
— French Scientific Research Minister Gas- 



Trie unveiling o£ "Mona Lisa" at National Gallery, Washington, D.C. (trans- 
mitted picture seen in Europe). Left to right, President John F. Kennedy, 
Madame Malraux, French Minister of Cultural Affairs Andre Malraux, Mrs. 
Kennedy, and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson. 

























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APPENDIX D 



ton Palewski told French National Assembly 
a satellite launching site would be estab- 
lished in Eastern Pyrenees Department near 
the Spanish border. France's first satellite 
was scheduled for launching in 1965; other 
European satellites might also be launched 
from the site. 

January 13: GSFC announced its sodium-va- 
por cloud experiments during past 2 years 
had shown wind behavior 44-50 miles above 
earth became erratic and unpredictable. 
Below that altitude winds generally follow 
global pattern, regularly reversing with the 
seasons. Region between 56- and 68-mile 
altitude is characterized by "remarkable 
wind sheers" — within altitude span of less 
than 3 miles, wind speed was observed to 
increase swiftly by more than 250 mph and 
even to reverse direction. Immediately 
above this band of maximum wind velocity, 
wind diminishes almost to zero. Above 70 
miles, research indicated region of strong 
but more uniform winds, with velocities 
of about 200 mph. GSFC experiments, 
launched on sounding rockets from Wallops 
Station, did not extend beyond 105-mile 
altitude. 

— NASA announced that it would procure 
Atlas-Agena B vehicles directly from con- 
tractors. NASA already had used seven 
of the vehicles' — five for Ranger and two for 
Mariner— and was planning to use 20 Atlas- 
Agena B's over the next 3 years — in Gemini 
rendezvous flights, OGO, OAO, Ranger, and 
Mariner R. Prime vehicle contractors were 
General Dynamics Astronautics for Atlas 
stage and Lockheed for Agena; USAF had 
vehicle integration responsibility. 
— NASA announced signing of Memoran- 
dum of Understanding with India's Depart- 
ment of Atomic Energy providing for coop- 
erative U.S.-India space program. Joint 
scientific experiments to explore equatorial 
electrojet and upper-atmosphere winds from 
geomagnetic equator would be launched 
from Thumba, India, during 1963. 

January 15: Explorer XIV energetic particles 
satellite transmitted 38 seconds of complete 
data, and Goddard officials were hopeful the 
satellite might eventually resume normal 
operations. Explorer XIV developed trans- 
mission difficulty Jan. 10, after 100 days of 



nearly continuous transmission. Project 
Manager Paul G. Marcotte reported Ex- 
plorer XIV received less than 10 percent 
degradation from space radiation since its 
launch Oct. 2. 

January 17: Relay I satellite transmitted 
12-minute Voice of America program as 
well as AP and UPI news dispatches from 
Nutley, N.J., to Rio de Janeiro and 
back. Transmissions were reported perfect, 
even though ordinary high-frequency radio 
communication with Rio was not possible 
because of atmospheric conditions. 

January 18: President John F. Kennedy and 
Dr. Hugh L. Dryden sent teletype and re- 
corded voice messages, respectively, to Italy 
by way of the Relay I satellite. 

January 29: Explorer XIV, silent since Jan- 
uary 10, resumed normal transmission. 
— NASA Director of Communications Sys- 
tems Leonard Jaffe announced NASA would 
attempt to launch Syncom communications 
satellite into synchronous orbit, with Delta 
vehicle no earlier than Feb. §. Syncom 
launch was postponed "to insure that the 
[command and control] equipment is com- 
pletely checked out" aboard USNS Kings- 
port, stationed in Lagos Harbor, and on 
the launch vehicle at Cape Canaveral. 

January 30: The GSFC Spacecraft Systems 
Branch, Spacecraft Systems and Projects Di- 
vision, was reorganized and the Spacecraft 
Projects Office established. The GSFC Con- 
structions Inspection Service was reorganized 
and retitled the Construction and Renova- 
tion Section. 

January 31: Representatives of Canadian De- 
fence Research Board and NASA met for 
preliminary exploration of scientific and 
technical aspects involved in proposed joint 
ionospheric research program. Extension of 
joint Alouette Topside Sounder program 
would involve design and construction of 
four satellites in Canada, with first launch- 
ing proposed for late 1964. 
— Ceremonies at Goddard Space Flight 
Center celebrating the fifth anniversary of 
Explorer I and the GSFC tracking network 
used for tracking the satellite featured talks 
by Secretary of State Dean Rusk, NASA Ad- 
ministrator James E. Webb, Astronaut 
Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Goddard Director 



231 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

Harry j. Goett, and Dr. Edward C. Welsh, 
Executive Secretary of the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Council. Radio transmis- 
sions from Vanguard I, second U.S. satellite 
and oldest still transmitting, were piped 
into Goddard auditorium. Highlighting cere- 
mony was presentation of scrolls of appre- 
ciation to ambassadors of 16 nations that 
have cooperated with U.S. in establishing 
the tracking networks. 

— Contract award was made to the Indus- 
trial Engineering Corporation for the con- 
struction of an Optical Tracking Observa- 
tion Building and Ground Plane Test 
Facilities at Goddard. The construction 
starting date was Feb. 6, 1963. 

During January: In International Geophysics 
Bulletin, NASA proposed contributions to 
IQSY (1964-65) were outlined. Prominent- 
ly among them: sounding rockets; iono- 
sphere explorers and monitors; atmospheric 
structure OSO, EGO, and POGO satellites; 
IMP, Pioneer, Mariner, and Surveyor 
probes. 

February 1: NASA announced its first contract 
to study overall systems requirements for 



Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) 
had been awarded to Republic Aviation 
Corp. Administered by GSFC, contract 
called for 4-month study to determine 
"technical systems needed for 24-hour sur- 
veillance of the earth's cloud cover, and to 
identify the major scientific and engineering 
advances required for the ground stations." 
February 4: On effects of artificial radiation 
on spacecraft solar cells, a joint AEC-DOD- 
NASA report said: "Improved types of solar 
cells (employing n-on-p silicon junctions) 
which are considerably more radiation re- 
sistant, are available and were employed on 
Telstar. With respect to manned missions 
in space, the shielding provided by normal 
capsule design effects a considerable reduc- 
tion in the radiation exposure, and the 
artificial belt is not regarded as placing any 
significant restrictions on the conduct of 
current manned space flights. . . ." 
— Sen. Leverett Saltonstall (R. Mass.) in- 
troduced in the Senate a bill (S. 656) "to 
promote public knowledge of progress and 
achievement in astronautics and related 
sciences through the designation of a special 
day (March 16) in honor of Dr. Robert 



Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., addressing the Fifth Anniversary of Space 
Tracking ceremonies at Goddard Space Flight Center. 



APPENDIX D 



Hutchings Goddard, the father of modern 
rockets, missiles, and astronautics. . . ." On 
March 16, 1926, Dr. Goddard first successful- 
ly launched a liquid-fuel rocket. 

February 6: Goddard Space Flight Center was 
host to an optical conference. Approxi- 
mately 70 persons representing NASA's field 
centers and installations attended the first 
intra-agency technical conference on optical 
communications and tracking. 

February 13: Proposal to establish interna- 
tional tracking system using lasers to track 
the S-66 satellite was made at Third Interna- 
tional Congress of Quantum Electronics, 
Paris, by Richard Barnes of NASA Office 
of International Programs. Under the pro- 
posal, each country would establish and 
control its own stations, with U.S. furnishing 
the necessary information on the satellite. 
Laser system was expected to provide faster 
and more precise tracking than existing 
radio and radar systems; used with S-66 
satellite, to be launched this spring, it 
should enable scientists to determine the 
profile of the ionosphere. 
— Explorer XVI meteoroid detector satellite 
recorded 16 punctures by meteoroids during 

. its first 29 days in orbit, NASA 
reported. Other spacecraft had reported 
hits by cosmic debris, but this was first time 
actual punctures were recorded. If Ex- 
plorer XVI continued to report meteoroid 
data for a full year as expected, it should 
enable scientists to determine whether me- 
teoroids are hazardous to a spacecraft. The 
satellite exposed 25 square feet of surface to 
meteoroid impacts, not large enough to pro- 
vide good statistical data on larger and 
rarer particles in space. (On Feb. 5, NASA 
had announced plans to orbit two meteor- 
oid-detector satellites, each with exposure 
surface of more than 2,000 square feet.) 
February 14: NASA Syncom I synchro- 
nous-orbit communications satellite was 
launched into orbit by Thor-Delta vehicle 
from AMR, entered a highly elliptical 
orbit. About 5 hours later, apogee-kick mo- 
tor was fired for about 20 seconds in ma- 
neuver designed to place the satellite into 
near-synchronous, 24-hour orbit 22,300 miles 
above the earth. At about the time the 
apogee-kick motor completed its burn, 



ground stations lost contact with the satel- 
lite and could not confirm a synchronous 
orbit. Attempts to make contact with Syn- 
com were continued. 

— A contract was let to the Norair Con- 
struction Co. for GSFC's Building No. 16, 
Development Operations Building. The 
starting date was Feb. 21, 1963, with a 
scheduled completion date of Mar. 15, 1964. 
Partial occupancy in the warehouse portion 
was estimated for Dec. 1963. 

February 15: U.S. worldwide tracking network 
was not able to locate Syncom I communica- 
tions satellite; radio contact with the satel- 
lite was lost Feb. 14, seconds after onboard 
rocket had fired to transfer Syncom from its 
highly elliptical orbit into near-synchronous 
orbit. 

February 18: Attempted launch of sodium-va- 
por cloud experiment from NASA Wallops 
Station was not successful because second 
stage of Nike-Asp launch vehicle failed to 
perform properly. A series of rocket gre- 
nade and sodium release experiments from 
Wallops Island and Fort Churchill began on 
this date and were continued through Mar. 
8. 

February 19: Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA 
Deputy Administrator, testified before Com- 
munications Subcommittee of Senate Com- 
merce Committee that experiences of both 
Telstar and Relay communications satellites 
were being "used continuously to review 
projects such as Syncom ... in an attempt 
to achieve the 24-hour synchronous orbit, as 
well as all of our other satellite projects. 1 
should like to add, finally, that the experi- 
ence of Telstar and Relay to date have 
merely reinforced the opinion which I gave 
before this committee last year, that consid- 
erable research and development have yet to 
be performed before economic operational 
systems can be established . . ." 

February 20: Following a period of hesitant 
response by the command decoders on Tel- 
star I, due to radiation effects, the space- 
craft was inadvertently turned off. 

February 23: William Schindler, Goddard 
manager of the Delta launch vehicle pro- 
gram, was one of 21 engineers and scientists 
to receive a National Capital Award at the 
Engineers, Scientists and Architects Day 



233 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

awards luncheon. The D.C. Council of En- 
gineering and Architectural Society and the 
Washington Academy of Sciences honors the 
men and professions of engineering, science, 
and architecture each year. 

February 25: On communications satellites, 
Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., NASA Associate 
Administrator, said: "We re-examined our 
Communication Satellite program quite 
carefully in the light of the creation of the 
Communication Satellite Corporation and 
the reoriented activities of the DOD follow- 
ing the cancellation of the Advent project. 
From this programmatic re-examination we 
have concluded that principal NASA effort 
should be focused on the research and de- 
velopment problems associated with the 
synchronous altitude class of communication 
satellite. We have, therefore, dropped the 
low altitude multiple passive satellite proj- 
ect, Rebound, and advanced intermediate 
active satellite projects from hardware de- 
velopment consideration at this time. As a 
result of these decisions, we reduced our 
communication satellite program by |35.2 
million. . . ." 

— 28-nation U.N. Committee on Peaceful 
Uses of Outer Space approved Indian 
progress report on plans to sponsor an in- 
ternational rocket base at Quilon for 
launchings in space above the equatorial 
regions. Italian delegate reported that the 
San Marco floating launching facilities 
would be completed in time for use in the 
International Quiet Sun Year. 

February 28: NASA Director of Meteorological 
Systems Morris Tepper told House Commit- 
tee on Science and Astronautics that Tiros 
V and Tiros VI (launched in June and Sep- 
tember 1962, respectively) were still provid- 
ing good data. Tiros data "continue to be 
used by the Weather Bureau for weather 
analysis and forecasting, storm tracking, 
hurricane reconnaissance, etc. The Meteor- 
ological Soundings project has continued 
throughout the year as planned. The 
project at Goddard Space Flight Center, 
which utilizes the larger • meteorological 
sounding rockets, continues as it has in past 
years with excellent results. In addition, 
we have initiated at the Langley Research 



Center a project which will develop and 
utilize the smaller meteorological sounding 
rockets. We expect to have this well under- 
way by the end of the fiscal year. . . ." 

— Harvard College Observatory reported 
that astronomers at Boyden Observatory at 
Bloemfontein, South Africa, had pho- 
tographed the Syncorn I satellite, missing 
since Feb. 14. The Observatory's photo- 
graphs indicated Syncom probably was in 
orbit about 22,000 miles high. 

— GSFC plans for second-generation OSO 
satellite — -known as Advanced Orbiting Solar 
Observatory, or Helios— were outlined at 
Philadelphia technical meeting by God- 
dard's AOSO Project Manager A. J. 
Cervenka. AOSO would be designed to 
have a pointing accuracy of 5 seconds of arc 
and 70 percent overall systems reliability, 
Cervenka said. 

March 1: At Cape Canaveral, Fla., the team 
behind NASA's most reliable booster — the 
Delta— was honored for a success story 
unique to America's space program. NASA's 
Group Achievement Award was presented 
to Goddard's Delta Project Group, which 
managed the project for NASA. The Delta 
was used 16 times and was successful the 
last 15 times. 

— U.S. Weather Bureau announced it was 
purchasing 11 ground stations capable of re- 
ceiving Cloud pictures directly from Nimbus 
meteorological satellites, to be launched by 
NASA. 

March 2: Boyden Observatory near Bloemfon- 
tein, South Africa, had confirmed location 
of Syncom I communications satellite, Har- 
vard University Observatory Director Don- 
ald H. Menzel announced. Syncom I was 
tumbling end over end in its orbital path 
about 19,000 miles high. Boyden's uncon- 
firmed photographs of the satellite, missing 
since Feb. 14, were reported Feb. 28, and 
NASA had requested that the findings be 
confirmed by further observation. "Since 
then it has cleared and we obtained two 
good plates showing images in the expected 
position. With this final confirmation, we 
have no doubt whatever of the location of 
the satellite. It behaved approximately as 
expected." 

March 4: U.S. plans for International Year of 



234 



v.- 




Delta Day ceremony, March 1, 1963, at Cape Canaveral. Standing are, left 
to right, William Schindler, Delta Project Manager, and Dr. Harry J. Goett. 



the Quiet Sun (IQSY) , 1964-65, were an- 
nounced by National Academy of Sciences- 
National Research Council (NAS-NRC) , 
charged by President Kennedy in 1962 to 
correlate IQSY contribution of Federal 
agencies. Many IGY observations would be 
repeated and special experiments made pos- 
sible by recent scientific advances would be 
added. IQSY would concentrate more in- 
tensively than IGY on the upper atmos- 
phere and space phenomena directly affect- 
ed by both the large periodic bursts of 
charged particles and associated magnetic 
fields escaping from the sun, and the con- 
tinuous background activity known as "solar 
wind." 

— Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA Deputy 
Administrator, testifying on NASA's interna- 
tional programs before House Committee on 
Science and Astronautics, said that the "first 



substantial fruits of these programs were re- 
alized in 1962 and further significant pro- 
grams were laid down for future 
years. During 1962, ". . . the first two 
international satellites, Ariel and Alouette, 
were successfully placed in orbit, . . . 
launchings of sounding rockets bearing 
scientific payloads were carried out in coop- 
eration with eight countries, ... 37 coun- 
tries engaged in special projects in support 
of our weather and communications satellite 
programs, . . . foreign participation con- 
tinued to grow in the operation of our glo- 
bal tracking and data acquisition network 
overseas, . . . and, a new NASA internation- 
al fellowship program was successfully estab- 
lished in our own universities." 
March 5: NASA announced agreement with 
Australia for establishment of deep space 
tracking facility about 11 miles southwest of 



235 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

Canberra; a manned flight and scientific 
satellite tracking station at Carnarvon; and 
a small mobile station at Darwin serving 
the Syncom communications satellite. 

March 7: OSO I solar observatory satellite 
completed its first year in orbit, exceeding 
its estimated operating life by 6 
months. Eleven of its 13 scientific experi- 
ments were still operating and were provid- 
ing extensive data on behavior and composi- 
tion of the sun. Preliminary results from 
OSO I would be presented at a symposium 
Mar. 14. 

March 1.1: U.S.-U.S.S.R. negotiations began in 
Rome on technical details of a 3-year agree- 
ment signed at Geneva in June 1962, for 
exchange of data to be gained from satellite 
launchings. Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, Deputy 
Administrator of NASA, headed U.S. scien- 
tific delegation, and Prof. Anatoly A. 
Blagonravov of the Soviet Academy of 
Sciences headed the Russian delegation. 
joint space research program would include 
coordination on meteorology, communi- 
cations studies, and charting of the earth's 
magnetic field. 

■ — Relay I communications satellite was 
turned off because of severe drain on the 
onboard power supply, a difficulty similar to 
that encountered during first week after 
launch. Power drain was encountered Mar. 
9 after Relay I's orbit had been in earth's 
shadow for 5 weeks and spacecraft tempera- 
tures were low. 

— NASA and French National Center for 
Space Studies (CNES) jointly announced 
signing of Memorandum of Understanding 
for a cooperative U.S. -France program to 
investigate propagation of VLF electro- 
magnetic waves. First phase of the pro- 
gram would consist of two electromagnetic- 
field experiments with French-instrumented 
payloads to be launched from NASA Wallops 
Station. Second phase, to be implemented 
upon mutual consent after Phase I had 
proved the experiments to be scientifically 
and technically feasible, would consist of 
orbiting of scientific satellite, designed and 
built by France, with a Scout vehicle. 

March 13: Relay I communications satellite, 
its power supply voltage and temperature 



returned to normal, responded to command 
signals turning on its telemetry transmitter 
and encoder. NASA planned to resume 
normal experimental operations with the 
satellite Mar. 14. Relay I had been turned 
off because of severe power drain encoun- 
tered Mar. 9. 

March 13 to 15: The Goddard Scientific Satel- 
lite Symposium was held at the Interior De- 
partment Auditorium in Washington, D.C. 
The program covered presentations on Alou- 
elte I (S-27) , Ariel I (UK-1) , OSO I (S-16) , 
and Explorers XII (S-3), XIV (S-3a), and 
XV (S-3b) . Data from Alouette I showed 
that ionosphere is usually rough in high lati- 
tudes and that electron temperature of 
ionosphere increases with latitude. This 
evidence indicated Van Allen radiation 
belts, which extend to lower altitudes at 
higher latitudes, possibly are secondary heat 
source for ionosphere. Where ionospheric 
and radiation particles collide, ionospheric 
temperatures rise and F layers of ionosphere 
spread apart, causing radio waves to 
scatter. Results from Ariel I confirmed the 
ionospheric temperature relationship with 
latitude as detected by Alouette I. Solar x- 
ray detectors found solar flares are made up 
of two phases: (1) heating of sun's corona 
above sunspot, increasing x-ray flux by fac- 
tor of 10; and (2) quiet period marked by 
flux leveling off at accelerated level, fol- 
lowed by streams of electrons pushed into 
chromosphere, causing x-ray emissions at 
500 times greater than normal. 

March 14: Dr. John Lindsay and William 
White, of Goddard Space Flight Center, re- 
ported that the OSO I satellite had found 
tentative evidence that solar flares may be 
preceded by series of microflares whose se- 
quence and pattern may be predicta- 
ble. OSO I reported at least four of these 
series during a year in orbit. 

March 15: Dr. James A. Van Allen said that 
artificial radition belt caused by U.S. high- 
altitude nuclear test last July may last for 
10 years. At GSFC's Scientific Satellite Sym- 
posium, Dr. Van Allen said data from Injun 
III and Explorer XIV satellites showed in- 
tensity at center of artificial belt had de- 
creased only by a factor of two. 
— Data from Explorer XII confirmed ex- 



APPENDIX D 



istence of low-energy proton current ringing 
earth in east-to-west direction, perpendic- 
ular to perpetual north-south spiraling mo- 
tion along geomagnetic field lines. 
— A contract was awarded to the Indus- 
trial Engineering Corp. for the construction 
of a Magnetic Range Control and Test 
Building and a Magnetic Instrument Test 
Laboratory at GSFC. The starting date was 
Apr. 3, 1963, with an estimated completion 
date o£ Oct. 1963. 

March 19: Goddard Space Flight Center, in 
cooperation with NBC and RCA, accom- 
plished first known transmission of televi- 
sion in color via Relay I communications 
satellite. Fifteen-minute sequence of movie 
"Kidnapped" was relayed by Relay I from 
4,000-mile orbit, and was scheduled to be 
shown on Walt Disney's TV program on 
Mar. 24. 

March 22: NASA announced Relay I Com- 
munications satellite had achieved all its 



missions. Performance of Relay J included 
500 communications tests and demonstra- 
tions in 660 orbits between Dec. 13, 1962- 
Mar. 11, 1964. Although all planned dem- 
onstrations were completed, more would be 
continued while the satellite remained in 
operation. 

— Sixth Annual Robert H. Goddard Me- 
morial Dinner, sponsored by the National 
Rocket Club, Washington, D.C. In an ad- 
dress, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson paid 
tribute to the "father of modern rocketry." 
He said that those today who "understand 
the stakes of space" must help "the public to 
understand these stakes." He urged that 
communications barriers among scientists, 
engineers, and politicians be abolished so 
that public support for public policy can be 
obtained. "Unless and until this is done," 
said the Chairman of the National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Council, "the technological 
community cannot justifiably be impatient 



Pictures of Italian Premier Fanfani's Chicago trip were transmitted to Europe 
via Relay I. This is a print from the television monitor in New Jersey. 




VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

with those who are chosen to represent and 
express the public's own will." 
—At GSFC Colloquium, Dr. John A. O'Keefe 
discussed the origin and evolution of the 
moon, submitting his theory that billions of 
years ago the moon separated from the still 
"undifferentiated earth," thereafter was sub- 
jected to volcanic eruptions, mctcoroid bom- 
bardment, eventual cooling, and transforma- 
tion into a hard cinder-like material. The 
volcanic dust produced the comparatively 
smooth lunar maria. If theory is correct, 
O'Keefe said, the original dust has long 
since become firm and constitutes "no haz- 
ard" for landings of space vehicles. O'Keefe 
supported bis theory with available evidence 
on tektites. 

March 25: Three major U.S. television net- 
works each broadcast 7-minute programs 
from Paris to New York via Relay I com- 
munications satellite. 

March 26: Dr. Fred S. Singer, Director of Na- 
tional Satellite Weather Center, told House 
Committee on Science and Astronautics' 
Subcommittee on Applications and Tracking 
and Data Acquisition that reports from 
Tiros weather satellites were being used bj 
Soviet scientists in their weather research. 
Launching of a weather satellite "is prob- 
ably an immediate Soviet objective," 

March 28: Nike-Apache sounding rocket 
launched from NASA Wallops Station car- 
ried 65 -pound instrumented pay load to alti- 
tude of 100 miles, an experiment to measure 
electron density profile, electron tempera- 
tures, and solar radiation in the 
ionosphere. Secondary objective of the 
flight was to check out hardware to be 
flown from Ft. Churchill, Canada, during 
solar eclipse in July. 

March 29: P-21A was launched from Wallops 
Island at 2:27 a.m. EST. Preliminary re- 
sults showed that the ion trap was provid- 
ing very good data. 

During March: Canadian Government author- 
ized four additional satellites for ionospher- 
ic research in joint U.S.-Canadian space 
program. Seven successful sounding rocket 
experiments were concluded. 

April 3: NASA launched Explorer XVII (S-6) 
atmospheric structure satellite from Cape 



Canaveral, using Thor-Delta launch vehicle 
(its 16th consecutive success in 17 
attempts) . Under project management of 
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Ex- 
plorer XVII was first scientific earth satellite 
to use new GSFC pulse -code -modulation 
telemetry system, a solid-state system pro- 
viding output power of 500 milliwatts and 
capable of supplying 40 separate channels of 
information in digital form. Useful life- 
time of the satellite was estimated at 2 to 
3 months. 

— ■ Aerobce 150A rocket launched from 
NASA Wallops Station carried instrumented 
payloacl to 147-mile altitude in experiment 
to flight-test components of equipment for 
EOGO satellite and to measure propagation 
of VLF signals through ionosphere. Flight 
was joint project of Stanford Research Insti- 
tute and GSFC. 

April 7: The six winners of the third annual 
Federal Women's Award included Eleanor 
C. Pressly, Head of Vehicles Section, Space- 
craft Integration and Sounding Rocket Di- 
vision, NASA Goddard Space Flight 
Center. Miss Pressly was cited for her 
pioneer work in sounding rocket develop- 
ment and her "demonstrated organizational 
ability in scheduling and coordinating 
launchings of sounding rocket vehicles in 
support of upper atmospheric research." She 
developed the Aerobce Jr. sounding rocket, 
co-developed Aerobee-Hi 150, and directed 
improvement of Aerobee-Hi 150 A — -all used 
extensively in IGY. 

April S: Attempt to launch two-stage Astrobee 
1500 sounding rocket from NASA Wallops 
Station failed with first stage of the vehicle 
failing to perform properly. This was 
NASA's first attempt to launch the Astrobee; 
purpose of test was to evaluate the rocket's 
performance as a NASA test vehicle. 

April 9: Televised White House ceremony, 
with President John F. Kennedy signing bill 
making Sir Winston Churchill an honorary 
citizen of the U.S., was transmitted to U.K. 
and continent via Relay I communications 
satellite. Broadcast was viewed by millions 
of Britons and Sir Winston himself, and 
both audio and visual reception were con- 
sidered perfect. 
— In its first few days of operation, Ex- 



238 



APPENDIX D 



plorer XVII satellite had obtained data that 
more than tripled all previous direct meas- 
urements of the neutral gases in earth's up- 
per atmosphere, it was announced. New 
communications system, utilizing special 
data readout station at GSFC, was providing 
scientific and technical data from the satel- 
lite within minutes o£ its transmission. 

April 17: Five New Jersey newspapermen held 
first press conference through space, using 
Relay I communications satellite in 25- 
minute broadcast to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
Photo of newsmen sent via Relay I during 
conference was of good quality, Rio offi- 
cials said. 

April 18: NASA launched 85-pound scientific, 
payload to 208-mile altitude at exact mo- 
ment Explorer XVII atmospheric structure 
satellite passed over the Wallops Island, Va., 
launch site, an unusual "first" in NASA 
sounding rocket program. Carried on an 
Aerobee 300A sounding rocket, experiment 
obtained temperature data on electron and 
neutral particles and measured ion and neu- 
tral particle densities. Data from this ex- 
periment would be compared with similar 



data obtained from Explorer XVII as it 
passed over Wallops Island at 198-mile alti- 
tude during its 236th orbit o£ earth. Pre- 
liminary evaluation by GSFC scientists re- 
vealed data were of excellent quality. Data 
from Explorer XVII indicated the earth is 
surrounded by belt of neutral helium 
atoms, GSFC scientists said at American 
Geophysical Union meeting. Based on pre- 
liminary data received one day after launch, 
Goddard scientists said Explorer XVII at- 
mospheric structure satellite had sent back 
more than 8 hours of scientific information 
on physics and chemistry of tenuous gases 
making up the earth's atmosphere. 

— The 3-year milestone in the Tiros suc- 
cess story was officially recognized when the 
Tiros team received NASA's group achieve- 
ment award in special ceremonies. Six-out- 
of-six successful Tiros launches had created 
an unmatched series of successes for this 
spacecraft. More than 220,000 cloud-cover 
pictures had been transmitted back to earth. 

— A contract was awarded to Jack Bays, 
Inc., for the construction of an Anechoic 
Chamber at Goddard. The starting date 



Relay engineers monitor program awarding U.S. citizenship to former Prime 
Minister Sir Winston Churchill. Segment above shows address by President 
John F. Kennedy, speaking at the White House ceremony, April 9, 1963. 





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VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

was May 10, 1963, with a scheduled comple- 
tion date o£ Oct. 1963. 

April 20: Preliminary test of instrumentation 
to be used in joint Italian-U.S. San Marco 
project was made by two-stage Shotput 
sounding rocket from Wallops Station; the 
rocket carried 180-pound instrumented pay- 
load to 265-mile altitude. Flight was first 
in three-phase project being conducted by 
Italian Commission for Space Research and 
NASA, to be followed by further tests of 
San Marco instrumentation with launching 
of Shotput vehicle from towable platform in 
Indian Ocean and to be culminated in 
launching of scientific satellite into equato- 
rial orbit from the platform. Basic objec- 
tive of San Marco project was to obtain 
high-altitude measurements of atmospheric 
and ionospheric characteristics in equatorial 
region. GSFG assisted in testing the space- 
craft. 

April 25: Relay I communications satellite was 
used to transmit electroencephalograms 
("'brain waves") from Bristol, England, to 
Minneapolis, Minn., in demonstration ex- 
periment conducted in connection with 
meeting of National Academy of Neurology 
in Minneapolis. 

Daring April: NASA awarded 4-month study 
contracts for a synchronous meteorological 
satellite to Radio Corp. of America and 
Hughes Aircraft. 

May 1: A contract was awarded to the Norair 
Construction Co. for the construction of 
GSFC's Building No. 14, Spacecraft Opera- 
tions Building. The starting date was May 
11 with a scheduled completion date of May 
15, 1964. 

May 3: The Documentation Branch was estab- 
lished in the GSFC Technical Information 
Division to provide support in writing and 
publishing documents. 

— The Telescopic Systems Section was es- 
tablished in the Astrophysics Branch of the 
Space Sciences Division at GSFC. The 
former Detector Section in the Astrophysics 
Branch was retitled as the Planetary Optics 
Section. 

May 7: Telstar II communications satellite 
placed in elliptical orbit (6,717-mile apogee, 
604-mile perigee, 225.3-mile period, 42.7° in- 



clination to equator) . Thor-Delta vehicle 
launched from Cape Canaveral boosted the 
satellite into orbit for its 17th straight suc- 
cess, an unmatched record for U.S. satellite- 
launching vehicles. 

May 9: Sen. Margaret Chase Smith (R.-Me.) 
and NASA Administrator James E. Webb 
were co-hosts at Senate luncheon for three 
women accorded national recognition for 
space age accomplishments — Marcia S. 
Miner, student at American Univ. and win- 
ner of National Rocket Club's 1963 Goddard 
Memorial Scholarship Award; Dr. Nancy C. 
Roman, Chief of Astronomy and Solar Phys- 
ics in NASA Geophysics and Astronomy 
Program and 1962 winner of Federal Wom- 
en's Award; and Eleanor C. Pressly, Head of 
Vehicles Section, Sounding Rocket Branch, 
in NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's 
Spacecraft Integration and Sounding Rocket 
Division, and 1963 winner of Federal 
Women's Award. 

May 16: L. Gordon Cooper completed 22 
earth orbits in 34-hour MA-9 space 
flight. The Goddard-operated Mercury 
tracking network with 19 stations functioned 
perfectly, providing "real-time" tracking 
throughout the entire mission. Final 
project Mercury flight. 

— The launch of two Nike-Cajuns at 
Wallops Island on this date successfully con- 
cluded the series of three cooperative U.S.- 
Japanese ionospheric experiments. Much 
useful information was obtained. 

May 20: Two-stage sounding rocket instru- 
mented to observe ionosphere was success- 
fully launched to 215-mile altitude by Japa- 
nese scientists near Kagoshima, Japan. 

May 23: Sodium-vapor experiment to measure 
high-altitude winds and diffusion rates was 
launched on Nike-Apache sounding rocket 
from Wallops Island, Va. Sodium vapor 
trail, ejected from 27- to 127-mile altitudes, 
was visible for several hundred miles from 
launch site. 

May 28: GSFC Procurement and Supply Divi- 
sion, Office of Administration, was reorga- 
nized and retitled Procurement Division. 
The former Management Services Divi- 
sion, Office of Administration, was reor- 
ganized and retitled Management Services 
and Supply Division. 



240 



APPENDIX D 



May 31: As of this date, Goddard Space Flight 
Center had on board 38 employees in ex- 
cepted positions, 2,833 employees in 
Classification Act positions, and 250 Wage 
Board employees. In addition, 14 military 
personnel were assigned to the Center. 

During May: Six successful sounding rocket 
projects were carried out. These included 
aeronomy, ionospheric physics, and test and 
support experiments. 

June 3 to 11: On June 5, Goddard Space 
Flight Center offered world scientists the de- 
sign of small rocket payload and ground te- 
lemetry station suitable for ionospheric 
research. GSFC scientists Siegfried J. Bauer 
and John E. Jackson said payload's "versa- 
tility, simplicity and relatively low cost 
should make it an ideal tool for the investi- 
gation of the many problems of the iono- 
sphere by the international scientific com- 
munity, especially during the IQSY (Inter- 
national Year of the Quiet Sun) . 

June 7 to 16: Goddard satellites were exhib- 
ited at the Paris International Air 
Show. French President Charles de Gaulle 
spent some time at the display and ex- 
pressed deep interest in it. In the United 
States pavilion at the show was the most 
complete presentation of present and future 
space programs ever assembled under one 
roof. It included a prototype of OSO I. 

June 14: Goddard Space Flight Center an- 
nounced series of sounding rocket tests had 
confirmed association of Sporadic-E disturb- 
ances with presence of wind shears in alti- 
tude regions measured Nov. 7, Nov. 30, and 
Dec. 5, 1962. Under NASA contract, Geo- 
physics Corp. of America scientists measured 
velocity of wind movements (using Nike- 
Apache rockets with sodium vapor trails) 
and ionospheric phenomena (using Nike- 
Cajun with Langmuir probe electrical 
equipment) at nearly the same time. Ex- 
periments confirmed theory of Australian 
scientist J. D. Whitehead that action of 
upper atmosphere wind pulls electrons from 
above and below into thin cloud-like layers, 
causing Sporadic-E layers that often inter- 
fere with radio signals being reflected off 
higher F layer of ionosphere. 

June 19: Tiros VII (A-52) meteorological sat- 
ellite placed in orbit with Thor-Delta 



launch vehicle launched from Cape 
Canaveral. On satellite's first orbit, com- 
mand and data acquisition station at Wal- 
lops Island, Va., obtained direct pictures 
from Camera 2 showing cloud vortex over 
Newfoundland and set Camera 1 to read 
out pictures on next orbit. First pictures 
were transmitted within one hour to Cape 
Canaveral, Fla.; GSFC; and National 
Weather Satellite Center, Suitland, Md. In 
addition to two wide-angle TV cameras. 
Tiros VII carried infrared sensors and elec- 
tron temperature probe. Orbiting marked 
18th straight successful satellite orbiting by 
Thor-Delta launch vehicles. 

June 21: U.S. television audiences witnessed 
first public appearance of Pope Paul VI via 
Relay communications satellite. 

June 29: The University Building at Adelphi, 
Maryland, leased by GSFC, was partially oc- 
cupied by the Space Flight Support Division, 
Office of Tracking and Data Systems. 

July 2: A 50-pound payload of ionosphere 
measuring instruments was launched with 
Argo D— 4 sounding rocket from Wallops 
Station, Va., into orbital path of Alouette I 
satellite. Preliminary data indicated meas- 
urements were made in upper ionosphere 
within 2 minutes of soundings taken from 
Alouette I. Payload reached peak altitude 
of 590 miles. Purpose of experiment was to 
obtain measurements of ion and electron 
temperatures and densities; data from pay- 
load instruments would be compared with 
similar data transmitted simultaneously by 
Alouette I. 

July 3: With President John F. Kennedy's re- 
turn to Washington from Europe, NASA 
communications satellite Relay I marked 
end of its busiest programing period. Re- 
lay I was "booked solid" during past weeks 
to cover the President's trip, death of Pope 
John XXIII, and election of Pope Paul 
VI. During its 6 months of operation, Re- 
lay I had been used for 85 public communi- 
cations demonstrations, including transmis- 
sion of television, voice, radiophoto, and 
teletype. 

July 9: A 164-pound payload sent to 127-milc 
altitude with Aerobee 150A sounding rocket 
from NASA Wallops Station in experiment to 
obtain nighttime electromagnetic noise and 



241 



Tiros VII photograph showing cloud-free view of U.S. eastern seaboard from 
well above Cape Cod to below Chesapeake Bay, June 23, 1963. 



1963 Continued 

propagation data. Included in payload were 
three sweeping receivers and a broad-band 
receiver of the type to be included in EOGO 
satellite (Eccentric Orbiting Geophysical Ob- 
servatory) next year. Preliminary telemetry 
evaluation indicated all experiment objec- 
tives were met. 
July 19; The former GSFC Communications 
Branch Spacecraft Systems and Projects Di- 
vision o£ the Office of Space Science and 
Satellite Applications was reorganized and 
retitled as the Communications Satellite Re- 
search Branch. A new branch was estab- 
lished in the Spacecraft Systems and 
Projects Division and titled Communications 
Satellite Branch. 



July 20: Eclipse of the sun was visible across 
Canada and northeastern U.S. NASA joined 
other scientists and astronomers in scientific 
studies during the eclipse, with emphasis on 
ionosphere and on sun's corona. 
• — At Churchill Research Range, USAF 
OAR facility located at Ft. Churchill, Can- 
ada, six Nike-Apache sounding rockets 
equipped with instruments to measure elec- 
tron density, electron temperature, and solar 
radiation in ultraviolet and x-ray regions, 
were launched for GSFC; Aerobee 150 
sounding rocket equipped with spectropho- 
tometric instruments to measure absolute 
intensity of spectral features in ultraviolet 
region was launched for Johns Hopkins 
University; and Canadian Black Brant 



242 



APPENDIX D 



sounding rocket with instruments to meas- 
ure variations in D and E layers of iono- 
sphere was launched for USAF Cambridge 
Research Laboratories. GSFC and AFCRL 
scientists said preliminary results indicated 
collected data confirmed previous predic- 
tions of composition of the ionosphere. 
— At Pleasant Pond, Me., Luc Secretan and 
Francois V. Dossin of GSFC photographed 
eclipse with specially made instrument for 
photographing stars and comets near the 
sun. 

July 26: Syncom II communications satellite 
was launched into orbit with Thor-Delta 
launch vehicle from AMR, entering elliptical 
orbit (140-mile perigee, 22,548-mile apogee) . 
Five hours 33 minutes after launching, 



Luc Secretan and Francois V. Dossin 
with their special instrument that 
photographed the eclipse of the sun at 
Pleasant Pond, Me., July 20, 1963. 




apogee kick motor on board fired for 21 sec- 
onds, placing Syncom II in orbital path 
ranging from 22,300-mile to 22,548-mile alti- 
tude and adjusting its speed to near- 
synchronous 6,800 mph. Traveling in slightly 
lower than synchronous orbit and at less 
than synchronous speed, satellite began drift- 
ing eastward at rate of 7.5° per day. Ground 
signals would attempt to reverse drifting so 
that satellite would attain synchronous posi- 
tion over Brazil. 

— ■ A contract was let to Kalrnia Construc- 
tion Co., Inc., Silver Spring, Md., to alter 
Goddard's Data Acquisition and Communi- 
cations Center building for the installation 
of a microwave antenna. The contract 
called for a supporting structure, an equip- 
ment room, and a cooling tower enclosure 
for the antenna. 
August 2: Sweden successfully launched U.S. 
Army Nike-Cajun rocket from Kronogard 
rocket range in test to explore "bright night 
clouds." 

— Schedule of funding for the Goddard 
Space Flight Center for FY 1964 and pre- 
vious years was released: 

Inception 

through FY 1964 
FY 1963 Program 

(thousands of dollars) 
Construction of facilities: 
On-site: 

Buildings $35,123.5 

Equipment 25,614.3 

Total on-site 
authorized __ 60,737.8 $20,932.0 

Portion Completed and 

occupied 37,091.0- 

Off-site: 

All sites 44,610.2 

Transfer to NASA 
from Vanguard 

Project 13,000.0 

Total off-site 
authorized __ 57,610.2 111,800.0 

Portion completed and 
operational (includes 
Vanguard transfer) 40,821.2 
Research, development, 
and operations: 
Direct allotments 492,286.0 



243 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 



Anticipated reim- 
bursements 

Total R, D, 
and O 



Total GSFC FY 
1964 Program 



56,350.5 



548,636.5 



681,168.5 



On-board personnel — 8/2/63, 3,629 (including 

332 summer employees) . 

— The second San Marco suborbital flight 
unit was successfully launched from Wallops 
Island to an altitude of 155 nautical miles 
and a surface distance of 560 nautical miles. 
GSFC was assisting in testing this Italian 
space project. 

August 4: First public demonstration of com- 
munications exchange via synchronous satel- 
lite, when two U.S. wire services and Nige- 
rian newsmen exchanged news stories via 
Syncom II communications satellite, hover- 
ing 22,823 miles over Western Africa. Photo- 
graphs of President Kennedy and Nigerian 
Governor General Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe also 
were exchanged. Transmissions were made 
from NASA station at Lakehurst, N.J., and 
USNS Kingsport communications ship in 
Lagos Harbor, Nigeria. 

August 5: NASA announced Syncom II com- 
munications satellite, now drifting westward 
over Atlantic Ocean at 22,800-mile altitude, 
would be stopped when it reached desired 
position at 55° west longitude. At this lo- 



cation Syncom II would be lowered into 
precise synchronous orbit, so it would ap- 
pear to trace elongated figure-eight pattern 
along 55° meridian to points 33° north and 
south to the equator. 

August 6: Tracking and data acquisition 
operations ceased for OSO I (Orbiting Solar 
Observatory) , launched March 7, 1962. 

August 8: With launching of Nike-Cajun 
sounding rocket from Kronogard Range, 
Sweden and U.S. completed series of sound- 
ing rocket experiments to study noctilucent 
clouds near Arctic Circle. Sponsored by 
NASA and Swedish Committee for Space 
Research, program included launchings of 
Areas rockets with payloads to measure 
winds and Nike-Cajun rockets with payloads 
to make direct cloud samplings during 1961 
and 1962. Four Nike-Cajun rockets with 
rocket grenade payloads were successfully 
launched during summer 1963, these experi- 
ments measuring upper atmosphere tem- 
peratures, wind pressure and density, and 
measuring changes in size of artificial cloud 
particles created by smoke puffs from the 
payloads. Experimenters were scientists from 
Institute of Meteorology, University of 
Stockholm; GSFC had responsibility for U.S. 
coordination in the project. 

August 9: Voice and teletype messages ex- 
changed via Syncom II communications sat- 
ellite between ground station at Paso Ro- 
bles, Calif., and communications ship, 




On August 4 this picture of Nige- 
rian Governor General Nnamdi 
Azikiwe was transmitted via Syn- 
com II satellite. 



APPENDIX D 



Kingsport, in Lagos Harbor, Nigeria. The 
test spanned 7,700 miles, greatest surface dis- 
tance ever spanned between two points on 
earth via a communications satellite. 

— The Explorer XIV encoder hung up in 
a 4-channel (8, 9, 10, and 11) mode of 
operations. It had completed 310 days of 
operation with only 15 days of major mal- 
function. 

— The transition of the Relay I spacecraft 
into 100 percent sunlight occurred. Some 
anomalies were observed but no significant 
difficulties occurred. 

August 11: Tiros VI and VII meteorological 
satellites observed Hurricane Arlene ap- 
proximately 600 miles northeast of Bermu- 
da, Typhoon Bess approximately 100 miles 
west of Japan, and Typhoon Carmen ap- 
proximately 500 miles east of the Philippine 
Islands. 

August 12: The Program Support Division 
was established in the Office of 
Administration. Functions of the Financial 
Management Analysis Branch were trans- 
ferred to the Procurement Division. The 
Business Data Procurement Branch was re- 
constructed and redesignated as the Business 
Data Branch. The Reports and Statistics 
Branch and the Systems Review Branch 
were established in the Financial Manage- 
ment Division. 

August 15: Syncom II communications satellite 
was successfully maneuvered into synchro- 
nous position 55° west longitude, over Bra- 
zil and South Atlantic Ocean. The maneu- 
vers were directed by engineers at GSFC, 
and actual command was executed from 
ground station at Lakehurst, N.J. Syncom II 
was now stationed about 22,300-mile altitude 
and traveling at speed of about 6,800 mph, 
matching earth's rotation speed of 1,040 mph 
at the equator to keep it on station. It was 
hovering in figure-eight pattern 33° north 
and south of equator. NASA Administrator 
James E. Webb called completion of the po- 
sitioning maneuvers the culmination of "one 
of the outstanding feats in the history of 
space flight." 

August 21: The GSFC Sounding Rocket 
Branch reported that 61 rockets had been 
fired this year to date. Of this total eight 
were in the Meteorology Program. 



August 23: U.S.-Canada agreement for cooper- 
ative testing of communications satellites 
launched by NASA was announced by NASA 
and Canada's Department of Transport. 
Each cooperating national agency would pro- 
vide a ground station to receive and transmit 
television and multichannel telephone and 
telegraphic signals via communications satel- 
lites, according to Memorandum of Under- 
standing signed in April and made operative 
by exchange of notes today. 

— Syncom II communications satellite re- 
layed its first live telephone conversations, a 
transmission between President John F. 
Kennedy and Nigerian Prime Minister Sir 
Abubaker Tafawa Balewa and other mes- 
sages between U.S., Nigerian, and U.N. 
officials. Arranged by USIA, the demon- 
stration program originated from the White 
House and Voice of America studios in 
Washington and from ground station 
aboard USNS Kingsport in Lagos Harbor, 
Nigeria. 

September 3: The Alaska Data Acquisition Fa- 
cility near Anchorage began limited opera- 
tions by interrogating Tiros VI for two 
orbits. Performance was satisfactory ex- 
cept for some interference on 235 Mc from 
the command transmission. 

— GSFC announced Belgian astrophysicist 
Dr. Francois V. Dossin, working at GSFC on 
National Academy of Sciences fellowship, 
discovered faint comet about 5° from sun 
during July 20 solar eclipse. Dr. Dossin 
made seven camera-plate exposures of comet 
from Pleasant Pond, Me., during 60 seconds 
of total eclipse. He used blue-green filter 
to bring out the light of carbon molecules in 
the comet. Microscopic examination of de- 
veloped plates showed a diffuse image emit- 
ting the light of molecular carbon. 

September 4: An Aerobee sounding rocket 
containing the low energy cosmic ray heavy 
nuclei experiment was launched from Fort 
Churchill. Experiment and performance 
reported good. 

— Aerobee 150 sounding rocket, launched 
from Ft. Churchill, Canada, with nuclear 
emulsion payload to study very-low-energy 
cosmic ray heavy nuclei. Payload reached 
150-mile altitude, was recovered from an 
inland lake approximately 90 miles from 



245 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

launch site. Instrumentation and nuclear 
emulsions were in excellent condition. 

— Construction work on the penthouse on 
Building 3 to house the AT&T equipment 
was begun. 

— The former Fields and Particles Branch, 
Space Sciences Division, was reorganized and 
retitled the Energetic Particles Branch, A 
new Branch, the Fields and Plasmas Branch, 
was established in the Space Sciences Divi- 
sion. 

September 5: Syncom II communications satel- 
lite achieved perfect synchronous orbit. 

September 10: The German Transportable 
Ground Station began to receive Relay I 
pointing data and operational traffic. 

September 13: Syncom I and Relay I linked 
Rio de Janeiro and Lagos, Nigeria, in 
20-minute voice conversation, first opera- 
: : :n|)]u\ '.iyr both communications satel- 
lites in single communications circuit and 
world's first three- continent telephone 
conversation. Signal began from USNS 
Kingsport in Lagos Harbor, then to Syncom 
I, which sent it to Lakehurst, N.J., ground 
station, then to Relay I overhead which sent 
it to Rio de Janeiro ground station. GSFC 
engineers monitoring the conversation de- 
clared quality of transmission to be good. 

September 14; U.S. -Scandinavia approval of 
Memorandum of Understanding for testing 
of NASA-launched experimental communi- 
cations satellites was announced by NASA 
and Scandinavian Committee for Satellite 
Telecommunication, Vice President Lyndon 
B. Johnson, on official tour of Scandina- 
via, received in Copenhagen the Danish 
Government's note of approval, making the 
Memorandum effective; Norway had ap- 
proved Memorandum in note dated Sep- 
tember 11 and Sweden, in note dated July 
25. Under agreement, Scandinavian Com- 
mittee would provide ground station to re- 
ceive multichannel telephone or telegraph 
signals transmitted from U.S. via orbiting 
communications satellite. 

September 15: Third command and data ac- 
quisition station in Tiros meteorological sat- 
ellite CDA system became operational, the 
Fairbanks, Alaska, station joining those at 
Wallops Island, Va., and Pt. Mugu, 



Calif. CDA stations receive cloud-cover 
photographs and other tiara from orbiting 
Tiros satellites, and relay them to Weather 
Bureau's National Weather Satellite Center, 
Suitland, Md„ for analysis. 

September 17: Opening of U.N. General As- 
sembly transmitted via Relay I and Syncom 
II to Europe and Africa. 

September IS: First anniversary of orbiting of 
Tiros VI meteorological satellite, its year- 
long operational lifetime setting new record 
for weather satellites. On July 31, 1963, 
Tiros VI discovered first hurricane (Arlene) 
of 1963 season in tropical Atlantic; alto- 
gether, Tiros VI photographed two hurri- 
canes in Atlantic, two tropical storms in 
eastern Pacific, eight typhoons in central 
and western Pacific, as well as sandstorms 
in Saudi Arabia and ice conditions in south- 
ern and northern hemispheres. Along with 
Tiros V it supported Mercury space flights 
of Astronauts Schirra and Cooper. Nation- 
al Weather Satellite Center issued about 600 
weather advisories around the world based 
on some of the 63,000 cloud-cover pictures 
from Tiros VI. 

— Goddard Space Flight Center selected 
two companies for negotiation of contracts 
pertaining to Nimbus weather satel- 
lite. $252,000 contract to General Electric 
Company called for development of operat- 
ing procedures for Nimbus control center as 
well as training of personnel to operate the 
center. 5165,000 contract to RCA Electron 
Tube and Semiconductor Division required 
contractor to furnish solar cells for Nimbus 
satellites and Nimbus operational system. 

September 19: The following offices were es- 
tablished in the GSFC Tracking and Data 
Systems Directorate: the Systems Analysis 
Office, the Manned Flight Support Office, 
The Project Resources Office, and the Direc- 
torate Support Office. At the Division level, 
parts of the Tracking Systems Division and 
the Space Data Acquisition Division were 
merged and named Advanced Development 
Division. The Data Systems Division was 
expanded with the addition of telemetry 
and data processing from the Space Data 
Acquisition Division and the Operations 
and Support Division and retitled the Net- 
work Engineering and Operations Division. 



246 



APPENDIX D 



The former Manned Space Flight Support 
Division was renamed Manned Flight Oper- 
ations Division. 

— Syncom II 24-hour communications sat- 
ellite used to relay oceanographic data from 
research vessel Geronimo in Gulf of Guinea 
off Africa to National Oceanographic Data 
Center in Washington, which compared the 
data with its records and sent back to the 
Geronimo the deviations to correct errors. 
Demonstration via Syncom II was performed 
to determine practicability of providing 
research ships quickly with information 
to correct errors. Line of transmission: 
from Geronimo to Kingsport in Lagos Har- 
bor, to Syncom II some 22,300 miles above 
Atlantic Ocean, to ground station at Lake- 
hurst, N.J., along ground lines to NODC, 
and return. 

September 20: President John F. Kennedy's 
speech to the United Nations General As- 
sembly was transmitted to the USNS Kings- 
port via Syncom for further broadcast over 
the Voice of America network in Nigeria. 

September 21: Tiros VII meteorological satel- 
lite discovered Hurricane Debra, fourth 
hurricane of season, headed north in Atlan- 
tic southeast of Bermuda. 

September 23: Syncom II communications sat- 
ellite relayed transmission of speech and 
teletype between Fort Dix, N.J., and moving 
USNS Kingsport about 40 miles west of 
Lagos, Nigeria. This was first such trans- 
mission via a communications satellite to a 
moving ship at sea. This was first in series 
of experiments designed to test shipboard 
equipment and reception in fringe areas. 

September 25: Two similar experiments (one 
built by U.S., the other by Japan) , were 
launched aboard an Aerobee 150 sounding 
rocket from Wallops Island. The purpose 
of the experiments was to make simultane- 
ous measurements in the ionosphere by 
different methods and then to compare the 
data obtained. Instruments were supplied 
by GSFC and the Radio Research Labora- 
tory, Tokyo, Japan. The Japanese scien- 
tists' radio-frequency resonance probe was 
designed to make it possible to measure 
electron density and temperature simultane- 
ously with one instrument and to process 



the data faster. The Aerobee reached a 
peak altitude of 139 statute miles; it impact- 
ed in the Atlantic Ocean 80 miles from 
launch site after 8 minutes of flight. Pre- 
liminary data indicated that the experiment 
succeeded. 
September 26: Hurricane Edith was observed 
between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico by 
Tiros VII. Hurricane Flora was also picked 
up by this satellite. 

— Operations with the Relay I satellite 
continued with successful completion of all 
scheduled experiments. The spacecraft op- 
erations as of this date, for 2,227 orbit 
revolutions, were: 1,107 wideband experi- 
ments; 519 narrowband experiments; 99 
demonstrations (TV and narrowband) . 
The transponder had been operated for 225 
hours over a period of 560 operations. 

— NASA announced first television experi- 
ments via Syncom II communications satel- 
lite had been conducted. Test pattern signals 
sent Sept. 23 were followed by TV pictures 
Sept. 24 and 25; because of band-width limi- 
tations, no audio was sent. Officials said 
transmissions were of good quality. Trans- 
missions originated at Fort Dix, N.J., ground 
station, were sent to Syncom II 22,300 miles 
above the earth, and retransmitted to AT&T 
ground station at Andover, Me. 

September 27: Explorer XIV satellite progress 
report indicated no usable scientific data 
had been obtained from the scientific satel- 
lite since mid-August. In its 10 months of 
operation since launch into highly elliptical 
orbit Oct. 2, 1962, Explorer XIV sent back 
more than 6,500 hours of data from the six 
onboard scientific experiments to chart 
boundaries of earth's magnetosphere, meas- 
ure particle population and energies of elec- 
trons and protons, and determine how mag- 
netic fields influence these particles. There 
had been 3,700 hours of data processed 
through computers and scientific analysis 
was continuing. 

September 28: Aerobee 150A sounding rocket 
launched from NASA Wallops Station with 
U.S.-Japanese experiment to measure elec- 
tron temperatures and densities in the 
ionosphere by two different methods; Lang- 
muir probe, supplied by NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center, and radio-frequency 



247 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

resonance probe, developed by Radio Re- 
search Laboratory, Tokyo. A 185-pound 
payload reached 141-mile altitude and trans- 
mitted approximately 8 minutes of teleme- 
try before impacting in Atlantic Ocean 
about 71 miles from launch site. Data ob- 
tained from the daytime experiment were 
compared with data from similar experiment 
conducted at night, 3 days earlier. 

September 29: An Argo X)^t was launched. 
Based on plotting board information, it 
achieved an altitude of 1,038 kilometers. 
Telemetry signals were received for 12 min- 
utes and all experiments functioned nor- 
mally. 

— At the end of the first year of opera- 
tion of Alouette I, all four experiments 
were performing very well and continued to 
provide good data. No problems had been 
encountered in commanding the satellite or 
in recording of the telemetry transmissions. 

October 1: NASA marked its fifth anniversary, 
with a salute to 23 individuals whose out- 
standing personal efforts have contributed 
significantly to the nation's civilian space 
program. Among cash awards was a $1,500 
award to Jesse M. Madley and Xopher W. 



Mayer at GSFC for the invention of a struc- 
tural spacer. 

October 1 to 3: Youth Science Congress, spon- 
sored by NASA and the National Science 
Teachers Association, was held at GSFC. 
Feature event was presentation of 25 award- 
winning research papers of high school 
students from Washington, D.C., Maryland, 
Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. 

October 8: Explorer XIV energetic particles 
satellite had ceased useful transmission after 
almost 10 months of successful operation. 
Scientists at GSFC said trouble began in 
August when the satellite's transmitter failed 
to modulate — translate instrument signals 
into telemetry code — properly. Intermittent 
modulation had occurred since then, but lit- 
tle useful data had been received. The sat- 
ellite signal was still useful for position ref- 
erence. Some 6,500 hours of data were 
received from the satellite. While not all 
the data had been analyzed, Dr. L. Cahill, 
Univ. of New Hampshire, said a number of 
new insights had already emerged, among 
them being: earth's magnetosphere, as 
shown by mapping charged particles, flared 
away from the earth in an ogival — pointed 
arch — shape; confirmation that the vector 



The Rosman, N.C., tracking facility. 



APPENDIX D 



magnetic field changes gently from a dipole 
configuration to a radial field at increasing 
distance on the night side of the earth near 
the equatorial plane; and further evidence 
probably supporting Explorer VI's finding 
of a ring current flow on the night side of 
the earth. 

October 9: As of this date, the Relay I satel- 
lite had continued with successful comple- 
tion of a majority of the scheduled experi- 
ments. Its operations covered 2,334 orbit 
revolutions with 1,132 wideband experi- 
ments; 54 narrowband experiments; 99 dem- 
onstrations (TV and narrowband) . The 
transponder had been operated for 234 hours 
over a period of 582 operations. 

October 11: Syncom II operation in orbit re- 
mained satisfactory. The N 2 system and 
H2O2 system pressures remained the same. 
There was no perceptible change in these 
parameters for the last several weeks. The 
satellite spin speed continued to decrease. 
— Tiros VI acquired its last usable pictures, 
after 338 days of useful life. 

October 17: The Relay I spacecraft operations 
as of Oct. 17, for 2,389 orbit revolutions, 
were as follows: 1,151 wideband experi- 
ments; 553 narrowband experiments; 100 
demonstrations (TV and narrowband) . The 
transponder had been operated for 239 
hours over a period of 593 operations. 

October 22: GSFC began negotiations with 
Republic Aviation Corp. for Phase I Con- 
tract for Advanced Orbiting Solar Observa- 
tory (AOSO). AOSO would be launched 
into a 300-mile near-polar orbit for observa- 
tions of x-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet 
emissions of the sun. Phase I calls for one- 
year development of systems engineering and 
detailed design of the satellite. 

October 26: The Rosman, N.C., tracking and 
data acquisition facility was dedicated. A 
key station in NASA's Satellite Tracking 
and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN) , 
the 85-foot-diameter parabolic antenna at 
Rosman would be used to track and receive 
the large flow of telemetered data from the 
large orbiting observatories and would relay 
the data to GSFC for processing and analy- 
sis. 

October 30: Symposium on the Physics of So- 
lar Flares was held at GSFC, sponsored by 



NASA and the American Astronomical So- 
ciety. 

— Syncom II operation in orbit remained 
satisfactory. The orbital elements were: 

Epoch 22 October 1963 _ 0200.00 hours UT 

Semi-major axis 26,204.11 miles 

Eccentricity 0.00026 

Inclination 32.993° 

R.A. of ascending node _ 316.603° 

Height of perigee 22,233.9? miles 

Height of apogee 22,247.58 miles 

Anomalistic period 1,436.3957 lain. 

All telemetry indicated that the 10 instru- 
ments aboard the 128-pound satellite were 
functioning normally. 

October 31: A second Aerobee-Hi research 
rocket in the NASA-French joint program 
investigating propagation of very-low- 
frequency waves in the ionosphere was 
launched from Wallops Station. The 193- 
pound payload went to an altitude of 115 
miles and yielded 7 minutes of telemetry 
data before impact. The first experiment 
in this series was conducted on October 17, 
1963. 

November 1: GSFC awarded contract to Yale 
Univ. to design and develop a worldwide 
radio monitoring network for study of plan- 
et Jupiter. Four stations would comprise 
the global network, located at approximate- 
ly every 90° longitude around the earth- 
one at GSFC in Greenbelt, Md., and the 
other three at U.S. satellite tracking stations 
at Hartesbeesthoek, South Africa; Carnar- 
von, Australia; and South Point, Hawaii. 
Primary duty of the stations would be to 
maintain a 24-hour radio monitor of the 
mysterious low-frequency radio noises spo- 
radically emitted from the planet. The data 
should provide information on Jupiter's 
magnetosphere, the interplanetary medium, 
and the earth's ionosphere. 

November 7: French VLF project: The second 
Aerobee in the French VLF program 
launched from Wallops Island Oct. 31, was 
successful. The experimenter, Dr. Owen 
Story, indicated in a preliminary appraisal 
that the data were of excellent quality. The 
monitoring circuit operated as antici- 
pated. Both firings occurred during periods 
of ionospheric disturbances due to solar 



249 




m 










^^^^pfe*fc*l^^^ 



Artist's conception of Relay mission received in Japan. 



1963 Continued 

flare activity. This was expected to compli- 
cate reduction o£ the data. 

November 8: West Germany joined the list of 
nations participating in satellite communi- 
cations with the opening of its narrowband 
station at Raisting, near Munich. A wide- 
band station to permit television transmis- 
sion was under construction. Raisting be- 
came the seventh station in the satellite 
communications network. Other narrow- 
band stations were at Nutley, N.J., Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil; Fucino, Italy. Wideband 
stations were at Andover, Me.; Goonhilly 
Downs, U.K.; and Pleumeur-Bodou, France. 

November 21: GSFC announced that with a 
552 million contract, under final negotiation, 
Sperry Rand Corp.'s Univac Div. would de- 
liver 11 Model 1218 computer systems to 
manned space flight tracking stations for 
operation by July 1964. These computers 



would automatically summarize telemetry 
from the spacecraft, provide summaries for 
display in the Mission Control Center so 
that the controllers can select and examine 
certain data on a "real-time" basis, and pre- 
pare the telemetry data for final processing 
in the more elaborate computers at GSFC 
and MSC. During the Mercury program, 
controllers at the tracking stations had 
to select data manually. The computers 
would be located at Cape Canaveral; Ber- 
muda; Canary Islands; Corpus Christi, Tex.; 
Guaymas, Mexico; Carnarvon, Australia; 
Wallops Island, Va.; Greenbelt, Md.; and on 
two ships used in manned space flight track- 
ing, the Rose Knot Victory and the Coastal 
Sentry Quebec. 

— First rocket to be launched from India 
was achieved as the result of the coordi- 
nated efforts of France, India, and the 
U.S. The Nike-Apache was launched from 



250 



APPENDIX D 



Thuraba, the site near the southern tip of 
India that would become an international 
rocket launching facility. The Thumba site 
is located at the earth's magnetic equator, 
making possible the investigation of impor- 
tant phenomena which could be studied to a 
greater advantage from this region. 

November 22: The first live American televi- 
sion transmission across the Pacific by 
means of Relay I communications satellite 
was received clearly in Tokyo. Pictures 
transmitted by the Mojave ground station 
in California and received at the new Space 
Communications Laboratory in Ibaxaki 
Prefecture, north of Tokyo, were clear and 
distinct. The sound transmission was ex- 
cellent. The transmission was received live 
from 5:16 a.m. to 5:46 a.m. Viewers in 
Tokyo saw and heard taped messages from 
Ryuji Takeuchi, Japanese Ambassador to 
Washington, and James E. Webb, Adminis- 
trator of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration. A message of greet- 
ing from President John F. Kennedy to the 
Japanese people, which was to have been 
the highlight of the program, was deleted 
when news of the President's death was re- 
ceived shortly before the transmission. In 
place of the taped 2'/2* mmute appearance of 
the President, viewers saw brief panoramic 
views of the Mojave transmitting station 
and the surrounding desert area. ABC and 
NBC shared in producing the program. 
— A solar array characteristics test was run 
on the orbiting Syncom II synchronous-orbit 
communications satellite. The test found a 
power loss of 20 percent from the effects of 
solar radiation on the solar cells during 4 
months in orbit. The test confirmed the 
desirability of changing the next Syncom 
satellite. 

November 25: President John F. Kennedy was 
buried in Arlington National Cemetery in a 
state funeral attended by the largest gather- 
ing of foreign dignitaries ever to visit 
Washington. Relay I communications satel- 
lite enabled all of Europe, including the 
U.S.S.R., to view events of the tragic week- 
end and the funeral ceremonies. The satel- 
lite also provided transmission across the 
Pacific to Japan, where an estimated 95 mil- 
lion persons viewed the ceremonies. 



November 27: Explorer XVIII, first of a series 
of Interplanetary Monitoring Platforms 
(IMP) to map magnetic fields of space and 
the effects of solar winds and cosmic rays on 
the earth's atmosphere, was launched. 
— GSFC's Field Projects Branch launched 
their first Atlas-Centaur. The booster, a 
new experimental hydrogen fuel 2d-stage 
rocket for deep space work, was launched 
from pad 36-A, Cape Kennedy, atop an 
Atlas 1st stage. 

November 29: GSFC announced negotiations 
with Northrop Electronics for design and 
construction of a test device to simulate the 
launch phase of space flight. Final negotia- 
tions are expected to lead to a contract esti- 
mated at $1,800,000. Called a Launch 
Phase Simulator (LPS) , the device would 
test unmanned space-flight units and com- 
ponents under the separate or combined 
conditions of acceleration, vibration, noise, 
and vacuum. It is designed to duplicate, as 
nearly as possible, the environmental condi- 
tions typical of current launch vehicles. 

December 2: House Joint Resolution 78? was 
submitted to Congress providing for the 
erection of a memorial statue to the late Dr. 
Robert H. Goddard, the father of American 
rocketry. 

— Nike-Cajun was launched from Wallops 
for the "falling sphere" experiment and 
consisted of ejecting three balloons which 
were tracked by radar. Data correlation be- 
tween these two experiments was studied. 

December 9: 350 representatives of 55 aero- 
space firms were briefed on GSFC's require- 
ments for a new "Unified S-Band" method 
for tracking and communications for Apollo 
lunar missions. 

December 11: On Dec. 11 and Dec. 13 the 
GSFC Data Operations Branch supported 
SA-5 network simulations. The nominal 
SA-5 launch and orbital phase were simu- 
lated in real-time using data tapes from the 
sites. These tapes were generated using the 
SA-5 nominal insertion conditions. The real- 
time computing program which reflects the 
operational Apollo launch and near-earth 
orbit determination program worked well. 
This was the first time the three networks, 
SAO, STADAN, and Manned Flight Net- 
works, were simultaneously controlled from 



251 



K 



ism^m 



mfW'™. I F.i 



i--*- '-.fr'Ar .-'"■' -"HiS 






*> 

ai 



View of the Space Communications Laboratory, Ibaraki, Japan. 



1963 Continued 

Goddard. The first simulation served as a 
training session for the development of 
standard operating procedures to control all 
three networks. The second simulation ran 
very smoothly. 
December IS: The final static inflation test 
with Echo II balloon No. 16 was successfully 
conducted by NASA at Lakehurst, N.J. The 
balloon burst at a nominal skin stress level 
of 23,000 psi. Visual inspection of the in- 
flated balloon indicated an improved balloon 
surface. This balloon was fabricated using 
the GSFC-developed gore cutting and seal- 
ing technique as well as preshrunk material. 
The balloon was pressurized to 3,400 psi 
nominal skin stress; relaxed to approximate- 
ly 500 psi; pressurized to 7,400 psi, relaxed 
and then inflated to the burst pressure of 
23,000 psi nominal skin stress. RF measure- 
ments at L-band and C-band were ob- 
tained for each of the test pressure levels. 
• — Relay I operations as of this date for 
2,800 orbit revolutions were: 1,330 wideband 
experiments; 720 narrowband experiments; 
157 demonstrations (TV and narrowband) . 
The transponder had been operated for 288 



Antenna at the Space Communications 
Laboratory, Ibaraki, Japan. 







IV 



! 
Jill 



252 




Tiros VIII: The experimental Automatic Picture Transmission camera beame 
this photo from more than 400 miles in space to GSFC at 12:30 EST, Decen 
ber 21, 1963. Florida and the Gulf of Mexico are shown. 



hours over a period of 720 operations. Since 
Oct. 1, 1963, 80 hours of radiation data had 
been taken by Relay I. 
December 19: All major components of the 
Univac 490 communications switching sys- 
tem had been installed at the GSFC com- 
munications complex. Items remaining to 
be installed consisted of the Communica- 
tions Line Terminations (CLT's) and two 
tape decks for the second system and system 
transfer switches. 



December 21: Tiros VIII was launched at 
AMR. The satellite contained the first Au- 
tomatic Picture Transmission camera, per- 
mitting rather "inexpensive" readouts at 
ground receiving stations. The APT system 
was developed for Nimbus, the advanced 
meteorological weather satellite. 

December 30: Aviation Week and Space Tech- 
nology magazine gave "Laurels for 1963 to 
Harry Goett, Jack Townsend, and Bob Gray 
of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center for 



253 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



1963 Continued 

their excellent record (100 percent on eight 
launched in 1963) of successful satellite 
launchings and operations. This is the sec- 
ond consecutive year that all of Goddard's 
satellites were successful. . . ." 
During December: The Italian Space Commis- 
sion advised that it planned to ship the San 
Marco flight spacecraft to Goddard for the 
following tests: Minitrack compatibility tests 
at Blossom Point and dynamic balance pro- 
cedures at the Center's test facilities. The 



spacecraft was then to be shipped to the 
Langley Center for mating checks with the 
vehicle. 
-Ariel I radiated normal modulation for a 
3-month period, Aug. 14 through Nov. 17. 
During this time, the percentage of sunlight 
varied between 75 and 63 percent. Good 
data were obtained for housekeeping and 
the electron temperature experiment. From 
Nov. 17, 1963, through Dec. 6, 1963, the 
percentage of sunlight was above 76 percent 
and abnormal modulation (an intermittent 
312-cps signal) prevailed. 



254 



Appendix E 

leports of Procurement Actions 

19604963 

SUMMARY REPORT OF PROCUREMENT ACTIONS 
For January 1, i960, thru June 30, i960 



FROM: Goddard Space Flight Center * 
TO: NASA Headquarters 





NUMBER AND DOLLAR VALUE OF CONTRACT 


TRANSACTIONS 






ACTIONS OVER 


Govt. Agency- 


Small business 


Big business 


Educational et al 


$2500 


No. 


$ Value 


No. 


$ value 


No. 


$ value 


Ho. 


$ value 


1. RESEARCH & 

DEVELOPMENT 


















a. Negotiated 






50 


1,502,222 


69 


18,675,289 


2 


920,787 


b. Interdepart- 
mental 


102 


29,067,246 














Total 


102 


29,067,246 


50 


1,502,222 


69 


18,675,289 


2 


920,787 



2. CONSTRUCTION 

a. Advertised 

b. Negotiated 

c. Interdepart- 
mental 

Total 

3. SUPPLY 

a. Advertised 

b. Negotiated 

c . Interdepart- 

mental 

d. GSA schedule 

Total 

4. TOTAL ACTIONS 

OVER $2500 

5. ALL ACTIONS NOT 

EXCEEDING $2500 







T 


4S2,6l8 


4 


1,558,^3 










11 


199,950 


4 


94,551 






9 


2,103,340 














9 


2,l03,34o 


18 


382,568 


8 


1,653,294 


_ 


[ 







9 


202,392 


7 


54,839 










IT 


295,136 


20 


473,460 






67 


4,585,142 


















4 


19,486 


11 


6o,844 






67 


4,585,142 


30 


517,014 


38 


589,143 







178 



36,147,504 94 2,4oi,8o4 



115 



20,917,726 



T5 



4o,31i 



856 



343,607 



450 



259,956 



NASA Form 274 rev. *This Report includes Space Task Group, Langley 
(Jan. 1959) 



920,787 



255 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



YEARLY REPORT OF PROCUREMENT ACTIONS 

NASA instollotion GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 



FISCAL YEAR 1961 



PART A: PROCUREMENT ACTIONS BY NASA APPROPRIATION 






Category 


Total 


Research & 
Development 


Construction 

& Equipment 


Salaries & 
Expenses 


<°) 


No. 
(b) 


$ Value 
(c) 


No. 


$ Value 
(•> 


No. 
(A 


$ Value 
(9) 


No. 
(h) 


$ Value 
(0 


I. TOTAL 


10723 


188,420,999 


10426 


165376£20 


248 


2L92L420 


51 


U22£59 


2. INTERGOVERNMENTAL 


613 


42JD59.736 


579 


36,010,924 


27 


6,021,096 


7 


27,710 


3, MONPROFIT INSTITUTION OR 
ORGANIZATION 


176 


3697,931 


173 


2,022^.81 


2 


675P00 


1 


750 


4. SMALL BUSINESS . TOTAL 


648? 


14,466,277 


6401 


1L112542 


73 


3,297,826 


8 


55,909 


a. Ad¥@rtls@d 


5% 


L735627 


554 


58L835 


40 


U 53,79 2 






b. Ne§ot!at«d Competitive 


2432 


5.442.402 


2417 


3S86711 


15 


163Q696 






e. H«getla»t»<l Non. 
Competitive 


336? 


7 r 15a330 


3271 


5J44613 


18 


512808 


8 


55509 


d. Oovgrnm^nt SelwduU 


15< 


129S18 


159 


129918 






. 




S, LARGE BUSINESS - TOTAL 


343; 


129,197,061 


3273 


116,231,723 


146 


1L927498 


33 


1,03£U90 


Q< Adv@rtU®d 


169 


5.59L509 


77 


399365 


92 


5J.92P44 






b. Negotiated Competitive 


887 


64,284021 


875 


61988687 


12 


2^95334 


. 


. 


e. Nefotlotad Non- 
Competitive 


1889 


57,942fl90 


1843 


53,427,951 


40 


4448,034 


6 


76,105 


4, GevwnmM? Sehsduj® 


507 


L3 79^41 


559 


415£70 


2 


2P86 


27 


962^85 



PART B: NEGOTIATED PROCUREMENT ACTIONS 



Negotiation Authority 

loy.s.c. 


Number 


$ Value 


Negotiation Authority 
10 U.S.C. 


Number 


$ Value 


6. TOTAL 


8681 


137,524,774 


2304(a) (9) 






2304(c) (I) 


509 


9,523,642 


(10) 


210 


14,578,340 


(2) 






(11) 


166 


101,939,320 


(35 


7738 


3,735,543 


(12) 






M) 


12 


211.012 


(13) 






(5$ 


14 


2,436,764 


(14) 


29 


4,725,153 


(it 


3 


375,000 


(IS) 






(7) 






(16) 






(8) 






(17) 






NASA FORM 308 (JUNE 


1980) 











256 



APPENDIX E 



YEARLY REPORT OF PROCUREMENT ACTIONS 
NASA Installation flODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 



FISCAL YEAR 196 2 



PART A: PROCUREMENT ACTIONS BY NASA APPROPRIATION 






Category 


Total 


R 
De 


esearch & 
valopment 


Construction 
& Equipment 


So 
E 


ariw & 


(a) 


No. 
(b) 


$ Value 
(c) 


No. 
<<0 


S Value 
(e) 


No. 


$ Value 

(g) 


No. 
(M 


$ Value 
(1) 


!. TOTAL 


207L7 


209^92J.54 


20432 


186£34£91 


205 


19,824349 


80 


1,233,114 


2. INTERGOVERNMENTAL 


616 


5,752,844 


612 


5,746^68 


1 


1,736 


3 


4,240 


3. NONPROFIT INSTITUTION OR 
ORGANIZATION 


188 


13209,413 


183 


12^456,011 


2 


744980 


3 


8,422 


4. SMALL BUSINESS - TOTAL 


14436 


23,299,070 


14367 


22,274^92 


50 


. 83^665 


19 


118,813 


a. Advertised 


252 


3J.94931 


232 


2£09£87 


17 


244^32 


3 


40,712 


b. Negotiated Competitive 


33 74 


572L710 


3362 


5,645,711 


11 


7^201 


1 


798 


c. Negotiated Non- 
Competitive 


10370 


U676J.11 


10335 


13J.43676 


22 


516,132 


13 


16,303 


d. Government Schedule 


440 


636318 


438 


575318 






2 


61,000 


5. LARGE BUSINESS . TOTAL 


5477 


167,10Q827 


5270 


147,757,220 


152 


1 8,241,968 


__5i. 


_l*lflJ^Mi 


a. Advertised 


517 


7,039,954 


428 


4 r 6?6 v ??l 


88 


2/41 0,711 


] 


Ij^OjQD. 


b. Negotiated Competitive 


1336 


73,554^41 


1308 


66,829,131 


17 


6,401,5 50 


11 


3 73.560 


c. Negotiated Hon- 
Competitive 


2874 


82281,111 


2806 


75325384 


41 


6,504£01 


27 


450,526 


d. Government Schedule 


750 


4225521 


728 


975£84 


6 


2S25P84 


16 


324,553 





PART B: NEGOTIATED PROCUREMENT ACTIONS 






Negotiation Authority 
10 U.S.C. 


Number 


$ Value 


Negotiation Authority 
10 U.S.C. 


Number 


$ Vo|y# 


6. TOTAL 


18,142 


188,442,554 


2304(a) (9) 






2304(a) (1) 


736 


15,934,895 


(10) 


853 


42,056,080 


(2) 


12 


625,380 


(ID 


235 


103,911,638 


<3> 


16,192 


7,683,152 


(12) 






(4> 


18 


291,477 


(13) 






(5) 


59 


8,897,255 


(14) 


16 


4,144,396 


(«) 


20 


4,895.388 


(15) 






(7) 






(16) 






(8) 






(17) 


17 


2,893 



NASA FORM 508. (JUNE I960) 



257 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 







t 


30RRECTED COPY 














IUREMENT ACTIONS 

larks) 


FOR THE Ql ER ENDING 

July thru, June 
FX '63 


NCL.UOGS NASA FORM SC7 


QUAR i cRLY REPORT OF > pIOC 

(Use reverse [or ten 


(EPORT5 
63-1 


MOS. 


THRU. 

63-13U7 


To'i Procurcmcot and Supply Division 

Headquarters, NASA 


FROM! (NASA /iwiollaiiosi; 

C-oddard Space Flight Cent 


er 




CATEGORY 


TOTAL 


RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 
AMD OPERATIONS 


CON 


STRUCT10N or 
FACILITIES 




NO. 


S VALUE 


NO. 


$ VALUE 


NO. 
W 


$ VALUE 




1, TOTAL fU»« 2 tkra 7) 


30,477 


303,506,335 


30,333 


•286,272,935 


Hilt 


17,233,1(00 




2, INTRAGOVERNJdENTAL 


657 


11,863, U87 


65lt 8,167,387 


3 


3,696,100 


5 


3. URGE BUSINESS -TOTAL 


1 

804a . 


232,265,627 


7968, 220,984,570- 


80 


11,281,057 


or . 


a. Advertised 


3$ 


10,977,133 


3l| 


3,676,71(7 


J J 


7,300,386 


a. 


b. Negotiated Competitive 


2050.; 


116,527,55'Z. 


2031 


Il6,077 v 75& 


19 


ltl(9,799' 


5; 


c. Negotiated Noncompetitive 


56U 


101;, 760, 937. 


561! 


101,230,065 


25 


3,530,872 


a 


4, SMALL BUSINESS -TOTAL 


21,113 


4lJ261„657' 


21.059 1 39,602^072 


56 


• 1,659,585 


o 
u 


a. Advertised 


U93 7,399,117 


U7£ 


i 6,61(7,832 


23 


751,285 . 




b. Negotiated Competitive 


4359 


6,694,960 


4351 '"6,-401,434 


8 


293,526 


LiJ 


c. Negotiated Noncompetitive 


16,263 


27,167,580 


16,23£ 


26,552,806 


25 


6lU,77l( 


o 

a. 


5. UNIVERSITIES 


56E 


11,567,93k 


56£ 


ll,i49li,276 


2 


73,658 


< 


6, OTHER NONPROFIT INSTITUTIONS 


52 


162,170 


52 


162,170 






4. 


?, OUTSIDE U.S. & POSSESSIONS 


37 


6,38^,k60 


31 


5,862,1(60 


3 


523,000 




8, Si.'ALL BUSINESS SET ASIDES - 

TOTAL (included in tint 41 


50 


1,298,922 


50 


985,780 


2 


m. i)i? 




a. Individual Set Asides 


50 1,298, 9"22 


50 


985^780 


2 


313,11(2 




b. Class Set Asides 
















NEGOTIATION AUTHORITY 10 U.S.C. 


NO. 


i VALUE 


NEGOTIATION AUTHORITY 
10 U.?,C r . 


NO. 


S VALUE 




S. TOTAL 


28,973 


273,266,598 


2304(a) (S) 






G 


2304(a) (1) 


1257 


12,856,686 


(10) 


2323 


1(5. kill. 090 


dj 


(2) 


78 


2.858,638 


(H) 


13?6 


166,^36.1(33, . 


5 
o 


(3) 


ZL,h9h 


9,737,867 


(12) 






o 


('-) 


36 


L!:?.,113 


(13) 






o 


(5) 


567 


11,193,U96 


(14) 


21 


h, 669, 876 .. 


o 


(6) 


lt3 


6,735,026 


(15) 






m 


0) 






(16) 








m 




- 


(17) 


1758 


* 

;- 1?816,373 



255 



APPENDIX E 



( 


WASTEHLY REPCiTf OF PROCUSEM 

ff.se reverse for remarks) 


£NT ACTIONS 


FOR THE QUART. NDING 

7/1/63 chru 6/30/64 


INCLUDES NASA FORM 507 




REPORTS 

64-1 


NOS. 


THRU. 

6U-1703 


TOt Procurement and Supply Division 
HuaJfjunrtcrs, NASA 


FROM. 

Goddar 


(NASA Installation) 

d Space Flight 


Cente 


r SS/SA/T&D/FS/ 




CATEGORY 


TOTAL 


RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 
AND OPERATIONS 


CONSTRUCTION Or 
FACILITIES 




NO. 


$ VALUE 


NO. 

m 


$ VALUE 
M 


NO. 


* VALUE 
(I) 




1. TOTAL (Xincj 2 Mm 7; 


32,922 


370,142,643 


28,767 


306,687,437 


&* X &» 


59,400,417 




2. IHTRAGOVERHMENTAL 


705 


55,404,400 


6i: 


13,937,359 


11 


41,192,329 


a 


3. LARGE BUSINESS -TOTAL 


9,963 


243,168,380 


9,055 


230,394,362 


110 


11,875,768 


72 

0. 


3. Advertised 


876 


13,099,707 


691 


8,149,178 


73 


4,648,384 




b. Negotiated Competitive 


2,760 


113,125,846 


2,521 


107,548,214 


17 


5,245,392 


< 


c. Negotiated Noncompetitive 


6,327 


116,942,827 


5,843 


114,696,970 


20 


1,981,992 


>- 


4. SMALL BUSINESS -TOTAL 


21,872 


49,336,800 


L8,759 


42,132,023 


83 


4,335,440 


o 

o 
< 


a. Advertised 


1,116 


10,516,818 


816 


7,185,488 


40 


2,365,770 


b. Negotiated Competitive 


5,298 


14,320,914 


4,316 


11,586,770 


18 


1,238,550 


L'J 

n 


c. Negotiated Noncompetitive 


15,458 


24,499,068 


13,627 


23,359,765 


25 


/ <■? !& j «L 4*xt 


o 
a. 


5. UNIVERSITIES 


143 


12,884,535 


143 


12,884,535 


- 


— 


< 


6. OTHER NONPROFIT INSTITUTIONS 


186 


497,058 


150 


473,648 


2 


10,920 


a. 


7. OUTSIDE U.S. & POSSESSIONS 


53 


8,851,470 


47 


6,865,510 


6 


1,985,960 




8. SMALL BUSINESS SET ASIDES - 

TOTAL (included in line 41 


477 


6,254,181 


249 


2,779,236 


27 


^■^ hJfLtP^ \J »J Ji~ 




3. Individual Set Asides 


412 


4,496,060 


236 


2,517,291 


6 


1,173,930 




b. Class Sot Asides 


65 


1,758,121 


13 


261,945 


21 


A. j i.0 J J XUi. 




NEGOTIATION AUTHORITY 10 U.S. C. 


NO. 


S VALUE 


NEGOTIATION AUTHOHlTV 
10 U.S.C. 


NO. 


S VALUE 


o 


9. TOTAL 


30,225 


291,121,718 


2304{a 


) (9) 






G 


2304(a) (1) 


259 


2,649,618 


(10) 


2,766 


48,112,526 


ijl 


(2) 


7 


100,098 


(11) 


3,534 


180,551,372 


u 
o 


(3) 


>2,059 


7,952,473 


(12) 






a. 


(4) 


57 


1,100,861 


(13) 


3 


1,364,441 


5 


(5) 


139 


12,887,129 


(H) 








(G) 


72 


8,848,980 


(15) 








ID 






(1G) 






a. 


(8) 






(17). 


1,329 


27,554,215 , 



259 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED. 



Appendix F 
Oi^anization Claris 



to 



OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR 
Horry J. Goetf 



TRACKINGS. DATA 

SYSTEMS 

4100 



OFFICE OF 

TECHNICAL SERVICES 

4800 



TRACKING 
SYSTEMS 
DIVISION 

4200 



THEORY & 

ANALYSIS 

STAFF 

4110 



OPERATIONS 
DIVISION 

4300 



LANGLEY 

SHOP S. 

MAINTENANCE 

SUPPORT 



i 



OFFICE OF BUSINESS 

ADMINISTRATION 

4900 



LANGLEY 

ADMINISTRATIVE 

SUPPORT 

STAFF 



CONSTRUCTION 

ENGINEERING 

DIVISION 

4810 



ENGINEERING 

DESIGN SERVICES 

DIVISION 

4820 



BUDGET & 

FINANCE 

DIVISION 

4910 



MECHANICAL 

SERVICES 

DIVISION 

4830 



PROCUREMENT 8. 

SUPPLY 

DIVISION 

4930 



SPACE SCIENCE t, 

SATELLITE APPLICATIONS 

9100 



l 



MANNED SATELLITES 
9600 



MANAGEMENT 

ANALYSIS STAFF 

SECURITY OFFICER 

PUBLIC INFO. 

OFFICER 



ORGANIZATION 8. 

PERSONNEL 

DIVISION 

4920 



SPACE SCIENCES 

DIVISION 

9200 



ADMINISTRATIVE 

SERVICES 

DIVISION 

4940 



PAY LOAD 

SYSTEMS 

DIVISION 

9400 



SATELLITE 

APPLICATIONS 

SYSTEMS 

DIVISION 

9300 



FLIGHT 

SYSTEMS 

DIVISION 

9700 



ENGINEERINGS. 

SPECIFICATIONS 

DIVISION 



THEORETICAL 

DIVISION 

9500 



OPERATIONS 

DIVISION 

9900 



TECHNICAL 

INFORMATION 

DIVISION 

4950 



Organization chart, July 1959. 



OFFICE OF THE DJRECTOR 

Harry j. Goett 



OFFICE OF BUSINESS 
ADMINISTRATION 

4900 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 

TRACKING & DATA 

SYSTEMS 

4100 

John T . fengel 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 

SPACE SCIENCE S. SATELLITE 

APPLICATIONS 

9100 
John W. To-nsenti, Jr. 



Robert R. Gilrg.h 



_ — _, 


MANAGEMENT ANALYS 

Sicurlr, Office -t 

B, Hair, McK.id 

foMle lnfsrnol.cn Offic 

L=.r,G. Hillm 


S STAFF 
-4907 



BUDGET & 

FINANCE 

DIVISION 

4910 

Bernard Sijco 



PROCUREMENT 
& SUPPLY 
DIVISION 

4930 

Daniel H. Mgrphey 



ORGANIZATION 

& PERSONNEL 

DIVISION 

4920 



CONSTRUCTION 

ENGINEERING 

DIVISION 

4810 

N. Philip Miller 



ADMINISTRATIVE 
SERVICES 
DIVISION 

4940 
RoUrt C. Cowon 



ENGINEERING 
DESIGN 
SERVICES 
DIVISION 

4820 



TRACKING 
SYSTEMS 

DIVISION 
4200 



MECHANICAL 
SERVICES 
DIVISION 

4830 



THEORY & ANALYSIS 



OPERATIONS 

DIVISION 

4300 

Fred J. Friel, Jr. 



SPACE 
SCIENCES 
DIVISION 

9200- 
>slie H. Meredil 



DATA 
SYSTEMS 

DIVISION 

4400 

>.| es V. L.Saiih 



PAYLOAD 
SYSTEMS 
DIVISION 

9400 



SATELLITE 

APPLICATIONS 

SYSTEMS 

DIVISION 

9300 
Daniel G. Mattir 



THEORETICAL 

DIVISION 

9500 

Robert Jastrow 



FLIGHT 
SYSTEMS 
DIVISION 

9700 

a.ine A. Fogi 



OPERATIONS 
DIVISION 

9900 
rharies W. Ma*ew 



TECHNICAL 

INFORMATION 

DIVISION 

4950 



Organization chart, March I960. 



bo 



to 
On 

~4\ 



DIRECTOR 

Harry J. Goett 

ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR 

Euger.e W. Wosiefewski 




ASStSTAHT DIRECTOR 
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 

Michael J. Vaccaro 



CHIEF 
OF TECHNICAL SERVICES 

Leopold Winkler 



BUDGET & 
FINANCE 
DIVISION 



PROCUREMENT 
6. SUPPLY 
DIVISION 

Gordon H. Tyier 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 
TRACKING 8. DATA SYSTEMS 

John T. Mengel 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 

SPACE SCIENCE & SATELLITE 

APPLICATIONS 

John W. Town send, Jr. 



STAFF 

MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS 

PUBLIC INFORMATION 

LEGAL COUNSEL 

PATENT COUNSEL 

SECURITY 



ORGANIZATION 

& PERSONNEL 

DIVISION 

R. W. Hutchison 



MANAGEMENT 
SERVICES 
DIVISION 

Gerald E. Griffin 
(Acting) 



FACILITIES 

ENGINEERING 

DIVISION 

N. Philip Miller 



TESTS. 

EVALUATION 

DIVISION 

John C. New 



TRACKING SYSTEMS 
DIVISION 

C. A. Schroeder 



FABRICATION 
DIVISION 

Mourice Levinsohn 



THEORY 6. ANALYSIS STAFF 

Joseph W. Siry 



OPERATIONS 
DIVISION 

■ Fred J. Friel, Jr. 



SPACE SCIENCES 
DIVISION 

Leslie H.Meredith 



DATA SYSTEMS 
DIVISION 

Charles V. L. Smith 



PAYLOAD SYSTEMS 
DIVISION 

N. W. Matthews 



SATELLITE 

APPLICATIONS 

SYSTEMS 

DIVISION 

Daniel G. Moiur 



THEORETICAL 
DIVISION 

Robert Jasfrow 



TECHNICAL 

INFORMATION 

DIVISION 

H.J. Fivehouse 
(Acting) 



Organization chart, January 1961. 



DIRECTOR 

Harry J. Goett 



ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR 

Eugene W. Wastelewski 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 
FOR ADMINISTRATION 

M. J. Vaccaro 



CHIEF OF 
TECHNICAL SERVICES 



FINANCIAL 

MANAGEMENT 

DIVISION 



MANAGEMENT 
SERVICES 

DIVISION 



LEGAL COUNSEL 

C. Kearney 
PATENT COUNSEL 
b L. Rawicz 
PUBLIC INFO 
OFFICER 



PROJECT 
SUPPORT 
OFFICE 



ORGANIZATION 

6. PERSONNEL 

DIVISION 



PROCUREMENT 
& SUPPLY 
DIVISION 



Ox 



TECHNICAL 

INFORMATION 

DIVISION 



FACILITIES 

ENGINEERING 

DIVISION 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 
TRACKING & DATA SYSTEMS 

J. T. Mengel 

DEPUTY ASS'T DIRECTOR 

FOR OPERATIONS 

0. Covington 



TRACKING 
SYSTEMS 
DIVISION 



TESTS. 

EVALUATION 

DIVISION 



FABRICATION 

DIVISION 



DATA 
SYSTEMS 
DIVISION 



THEO. 
S ANAL. 
OFFICE 



ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 

SPACE SCIENCE & 

SATELLITE APPLICATIONS 

J. W. Town send, Jr. 



SPACE PROJECTS 

INTEGRATION 

OFFICE 



OPERATIONS 

& SUPPORT 

DIVISION 



SPACE DATA 

ACQUISITION 

DIVISION 



MANNED SPACE 

FLIGHT SUPPORT 

DIVISION 



INSTITUTE FOR 
SPACE STUDIES 



i 



SPACECRAFT 

INTEGRATION 

£ SOUNDING 

ROCKET DIVISION 

R. Baumann 



SPACE 
SCIENCES 
DIVISION 



SPACECRAFT 

TECHNOLOGY 
DIVISION 



ll 



SYSTEMS 
REVIEW 
GROUP 



SPACECRAFT 
SYSTEMS & 
PROJECTS 
DIVISION 

D. Maiur 



THEORETICAL 

DIVISION 



AEROMOMY & 

METEOROLOGY 

DIVISION 



Organization charts November 1962* 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED. 



Appendix 6 

Scientific Exploration of Spice 
and Its Challenge to Education* 

Harry J. Goett 

First Director, Goddard Space Flight Center 



IT IS A PRIVILEGE to be with you in these halls which sparked the mind of the 
father of the Space Age, Dr. Robert H. Goddard. Those of us engaged in the space 
program have a very special regard for Dr. Goddard. We see in him the embodiment of 
the curious and far-seeing scholar who best exemplified the theme of this convocation— 
the partnership of engineering and science in progress. Two generations ago, well 
ahead of his time, he gave us the theory and tools with which to reach into the universe 
in our never ending quest for knowledge. Those who read his reports cannot help but 
being impressed by the fact that it was due to the unique combination of the scientist 
and engineer in a single individual that enabled Dr. Goddard to be as far ahead of 
his time as he was. 

We are now on the threshold of the Space Age which will require the same combina- 
tion of the vision and practical application which characterized Dr. Goddard's 
work. Just as some 500 years ago man ventured beyond the Mediterranean, leading to 
the discovery of the New World, so today, man is breaking his earth-bound shackles to 
venture into space. Aside from the technological advances to which we are witness 
today, we must expect possibly even greater changes to our political, social, and educa- 
tional concepts. 

Those earlier explorations extended the horizons of the times in a literal sense, but 
even more important, they opened up new possibilities and concepts. They forced the 
people out of their established patterns of thought and produced an intellectual ferment 
and interest in new ideas necessary for the scientific revolution and for the political and 
social advances of the 18th century. These explorations were the most important 
events of that time; now some 500 years later, the space program can potentially play 
that same role. 

The challenge posed by the Space Age is therefore addressed not only to the scientist 
and the engineer who are directly engaged in its projects; more importantly, it is a 
challenge to our society and, in particular, to its educational processes. The physicist, 
the astronomer, the geodesist, the meteorologist, the geologist, and the astrophysicist, all 
have new frontiers open to them. Their job as scientists is to bridge the gap between 

* Presented at Centennial Convocation Luncheon, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, 
Mass., October 8, 1964. 

267 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

the known and the unknown. The question we must ask ourselves is whether they are 
being educated in such a manner as to prepare them to meet the challenges which the 
new laboratory of space has opened up to them. 

The job of the engineer, in contrast to that of the scientist, is to use the resources of 
nature for social ends— to bridge the gap between the known and the desired. The labo- 
ratory of space has already opened up a new "known" to the engineer in the field of 
communications and meteorology. The experimental communication satellites— Syncom, 
Relay, Telstar, and Echo— have answered many of the questions that used to exist relative 
to the use of satellites for communication. The job of the engineer now is to translate 
this knowledge into a system that will be better than the under-ocean cables. 

The experimental meteorological satellites— Tiros and Nimbus— have demonstrated 
the utility of cloud pictures taken from satellites as an additional operational tool for 
weather forecasting. The job of the engineer is to translate this knowledge into a prac- 
tical and economical operational system. 

The second question we must ask is whether the engineer is being educated in such a 
manner as to enable him to exploit these new developments in space. 

We have seen the changes made during the past 30 years to adapt engineering educa- 
tion first to the new field of aeronautical and guided-missile engineering, later to the use 
of radar, still later to the adaptation of nuclear energy to practical uses. Space explora- 



Goddard Center missions. 





Divisions of space in the earth-sun region. 

tion will continue this trend. I think that even closer collaboration than heretofore is 
going to be required between the scientist and the engineer. Also there is growing a 
need for closer interdisciplinary collaboration between scientific specialists in various 
fields. Have our universities who are now training these scientists and engineers reacted 
to this trend? 

To seek a basis for an answer to the questions I have posed, I would like to digress 
and describe our space efforts from the viewpoint from which I see it. This viewpoint 
tends to emphasize, as you will see, the involvement of the various scientific disciplines 
and the close collaboration that is required with the engineer. 

The first illustration gives a somewhat kaleidoscopic view of the variety of the 
projects involved. We have launched some 35 major U.S. satellites for various scientific 
communication and meteorological purposes. You can see the Syncom, Relay, and 
Echo communications satellites. Tiros and Nimbus satellites have served as experi- 
mental meteorological satellites. The group on the remainder of the illustration are 
the scientific satellites with which we are literally exploring space. Quite appropriately 
many of them are named Explorers. 

This next picture shows our map of space which is being explored by these satel- 
lites. This map might be compared with the maps of the world that were probably 
available to the early maritime explorers. Space is not an empty void but can be 
divided into various regions of distinctly different characteristics that are emphasized on 
this picture. First, there is the near-earth region, the upper atmosphere and the 
ionosphere. Then, there is the region called the magnetosphere in which the magnetic 
field lines anchored in the earth extend out to space. They form a gigantic magnetic 
shield around the earth which makes this region quite different from that on out 



269 



s-\ 



a.rf«l 




vp—yt- — fy/// / 


X .'...\ 


...'■' V"' ■'-- v'.' ':;':■' 










'v.; 



, V 



Affi» 



V" 



Scope of Tiros photographs. 



Tiros coverage, 
May 20, 1960 










further. This region, labeled the "interplanetary medium," is essentially uninfluenced by 
the earth's magnetic field. Finally, there is the sun which might on our map be given 
the same prominence as was India on the map of the early explorers, since, as you will 
see, the sun is the basic cause of many of the variations observed in the other regions of 
space. 

Just as the early explorers initially ventured out only a short distance from their home 
ports, our first ventures into space were in the near-earth region. Satellites such as 
Tiros and Nimbus go up into orbits some 300 to 600 miles and look down on the earth 
as shown in the next illustration. From a satellite such as this, we have obtained data 
on the upper atmosphere. This next picture is a striking example of the result. On the 
lower portion, you can see a montage made up of some 64 successive pictures taken by 
Tiros. You can observe the huge cyclonic disturbance that has been mapped extending 

270 



v. nm 



">*> 



TIROS ¥11, 15 j± T»» [ |l 
MADIR &^G1E 0-40"' 
22-29 JANUARY K'64 







60° 



40- ■ _x,r*---^ 
T'-V ;/ 



w 



60 



,1 



100 i20 U0" 160" 180" 160" K0* 120" 100" 30" 40" 40' 




Temperature distribution derived from Tiros VII. 



all the way from Wake Island in the Pacific to the Great Lakes. This was the first 
opportunity for meteorologists to observe weather patterns on such a massive global 
scale. Cloud pictures such as this are now being used daily by the operational 
meteorologists in their weather predictions. They are also serving a more basic research 
purpose in that they give an insight into the dynamics of the weather. We can look 
forward to much more accurate long-range weather forecasting as our understanding 
of this phenomenon improves. 

Another type of experimental information made available by Tiros to the upper 

altitude physicists is shown in the next illustration. This is a plot of global temperature 

distribution obtained from infrared instrumentation. It is especially notable because 

it depicts the phenomenon of stratospheric warming shown in this region. This phe- 

^ nomenon has been suspected to be the trigger of weather disturbances and to be traceable 



271 




m 



in some manner to solar activity. The data are now 
being studied by upper altitude physicists in an 
attempt to obtain a better understanding of this 
phenomenon, with the eventual hope of using ob- 
servations such as this for long-range weather pre- 
diction. 

The picture on the left shows a photograph 
made by Nimbus infrared techniques. Here you see 
a strip approximately 1,500 miles extending all the 
way up from the Antarctic to close to the North 
Pole. These pictures are less than a month old but 
already they are under detailed scrutiny by meteor- 
ologists who consider them to be a gold mine of 
data. They give a global picture of the cloud 
patterns and enable an understanding of cause and 
effect in the movement of the weather, not hereto- 
fore obtainable in observations from the ground. 
Features observable include: 

Antarctic ice shelf 

Low pressure system generated at polar fronts 

Location of jet streams 

Intertropical convergence zone 

Volcanoes 

Ocean currents 

To analyze this global picture some of the fol- 
lowing disciplines are involved: meteorologist, up- 
per altitude physicist, geologist, and oceanographer. 

The next area of exploration has been the iono- 
sphere—the region of highly ionized particles that 
exists above what is conventionally considered the 
upper atmosphere. We have launched several satel- 
lites into elliptical orbits; they traverse the altitudes 
from 200 to 800 miles. These satellites are still 
pretty close to the earth in terms of our total area 
of exploration. From such satellites, we measured 
for the first time the temperature in this region 
and found that it fluctuated in a 27-day cycle cor- 
responding to the time of rotation of the sun which 
shows clearly the close link between solar activity 
and events in our upper atmosphere. These satel- 
lites also discovered a helium layer which fluctuates 
and varies in thickness with solar conditions. 
Finally, there were measured flows of currents in 
the ionosphere and observations were made of the 
patterns of whistlers into outer space. 

Our exploration was next pushed out into the 



Infrared data obtained from Nimbus I. 
Shown is a "slice" of the globe from the 
Arctic to the South Pole. 



APPENDIX G 

magnetosphere. Satellites were sent up to investigate the energetic particle population of 
the Van Allen radiation belts. This information is not only important in our under- 
standing of sun-earth relationships but also is essential if we are to acquire the engineering 
information required for the design of communication and meteorological satellites. Their 
lifetime will be strongly dependent on the radiation environment found in this region. 

The next figure is a pictorial description of what this latter group of satellites 
found. As you can see, there is shown the orbit of the first Interplanetary Monitoring 
Platform (IMP) which carried it out to 122,000 miles. When it got there, it found 
that there was a "solar wind" blowing. This wind sometimes is a gentle breeze and on 
other occasions grows into what might be termed a hurricane. Of course it is not a 
wind in the conventional sense but is a stream of energetic particles (electrons and protons 
of varying energy) that are ejected by the sun. During quiet sun conditions, there is 
gentle breeze and during a solar flare, the number and intensity of these particles in- 
crease. It is through this solar wind that the sun has a profound effect, on what goes 
on in our upper atmosphere. The earth is like a rock in a stream with a bow wave 
in front of it formed by the shock front that marks the boundary of the solar wind 
and the magnetosphere. Not shown is a wake behind the earth. One of our orbits is 
shown here— the satellite got in the moon's wake and we were able to observe the effect 
of the moon on this solar wind. 

As you will observe, the sun has been the basic cause of all the phenomena that were 
observed by these various satellites. Therefore, the results obtained from the Orbiting 
Solar Observatory were of particular interest since they enabled us to observe 
what was going on in the sun and causing these variations. Man has been ob- 
serving the sun for thousands of years. The existence of the early sun worshipers 
attests to the fact that the importance of the sun to terrestrial conditions has been 
appreciated for many centuries. However, during all this time, we have been looking at 
the sun as if through translucent blindfold. The earth's atmosphere and the magneto- 
sphere filter out much of the solar radiation. Thus, earth-based instruments have only 
been able to observe the sun in a relatively narrow visual band and at radio wave- 
lengths. The Orbiting Solar Observatory was able for the first time to observe the sun 
in the shorter wave ultraviolet, gamma ray and X-ray regions. New light has been shed 



The upper atmosphere. 



Earth-sun relationships. 



The earth and "empty" space. 















^aesy 



<tW.Axi 






\:'^\yty^ 



Orbit of Orbiting Solar Observatory I. 



on the relation between solar flares and the associated variation in the solar wind 
fluctuations observed from IMP. 

When there is a solar flare there apparently is a huge magnetic bottle that is exploded 
from the sun. Contained within this bottle are energetic particles, electrons, and pro- 
tons traveling at varying speeds. Anything external to the bottle, such as galactic cosmic 
rays, cannot penetrate within the bottle and bounces off. This magnetic bottle gradu- 
ally expands and if headed toward the earth impinges on the earth's magnetospfaere 
and distorts it. Many of the energetic particles bounce off the magnetic shield formed 
by the magnetosphere, others get injected into the magnetosphere and in due course 
form the Van Allen belt, as they are commonly called. These particles ride the mag- 
netic lines which exist in the magnetosphere and in due course impinge on the upper 
atmosphere in the auroral regions and cause changes in temperature that I have pre- 
viously referred to and in some manner influence our cyclic variations in climate. 

My object in giving this broadbrush sketch of the information that has been brought 
back from space has not been to convey any detailed understanding of the implications 
of these results. The point that I hope has been conveyed is that it has commanded the 
efforts of a broad spectrum of scientific disciplines. These include the solar physicist 
who is involved in the observation of the sun, the nuclear physicist who applies his 
techniques to the observation of the energetic population in the interplanetary space 
and the radiation belts; the magnetic field specialist who has been mapping the variation 
in the magnetic lines of the magnetosphere and studying the collision process with the 
solar wind; the ionospheric physicist who has been studying the electron distribution in 
the ionosphere and its variation with the solar cycle; the upper atmosphere physicist 

275 



Deflection of cosmic and 
solar particles by the earth's 
magnetic field. 




Effect of solar flare on the 
earth's magnetic field. 



who has been trying to correlate observed atmospheric temperature and composi- 
tion variations with the events in the other regions; and, finally, the meteorologist who 
has been trying to put together the interrelated effects of all these phenomena on the 
earth's weather. This interrelation between the various disciplines, I suggest, is a 
unique feature of space science which should be taken into account in the educational 
jrocess. It is in distinct contrast to the trend toward specialization that has character- 



ized the past 30 years. The aerodynamicist could concentrate on his wind tunnel with 
relatively little reference to other disciplines; the nuclear physicist could work with his 
reactor and the biologist with his microscope in the same relative isolation. Creativity 
could flourish because it was the era of the individual worker; there were fewer technical 
committees, budget reviews, administrators and the like; who could kill an idea while it 
was still in the formative stage. 

The new era promised by the Space Age perhaps connotes a return to what was once 
called natural philosophy. The unifying element of these developments of the space 
program is a general spirit of inquiry into the nature of the external physical world. It 
represents a redirection of interest away from the increasingly narrow specialization 
which has characterized the physical sciences in the last decades. 

276 



APPENDIX G 

The second distinguishing feature of research in space is the fact that scientists have 
only been able to make the observations that I have discussed by virtue of the hardware 
developed by the engineer. This is in distinct contrast to the biologist who could invest 
in a good microscope and do research comparable with the best. 

The control equipment which enables the pointing of instruments with precise accu- 
racy at the sun, the solar power supplies which supply the energy to run the experiments, 
the communication devices which bring back the information from outer space, all are 
developments which must come from engineers. In one sense, the normal situation has 
been reversed. Generally, the engineer exploits and puts to practical use the knowledge 
acquired by the scientist. But in space research, the scientist seems to be particularly 
dependent on the engineer to develop new devices and techniques. Engineering, in this 
context, has become a more creative and trail-blazing profession. 

The third and possibly most imposing challenge of the Space Age is the potential 
feed-back of its developments into the civilian economy. In the long run, the justifica- 
tion of our space budget must stand on this "fallout." 

Everyone knows the drive for miniaturization of electronic components to reduce 
weight and size of space applications. We can foresee the pressure for electronic compo- 
nents to operate at very high temperature. There is a need for new developments for 
electronic apparatus to operate in the hard vacuum of space. New materials must be 
developed for the space environment. There are applications for cryogenics and new 
power sources. There is a special need for insuring long periods of unattended opera- 
tion of mechanical equipment in space. Development is needed of methods of lubrica- 
tion in high vacuum and the creation of new sensing and control devices. Means of 
medical research of man in space must be developed. 

These are some of the most immediate returns of space exploration. In due course, 
they will surely be exploited by our civilian economy. But I submit that the engineer- 
ing profession is confronted with a new challenge in its job of converting the known 
into the desired. These developments will not find their way into the civilian economy 
unless the engineer has the creative initiative necessary for their application. 

These three developments of the Space Age present a new challenge to our educational 
process. They are, in the first place, the interdisciplinary collaboration of various 
scientific specialists. Secondly, the leadership of the engineer in developing new tech- 
niques to enable the scientist to achieve his objectives in space. And thirdly, the crea- 
tive thinking which is required to apply the new developments of space to our civilian 
economy. 

If I were an educator, I would conclude this talk by suggesting some solutions. How- 
ever, I claim no competence in the educational field; my job is to produce reliable 
satellites. There, I will terminate my discussion by suggesting a reexamination of the 
educational process and its curriculum by those competent in this field to see whether 
they think it has been properly adjusted to meet these new challenges of the Space Age. 



277 



PRECEDING 'PXGtf TOffilK TCoTWflftED. 



Appendix 1 
Exhibits 



[E EXHIBITS COLLECTED in this appendix are available to the general public. 
lowever, it was felt that the value of this work as a historical tool would be much 
anced if it contained some of the pertinent historical documents collected in one 
:e. Therefore, selected key documents considered important for the formation and 
y years of Goddard Space Flight Center have been assembled in this appendix. 

Exhibits 

•Release by Senator J. Glenn Beall, Maryland Aug. 1, 1958 

•NASA General Directive No. 1 Sept. 25, 1958 

•White House Press Release Oct. 1, 1958 

■Executive Order No. 10783 Oct. 1, 1958 

■NASA Fact Sheet Oct. 1, 1958 

-Beltsville Space Center General Notice No. 1 Jan. 15, 1959 

•NASA General Notice Jan. 22, 1959 

■Beltsville Space Center Memorandum for the Record Feb. 16, 1959 

■Beltsville Space Center Memordandum for All Concerned March 6, 1959 

■NASA Memorandum from the Administrator May 1, 1959 

GSFC Memorandum to Assistant Directors and Division Chiefs May 1, 1959 

NASA News Release No. 59-125 May 1, 1959 

GSFC News Release No. 3-10-61-5 March 12, 1959 

GSFC News Release No. 3/14/61-1 March 14, 1961 

■Historical Background and Communications Satellite Act of 1962 (Undated) 

■Public Law 87-624, Communications Satellite Act of 1962 Aug. 31, 1962 



279 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



EXHIBIT 1 
COPY 



Release by Senator J. Glenn Beall, Maryland, at Washington, D.C. 
August 1, 1958 



office 



U.S. Senator Beall today announced that the new "outer space agency" 
will establish its laboratory and plant in Maryland. "The location at 
Greenbelt, Md., is an ideal location for the new Government agency," 
Senator Beall said, "because of its accessibility to the nation's 
capital and its proximity to numerous important highways and others to 
bo built." 

Senator Beall has been in consultation on the matter of location 
with officials of the new agency to be known as the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration and expressed himself as "greatly 
pleased with the decision" to locate in Maryland. The senator pointed 
out that the space laboratory and plant are to be established on land 
already owned by the federal government, "thus saving the taxpayers 
what would have been added expense of land purchase . " 

"The Greenbelt laboratory will employ 650 technicians, mostly 
electronic engineers and some chemists," Sen. Beall said, adding that, 
"all research work in connection with outer space programs will be 
conducted at the Greenbelt installation." 

Sen. Beall said further: "Construction work on the new plant is 
expected to get underway immediately in view of the fact that legisla- 
tion authorizing appropriations of $47,800,000 for the construction 
and installation of the space project center (S4208) was passed by the 
Senate on Friday and is expected to clear the House on Monday. " 



280 



APPENDIX H 



EXHIBIT 2 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
Washington, D.C. 

September 25, 1958 

NASA GENERAL DIRECTIVE NO. 1 

Subject: Proclamation on organization of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration 

On this date I have issued the following proclamation, to be 
published in the Federal Register: 

A PROCLAM AT ION 

"1 . By virtue of the authority vested in me by the National 
Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568, approved July 29, 
1958, 72 Stat. 426, 433) I hereby proclaim that as of the close of 
business September 30, 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration has been organized and is prepared to discharge the 
duties and exercise the powers conferred upon it by said law. 

"2. In accordance with the provisions of the Act, all functions, 
powers, duties, and obligations, and all real and personal property, 
personnel (other than members of the Committee), funds, and records of 
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are hereby transferred 
to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

"3. The existing National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 
Committees on Aircraft, Missile and Spacecraft Aerodynamics; Aircraft, 
Missile and Spacecraft Propulsion; Aircraft, Missile and Spacecraft 
Construction; Aircraft Operating Problems; the Industry Consulting 
Committee and the Special Committee on Space Technology and their 
subcommittees are hereby reconstituted advisory committees to the 
Administration through December 31, 1958, for the purpose of bringing 
their current work to an orderly completion. 

"4. Existing policies, regulations, authorities, and procedural 
instructions governing the activities of the National Advisory Committee 
for Aeronautics, not inconsistent with law, and which are applicable 
to the activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
shall be continued in effect until superseded or revoked. 

"5. The Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, the Ames Aeronautical 
Laboratory, and the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory are hereby 
renamed the Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the 
Lewis Research Center, respectively. 

"DONE at the City of Washington, District of Columbia this 25th day 
of September in the year Nineteen Hundred and Fifty-Eight . " 

/s/ T. Keith Glannan 

281 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



EXHIBIT 3 
COPY 



FOR RELEASE AT 2:00 P.M., EDT October 1, 1958 

James C. Hagerty, Press Secretary to the President 

THE WHITE HOUSE 

The President today signed an Executive Order transferring certain 
functions with respect to space activities from the Department of 
Defense to the new National Aeronautics and Space Administration which 
comes into existence today under the National Aeronautics and Space 
Act of 1958 enacted by Congress last July. 

Under the Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is 
to be responsible for aeronautical and space activities sponsored by 
the United States, except that activities peculiar to or primarily 
associated with the development of weapons systems, military operations, 
or the defense of the United States shall be the responsibility of 
the Department of Defense. The determination as to which agency has 
responsibility for any such activity is to be made by the President 
with the advice of the National Aeronautics and Space Council 

The present Executive Order transfers from Defense to the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration responsibility for non-military 
space projects such as lunar probes and scientific satellites which 
have been initiated by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the 
Department of Defense pending the establishment of the new civilian 
agency. It also transfers from Defense certain space-related projects 
of the Air Force, principally in the field of "super-thrust" propulsion 
system^ which are primarily applicable to future space vehicles. The 
order also gives to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
responsibility for Project Vanguard, the United States Scientific 
Satellite program which has heretofore been the responsibility of the 
Department of the Navy. 

The order transfers from Defense to the NASA the amount of $117 million 
in connection with the Advanced Research Projects Agency and Air Force 
projects being transferred. This is the same as the amount anticipated 
to be transferred for these activities in the initial budget estimates 
for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration submitted to 
Congress in August. The particular projects to be transferred are to 
be identified in one or more supplementary Executive Orders. The 
transfers of funds necessary in connection with Project Vanguard are to 
be determined by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget. 

Details regarding transfers of records, property, facilities, and 
civilian personnel, in connection with all of the transfers covered 
in the present Executive Order, are to be carried out as agreed upon 
between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the 
Department of Defense. 

282 



APPENDIX H 



EXHIBIT 4 
COPY 



EXECUTIVE ORDER 

No. 10783 

TRANSFERRING CERTAIN FUNCTIONS FROM THE 
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TO THE NATIONAL 
AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the National Aeronautics 
and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568; 72 Stat. 426), and as 
President of the United States, it is ordered as follows: 

Section 1. All functions (including powers, duties, activities, 
and parts of functions) of the Department of Defense, or of any officer 
or organizational entity of the Department of Defense, with respect 
to the following are hereby transferred to the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration: 

(a) The United States Scientific Satellite project (Project 
Vanguard) . 

(b) Specific projects of the Advanced Research Projects Agency and 
of the Department of the Air Force which relate to space activities 
(including lunar probes, scientific satellites, and super-thrust 
boosters) within the scope of the functions devolving upon the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration under the provisions of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, and which shall be more 
particularly described in one or more supplementary Executive orders 
hereafter issued. 

Section 2. (a) The Secretary of the Treasury shall immediately 
transfer to the appropriation of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration for "Research and Development", from such appropriations 
of the Department of Defense as the Secretary of Defense shall 
designate, the following amounts: 

(1) In connection with the transfer of functions provided for in 
section 1(a) hereof, such amounts as shall be determined by the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget pursuant to section 202(b) of 
the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c 

(b) and section l(k) of Executive Order No. 10530 of May 11, 1954. 

(2) In connection with the transfer of functions of the Advanced 
Research Projects Agency provided for in section 1(b) hereof, 
$59,200,000. 

(3) In connection with the transfer of functions of the 
Department of the Air Force provided for in section 1(b) hereof, 
$57,800,000. 

(b) In connection with the transfer of functions provided for in 
section 1, appropriate transfers of records, property, facilities, and 
civilian personnel shall be carried out as may be agreed upon from time 
to time by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the 
Department of Defense. 

/s/ DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER 
THE WHITE HOUSE 
October 1, 1958 

283 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



EXHIBIT 5 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
Washington 25, D.C. 

For immediate release 
Tuesday, October 1, 1958 

FACT SHEET ON THE TRANSFER OF CERTAIN FUNCTIONS FROM DEPARTMENT 
OF DEFENSE TO THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was 
established by Public Law 85-568 on July 29, 1958. In accordance with 
the Act, T. Keith Glennan, Administrator of NASA and president-on-leave 
from Case Institute of Technology, issued a proclamation on September 
25, 1958, which stated in part. "I hereby proclaim that the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration has been organized and is prepared 
to discharge the duties and exercise the powers conferred upon it . . ." 

Prior to the enactment of this legislation, the President wrote 
to the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the National Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics concerning his special message to the 
Congress on April 2, 1958 which recommended establishment of NASA. 

In his memorandum, the President said: "The Department of Defense 
and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics should jointly 
review the pertinent programs currently underway within or planned by 
the Department, including those authorized by me on March 27, 1958, and 
should recommend to me as soon as possible which of these programs 
should be placed under the direction of the new (space) Agency. It 
should be noted that Public Law 85-325 authorized the Department of 
Defense for a period of one year; period will come to a close February 
12, 1959. Since the new agency will absorb the going organization 
of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, it should be capable 
of assuming the appropriate programs prior to the date." 

The executive order of the President, which transfers certain 
functions from the Department of Defense to the NASA, is a result of 
the above stated review. 

In accordance with the executive order, the following projects are 
being transferred to the NASA by the Department of Defense. 

1. The United States Scientific Satellite Project (Project 
Vanguard) . The transfer of this project will include approximately 150 
civilian scientific personnel under the direction of Dr. John P. Hagen, 
Director, Project Vanguard, Naval Research Laboratory. 

2. Four Lunar Probes and their instrumentation, and three satellite 
projects. These projects are being transferred from the Advanced 
Research Projects Agency. Two of the Lunar Probes are assigned to 

the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division and two to the Army Ballistic 

284 



APPENDIX H 

Missile Agency. The three satellite projects are assigned to the 
Army Ballistic Missile Agency and call for putting into orbit two 
inflatable spheres — one 12 feet in diameter, and the other 100 feet in 
diameter — and a cosmic ray satellite. 

The total cost of these ARPA programs is approximately $35.5 
million, most of which was funded in Fiscal Year 58. The Fiscal Year 
59 funds, necessary to complete these programs, is $9.6 million and 
will be made available to NASA. Additionally, $49.6 million originally 
designated for scientific projects will be transferred to NASA from 
ARPA. 

3. A number of engine development research programs now being 
carried on in the Department of the Air Force will be transferred to 
NASA. These include basic research programs in such areas as nuclear 
rocket engines, fluorine engines, and the 1 million lb thrust single 
chamber engine study and development. As specified in the executive 
order, $57.8 million will be transferred from the Air Force to NASA for 
these programs. 

The Advanced Research Projects Agency will continue work in 
activities peculiar to, or primarily associated with, the development 
of weapons systems for the defense of the United States, including the 
research and development necessary to make effective projects for the 
defense of the United States. At the present time, while ARPA has 
underway projects of considerable priority related to anti-missile 
defense and solid propellants, it is devoting major attention to 
continuing military projects, which include satellite programs from 
warning, navigation, communications, meteorology, and other military 
exploratory space programs. Space components and activities necessary 
to these projects, such as the development of super thrust boosters and 
high energy upper stages are also being carried on by ARPA. A program 
to put man into space is being pursued jointly by ARPA and NASA. 

The ARPA military budget for 1959 is approximately $420 million. 



285 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



EXHIBIT 6 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

BELTSVILLE SPACE CENTER 

Washington 25, D.C. 

4102-AN:lds 

15 January 1959 

GENERAL NOTICE NO. 1 

Subj : Designation as Beltsville Space Center 

1. By action of the Administrator, four divisions have been designated 
as comprising the Beltsville Space Center of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration. The official address is as follows: 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Beltsville Space Center 
4555 Overlook Avenue, S.W. 
Washington 25, D.C. 

Telephone: JOhnson 2-6610 
Dial Code: 172 
TWX: WA 134 
Military Routing: RBEPRL 
Messenger Mail: Stop 10 

All members of the Beltsville Space Center are requested to use the 
new address immediately, and to disseminate it as widely as is 
necessary. The local Post Office and telephone company are being 

notified of this action. 

2. New stationery has been ordered, and will be distributed as soon as 
it is received. The stationery masthead will give the address as it 
appears above, and also will list the three scientific divisions and 
the telephone and TWX numbers. The Vanguard Division may continue to 
use its Yanguard stationery until the stock on hand is exhausted or 
until directed otherwise. Vanguard secretaries should type above the 
printed masthead the words BELTSVILLE SPACE CENTER. 

3. The Space Sciences Division and Vanguard Division will be located 

at NRL. Vanguard will continue to occupy its present spaces, but there 
may be some adjustments from time to time, with a view toward achieving 
better use of what space is available. The Space Sciences Division 
will move into space being prepared for it in Building 5-7 of the NGF 
annex, adjacent to NRL Building 71. This move will probably take place 
within the next three months. The Theoretical Division will remain 



286 



APPENDIX H 

physically with NASA Headquarters until the Beltsville facilities are 
ready. 

4. All divisions of the Beltsville Space Center will receive their 
administrative support, generally speaking, from the central adminis- 
trative group being established at NRL under my direction. There will 
be exceptions to this made necessary by the physical separation of 
units and individuals. For example, for the immediate future, pay- 
rolling, travel, and some supply support for the Theoretical Division 
will be furnished by Headquarters. 

5. The NRL Code Directory will show some listings for the Beltsville 
Space Center, but unfortunately there is not enough space to show all 
of the listings we requested. All branch listings could not be accom- 
modated, so no branches will be listed. Service functions will be 
listed since they are believed to be subject to call frequently enough 
to be appropriate to the NRL Code Directory. However, we have dupli- 
cated, and are distributing with this memorandum, a supplement to 

the NRL Code Directory. We shall publish a complete directory for your 
use as soon as we can. 

6. The telephone JOhnson 2-6610 is answered at the NRL switchboard by 
NRL operators. The separate number differs from NRL's only as a matter 
of identification, but you are requested NOT to use JOhnson 3-6600 
unless you are unable to reach the board through JOhnson 2-6610. The 
change in trunk line number has absolutely no effect on your extension 
number . The government interdepartmental dial code remains the same 

as for NRL (172) . There will be installed in the near future a two-way 
tie line between the Headquarters switchboard, and the NRL switchboard, 
which will permit transfer of incoming calls between the two boards. 
This means that a party calling JOhnson 2-6610 for a person who is 
located at Headquarters can have his call transferred to the Head- 
quarters board without having to place a new call, and vice versa. 

7. Various notices and instructions will be published from time to 
time, to advise all personnel of policies and procedures governing the 
administration of the Beltsville Space Center. Until policies and 
precedents are established, many actions will be taken on an individual 
case basis. This is necessary in day-to-day operations; however, the 
fact that changes in or new procedures are established frequently should 
come as no surprise under the circumstances. 

A formal beneficial suggestion program has not yet been established, 
but constructive suggestions and the pointing out of deficiencies are 
always welcome. 

/s/ T. E. Jenkins 

Administrative Officer 

Distribution: 
Construction Division 
Space Science 
Theoretical Division 
Vanguard Division 



287 



Code 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 




NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
BELTSVILLE SPACE CENTER 

VANGUARD DIVISION 



Bldg. Room Tele 



4100 Chief, Vanguard Division 

4103 Asst Chief for Operations 

4104 Management Coordinator 

4105 Science Liaison Coordi- 

nator 
4120 Vehicle Systems Branch 
4130 Space Tracking Systems 

Branch 
4140 Theory and Planning Staff 
4150 Vanguard Operations Group 

Manager 
4162 Administrative Assistant 
4170 Payload Systems Branch 
4180 Data Systems Branch 



Dr. 


J. P. 


Hagen 


12 


369 


447 


CDR 


L.I. 


Baird 


12 


372 


673 


Mr. 


H.E. 


Canney, 








Jr. 




12 


371A 


533 


Mr. 


R.W. 


St roup 


12 


366 


445 


Mr. 


D.G. 


Mazur 


2 


254A 


502 


Mr. 


J.T. 


Mengel 


42 


319 


2427 


Dr. 


J.W. 


Siry 


30 


322 


2347 


Mr. 


R.H. 


Gray 


AMR 


ULster 


3-4515 


Mr. 


R.W. 


Batchelder 


AMR 


ULster 


3-2618 


Mr. 


N.W. 


Matthews 


60 


406 


384 


Dr. 


J. P. 


Hagen 


12 


369 


477 



SPACE SCIENCES DIVISION 



4200 Chief, Space Sciences 
Division 



4203 


Consultant 


4210 


Fields and Particles 




Branch 


4220 


Planetary Atmosphere 




Branch 


4230 


Astronomy Branch 


4240 


Solar Physics Branch 


4250 


Meteorology Branch 


4260 


Instruments Branch 



Mr. J.W. Torasend, 

Jr. 
Mr. J.C. Seddon 
Dr. L.H. Meredith 

Mr. H.E. LaGow 



Hq. 


T602 


128- 
7815 


42 


415 


345 


42 


314 


594 



42 



424 



358 



Dr. J.E. 


Kupperian, 


30 


222 


893 


Jr. 










Dr. J.C. 


Lindsay 


Hq. 


T605 


128- 
7723 


Mr. J.W. 


Townsend, 


*Hq. 


T602 


128- 


Jr. 








7815 


Mr. K.R. 


Medrow 


42 


410 


518 



THEORETICAL DIVISION 



4300 Chief, Theoretical 
Division 



Dr. R. Jastrow 



Hq. T611 



128- 
7721 



288 



APPENDIX H 



CONSTRUCTION DIVISION 








l Mr. N.P. Miller 


Hq. 


T204 


128- 
7523 



Chief, Construction 
Division 



ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE 

4100A NASA Administrative Mr. T.E. Jenkins 

Officer 

4100B Asst Administrative Mr. A. P. Nagy 

Officer 

4100C Administrative Services Mr. R.C. Cowan 

Officer 

4100D Personnel Clerk Mrs. M.C. Dytrt 

4100E Mail, Records & Documents Mrs. P.M. Egan 

Clerk 

4100F Travel and Voucher Clerk Mrs. H.G. Jackson 

4100G Supply Clerk Mr. R.J. Fisher 



12 


370 


668 


12 


371A 


2504 


12 


374 


2339 


12 


364 


2593 


12 


367 


798 


12 


364 


2564 


12 


374 


2445 



289 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



EXHIBIT 7 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
Washington, D.C. 



January 22, 1959 



NiSA GENERAL NOTICE 



Subject: Establishment of Beltsville Space Center 

1. The NASA has recently established a new field office to be 
known as the "Beltsville Space Center." This Center will be operated 
under the direction of the Director of Space Flight Development — NASA 
Headquarters (Dr. Abe Silverstein) . 

2. Pending completion of permanent facilities at Beltsville, 
Maryland, program activities of the Space Center will be carried out 
at Washington, D.C. and at the Langley and Lewis Research Centers. 

3. During this interim period, official communications with staff 
members attached to the Center should be addressed as follows: 



Office 



Address 



a. Theoretical Division 

b. Space Sciences Division 



c. Vanguard Division 



d. Langley Space Task Group 



National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration 

1520 H Street, N. W. 

Washington 25, D. C. 

(Telephone: Executive 3-3260 - 

TWX: WA-755) 

National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration 
Beltsville Space Center 
4555 Overlook Avenue, S. W. 
Washington 25, D. C. 
(Telephone: JOhnson 2-6610 - 
TWX: WA-134) 

National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration 

Langley Research Center 

Langley Field, Virginia 

(Telephone: PArk 3-3325 - 

TWX: HA-198) 



290 



APPENDIX H 



c. Lewis Space Task Group 



National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration 

Lewis Research Center 

21000 Brookpark Road 

Cleveland 35, Ohio 

(Telephone: WInton 1-6620 - 

TWX: CV-520) 



/s/ Albert P. Siepert 
Director of Business Administration 



291 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



EXHIBIT 8 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

BELTSVILLE SPACE CENTER 

4555 OVERLOOK AVENUE, S.W. 

WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 



SPACE SCIENCES DIVISION 
THEORETICAL DIVISION 
VANGUARD DIVISION 



TELEPHONE: JOHNSON 2-6610 
TWX: WA 134 
4100A-19:TEJ: vmb 
February 16, 1959 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE RECORD 

Subject: Organization and functions of the Beltsville Space Center; 
report of observations and stating of implications drawn 
during conference concerning, held in Mr. Wyatt's office, 
February 12, 1959 

1. Conference Participants: 

Robert Gilruth, Assistant Director and Director, Project Mercury 

John P. Hagen, Chief, Vanguard Division 

Robert Jastrow, Chief, Theoretical Division 

Thomas E. Jenkins, Administrative Officer 

John W. Townsend, Jr., Chief, Space Sciences Division 

Abe Silverstein, Director, Space Flight Development 

DeMarquis Wyatt, Assistant to Director of Space Flight Development 

Herbert S. Fuhrman, Administrative Assistant to Dr. Silverstein 

Al Hodgson, Director of Management 

2. Purpose of Meeting: To survey the organization and functions of the 
Beltsville Space Center as it currently exists; the functions to be 
performed by the Center in the National Space Program; the organization 
these functions will require for successful program execution; and 

to take a very rough cut at the overall staffing problem. 

3. Based on this discussion, I am attempting in this memorandum to 
synthesize the guidelines which can be drawn from the discussion. 
Attached are organization charts which evolve from the current Space 
Center groups at scattered locations into an integrated organization at 
one center physical location. 



4. Major functions of the Space Center. It was generally agreed that 
the Space Center will probably perform five major interrelated functions 
on behalf of NASA as follows: 

(1) Project Management. It is generally agreed that Space Center 

292 



APPENDIX H 

technical staff will perform management functions in connection with 
NASA space projects, both of the contract and "in-house" variety (or 
more likely, combination of the two). A project in this sense is 
a complete application of science and space technology to a given 
objective such as Man-in-Space, Meteorological Satellite, Lunar Probes, 
et cetera. In many cases, the feasibility of projects will be studied 
by the Headquarters technical staff with the input from the Space Center 
until the gross outline of the job becomes evident. Detailing of the 
plan of attack and execution of the project will rest primarily with 
the Space Center provided, of course, the systems responsibility for 
the project is in-house. The Space Center will also germinate ideas for 
projects and forward proposals to Headquarters for evaluation and 
authorization. Management of a project by the Space Center will be 
augmented by the Headquarters technical staff which will assign a senior 
project coordinator to expedite the work of the project and to help 
resolve management problems requiring Headquarters attention and 
support . 

(2) Research. The Space Center will perform research (a), as 
required to meet the gaps in current knowledge to form a base for 
future ideas and applications and (b) , research- in-space in all the 
scientific disciplines as dictated by the expanding knowledge of space 
phenomena. 

(3) Development and Fabrication. The Space Center will design and 
develop, including prototype fabrication, components and systems which 
advance the state of the art of space technology and for specific 
project application. This in-house development effort is required to 
translate the ideas of scientists and engineers into hardware where 
the contracting process would prove infeasible. For instance, the 
development of payload systems of a highly experimental nature requiring 
many stages of development, each dependent upon advanced techniques 
which in themselves are developed as the hardware takes shape, can best 
be done with in-house development and fabrication facilities available 
on the spot and under the detailed direction of the staff scientists 
and engineers. In both industry and government experience shows that 
this type of effort is very difficult to "farm out" on contract. 

(4) Advance Planning. The Space Center is and will continue to be 
staffed by leaders in their respective fields who will germinate many 
of the ideas necessary to the future program of space science and 
exploration. As the practitioners of the art, they will, like many good 
contractors, develop as a fruitful source of ideas. In fact, the current 
National Space Program, as expressed in various NASA documents, is in 
large part a synthesis of ideas emanating from the NASA staff. All of 
the ideas expressed in the space program are not, of course, exclusive 
with NASA personnel, but the program does express the broad competence 
of the staff. It is expected, as is currently the case, that Space 
Center staff will continue to participate in the formulation of the 
program and in this respect act as a technical staff to Headquarters. 

(5) Operations. The Space Center will be in charge of technical 
operations in the field in all programs assigned to the Space Center. 
These programs will include in-house space center projects plus projects 
carried mostly on contract from Headquarters but technically monitored 
by the Space Center . Space Center technical teams at the launching 

293 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

sites will, of course, be under the direction and control of project 
and functional heads within the Space Center. Space communications and 
tracking will be a prime operational responsibility of the Center. This 
function includes data handling, both orbital and telemetered 

scientific. 

5. It was concluded that to satisfy the questions in the mind of the 
Administrator we should immediately come up with (a) an interim plan 
of organization and operations to assure full effectiveness and inte- 
gration into the program of the groups which now exist for the Space 
Center and (b) a tentative ultimate plan of organization and functions 
to show what the Space Center may look like three years from now. 

6. Functional versus Project Organization within the Space Center. 
These two fundamental bases for organization were discussed at some 
length, in terms of what would be the best form of organization for the 

Space Center . 

It was concluded that each of these bases of organization has merit 
and each has some drawbacks. Both in industry and government, out- 
standing examples of each can be cited. 

(1) Funct ional Organization . By this is meant organizing the Space 
Center into sub-elements identified with across-the-board scientific 
or space technology disciplines. For instance, guidance and control, 
astronomy, data handling, scientific instrumentation, and propulsion. 
In an R&D institution, this form of organization is necessary to 
advancing the basic state of various disciplines and arts, and func- 
tional applied areas. Specialists in a given area are grouped and are 
interested in evolving new knowledge and techniques without reference 

to a preconceived specific application, but with the full knowledge that 
whatever gaps are covered will benefit the program across the board. 
This type of organization is generally stable and develops specialists 
who can be tapped as consultants by the applied projects. Effort 
organized along this line, when staffed by competent people who are 
really research people, creates the store of knowledge which is 
absolutely required if program stagnation is to be prevented. 

The disadvantage of this type of organization is that unless it is 
modified or subverted for this purpose, it results in diffuse project 
management when a major project is planned in the organization. 

(2) Projec t Organization. A project manager should have under his 
control or as his responsibility all of the necessary resources prepared 
to fulfill the project's mission. In a functional organization 
dependent, of course, on personalities and other factors, the project 
manager is handicapped from "managing" and "directing" and is apt to 
become something of a coordinator-expediter. If the institution is 
charged with carrying out several major projects, the competition among 
projects for specialists' services, in-house central technical service 
support, and even use of ' certain contractors must be delineated by 
management by formal assignment and delegation. The easiest way to 
accomplish this is to assign resources including personnel to the 
project under the direct control of the project director. The "project" 
should use central services where they exist and it is feasible. 

294 



APPENDIX H 

It is concluded from the above that the Beltsville organization 
should be based on functional lines with organizational flexibility 
allowing the Center to organize for ma.ior or "macro" pro.iects. Small 
or "micro" pro.iects can and should be carried in the functional 
divisions. 

7. Program Requirements. The program currently assigned and contemplated 
for the Space Center has not yet been detailed in full . However, the 

major efforts which are listed below indicate a very large and active 
program which will require a great deal of contracting plus a heter- 
ogeneous, competent, and sizable Space Center staff. Some of these 
assignments, active or to become active in the next eighteen months, are: 

(1) Science Program 

155 sounding rockets of various types 
30 satellites 
15 probes 

(2) Application Satellites 

— Communications and Meteorological, 6 or 7 vehicles, 

— Geodetic — number of satellites unknown at this time, 

— Other Vanguard Division follow-on programs — vehicles and 
numbers as yet undetermined. 

(3) Project Mercury 

— Phase I 

— Phase II 

(4) Vehicles and Engines 

Vega, Centaur, Thor-Vanguard (Thor-Delta) , Juno V (1.5 meg engine) , 
Nova (1.6 meg engine known currently as 1 . meg engine ) . 

(5) Global Range and Operations 

— Space Communications and Tracking 

— Operational Telemetering 

— Ranges — Wallops, AMR, PMR 

8. Numbers of Personnel Required. Currently, all segments of the 
organization, in terms of personnel numbers, are merely nuclei of the 
ultimate staffs needed to do the jobs to be done. There is the feeling 
that budget planning for the next fiscal year does not include adequate 
numbers for the Space Center to carry out its mission. In general the 
program managers, that is Division Heads, feel that if adequate numbers 
of competent personnel can be brought on the staff, this is more important 
than studying at this point how the Space Center is to be organized. This 
feeling is not to be interpreted as a cry for anarchy or lack of 
organization, but as an expression that thinking about the Space Center 
sometimes seems to ignore the fact that the Space Center is already very 
much a going concern. Geographical dispersion and logistic support 
currently supplied in part by NRL, Langley, and Lewis tend to cloud 
thinking on immediate future requirements. The fact that the physical 
plant does not exist should not deny the existence of the going major 
components of the organization. The general feeling was expressed that we 
are headed for trouble in 1960 unless the complement figures, in particular, 
are raised above levels being cited currently. 

9. Space Center functions in terms of existing nucleus capabilities. 
The Space Center is not starting from scratch in organizing a technical 

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VENTURE INTO SPACE 

competence . The five groups at the Division level now in operation have 
a nucleus capability to perform work organized functionally or by project 

in the following areas: 
(1) Space Sciences, 

(3) Vehicle Systems, 

(5) Theoretical Research and Support, 

(4) Instrumentation Support, 

(5) Payload Systems, 

(6) Data Handling and Techniques, 

(7) Communications and Tracking, 

(8) Operations. 

10. My suggestions for organization of the Space Center: 

(1) To fully integrate it into the National Space Program, 

(2) To fully capture and utilize the nuclei of existing capabilities, 
and 

(3) To fulfill the potential which the senior personnel of the Center 
feel can be brought into being realistically, 

are attached hereto with explanatory notes. 

/S/ T. E. JENKINS 

Administrative Officer 



296 



APPENDIX H 



EXHIBIT 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
BELTSVILLE SPACE CENTER 

6 March 1959 

MEMORANDUM FOR ALL CONCERNED 

FROM: T. E. Jenkins, Administrative Officer 

SUBJ: BSC Divisions' Authorized Personnel Complements, FY 1959; 
summary of recent revisions 

1 . To sum up the current situation with respect to Beltsville Space Center 
division approved personnel complements (ceiling points) : 

a. We requested a total of 342 ceiling points to cover the Vanguard 
Division, including 42 for my Administrative staff; 

b. Dr. Silverstein approved an allocation against the Vanguard money 
of 400 but to include 90 for Space Sciences Division. Dr. Silverstein 
also promised Mr. Townsend he could get an additional 10 from the 400 if he 
needs it by 30 June. Space Sciences Division then can go to a total of 100; 

c. Dr. Jastrow requested relief for the Theoretical Division of 10 
points. Abe approved 6 points for Jastrow (plus 30 points carried 
against S&E for a total of 36) ; 

d. In summary, the total of 400 ceiling points authorized against 
Vanguard funds reserved on Headquarters' books is tentatively allocated 
as follows: 

Total authorized 400 

Space Sciences Division (Townsend) 100 

Theoretical Division (Jastrow) 6 

Vanguard Division (Hagen) 252 

Beltsville Administrative Office (Jenkins) 42 

Total 400 

2. Vanguard Division, in all likelihood, will require more than 252 points 
prior to 30 June 1959. In the financial summary we presented to Dr. 
Silverstein there is money reserved to cover some additional points. In 
fonecon with Dr. Silverstein I agreed it was too early to forecast how 
successful Vanguard recruiting efforts will be, but all indications are 
that they will be highly successful. Currently, physical work space 

is the limiting factor. Vanguard will not exceed this ceiling without 
specifically getting an approval by the Director , Space Flight Development . 
3- Controls. I am taking steps through the Beltsville personnel office to 
control accessions within the above figures. By this memorandum Division 
Heads (Hagen, Jastrow, Townsend) are advised that all PAR Form 52s 
must be submitted to the Beltsville Personnel Office, Attention Code 



297 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

4100B (Al Nagy) for approval within authorized complement and money 
before commitments to hire can be considered fi rm with the candidate. 
If the total ceiling of 400 proves inadequate I will request additional 
authorizations from Dr . Silverstein based on division justifications . 

/S/ T. E. JENKINS 

Administrative Officer 

Distribution: 

Headquarters: Beltsville: 

A. Silverstein J. Hagen 

A. Siepert J. Townsend 

D. Wyatt R. Jastrow 

A. Hodgson A. Nagy 

R. Ulmer (3) B. Sisco 

R. Lacklen (2) L. Best 

H. Fuhrman B. Cowan 



298 



APPENDIX H 



EXHIBIT 10 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

1520 H STREET NORTHWEST 

WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 

OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR May 1, 1959 

MEMORANDUM from the Administrator 

Subject: Functions and Authority — Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 

1. Purpose of this Memorandum. 

a. To establish the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 

b. To provide a statement of functions and authority for the 
Goddard Space Flight Center. 

2. Functions. The Goddard Space Flight Center is assigned the 
following functions: 

a. Conducting advanced planning and theoretical studies leading 
to the development of payloads for scientific and manned 
space flights. 

b. Conducting necessary supporting research in scientific payloads, 
applications systems, instrumentation, communications, 
guidance, and vehicles. 

c. Developing payloads for approved scientific programs, 
applications programs, and manned space flights. 

d. Developing, subject to specific approval in each case, 
vehicles to launch payloads . 

e. Supervising Goddard Space Flight Center flight operations, 
integrating the activities of all participants as necessary 
to accomplish missions successfully. 

f. Supervising tracking, data acquisition, communications and 
computing operations for the provision of orbital and reduced 
flight data from satellites and space vehicles for NASA space 
flight programs assigned to or monitored by the Center and for 
other space programs as requested by the Director of 
Space Flight Development. 

g. Interpreting results of flight programs for which the Goddard 
Space Flight Center is responsible. 

h. Furnishing technical management of projects, including 

monitoring of contractors, to insure timely and economical 

accomplishment of objectives, 
i. Exercising such procurement and contract administration 

authority as may be delegated by the Director, Office 

of Business Administration, 
j . Upon request by the Director of Space Flight Development , 

providing support for space program activities of other 

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VENTURE INTO SPACE 

organizations, e.g. , military establishments of Department 

of Defense. 
k. Reporting on the status of approved programs and recommending 

changes or modifications as necessary to meet program goals and 

schedules. 
1 . Providing necessary administrative and management support as 

required for carrying out assigned programs. 

3. Responsibility of Director. GSFC. The Director, GSFC, reports 
directly to the Director of Space Plight Development and is responsible for 
the exercise of the functions assigned to the Goddard Space Flight Center. 

4. Scope of Authority. The Director, GSFC, is authorized and directed 
to take such action as is necessary to carry out the responsibilities 
assigned to him within the limitations of this and other official 
NASA communications and issuances. 

5. Relationships with Other Officials. In performing the functions 
assigned to him, the Director, GSFC, is responsible for recognizing the 
responsibility and authority of heads of divisions and offices, 
Headquarters and for assuring that actions he may take are properly 
coordinated with Headquarters groups having joint interests and are in 
accordance with NASA policies. 

6. Approval of Organization. The basic organization of the GSFC is 
outlined on the attached organization chart. Modifications or changes 

in basic organization structure are subject to the approval of the 
Director, Space Flight Development and the Administrator, NASA. 

/s/ T. Keith Glennan 
Administrator 

End 

Chart 



300 



APPENDIX H 



EXHIBIT 11 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 

4100A-89:TEJ:vmb 
May 1, 1959 

MEMORANDUM TO ASSISTANT DIRECTORS AND DIVISION CHIEFS 

Subject: Organization and Functions of the Goddard Space Flight Center 

1. Effective May 1, 1959 the Beltsville Space Center became the Goddard 
Space Flight Center . The change in name accompanies the first formal 
announcement of the Space Flight Center organization, mission, functions, 
and appointments of many of the key personnel . 

2. Attached is the official statement on organization and functions 
accompanied by the official organization chart for the Space Flight Center. 
As with most documents of this type, the wording in some cases may carry 
different meaning to different people. Therefore, it should be stated 
that the spelling out of the mission was not done to be restrictive so far as 
activities conducted by the Space Center are concerned. The mission 

is broad and the functions certainly spell out more responsibilities than 
we can fully carry out or will be able to carry out until our capabilities 
have been built up much beyond the point where they now exist . 

3. There are many administrative details to be sorted out and published to 
gear internal operations to the new organization structure . Such workaday 
things as time cards, directories, job order numbers, delegations of 
authority, et cetera are in the process of being published. We did as much 
preplanning work as possible, but since all organization details were not 
nailed down until a very late hour it will take us a couple of days to 
publish the necessary instructions. In the meantime, you are advised that 
all previous instructions remain in effect until superseded. For 
instance, job order and account numbers to be used on time cards, stubs, 

et cetera will remain the same until changed by specific notice. This 
paragraph is not to be interpreted in any way as abrogating the 
authority of any appointed official. 

(signed) 

T. E. JENKINS 
Administrative Officer 



301 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 




NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 

ORGANIZATION OF ACTIVITIES 
OF GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 

Mission and Functions 

1. Operating as an integral part of the NASA space flight program, under 
the overall guidance and direction of the Director of Space Flight 
Development, NASA Headquarters, the Goddard Space Flight Center will be a 
major field arm of NASA. It will carry out assigned missions in the 
planning, research, developmental, and operational phases of the nation's 
space flight program. Specifically, personnel of the Center shall: 

a) Conduct advanced planning and theoretical studies leading to 
the development of payloads for scientific and manned space flights. 

b) Conduct necessary supporting research in scientific payloads, 
applications systems, instrumentation, communications, guidance, 
and vehicles. 

c) Develop payloads for approved scientific programs, applications 
programs, and manned space flights. 

d) Develop, subject to specific approval in each case, vehicles to 
launch payloads. 

e) Supervise Goddard Space Flight Center flight operations, 
integrating the activities of all participants as necessary to 
accomplish missions successfully. 

f) Supervise tracking, data acquisition, communications and 
computing operations for the provision of orbital and reduced flight 
data from satellites and space vehicles for NASA space flight 
programs assigned to or monitored by the Center and for other space 
programs as requested by the Director of Space Flight Development. 

g) Interpret results of flight programs for which the Goddard 
Space Flight Center is responsible. 

h) Furnish technical management of projects, including monitoring 
of contractors, to insure timely and economical accomplishment 
of objectives. In this connection, the Goddard Space Flight Center 
will execute contracts, in accordance with delegated authority, for 
performance of work necessary to accomplish program objectives. 

i) Upon request by the Director of Space Flight Development, 
provide support for space program activities of other organizations, 
e.g. , military establishments of Department of Defense. 

2. These missions will be carried out through the execution of 
major functions as described below: 

a) Advance Planning. The Goddard Space Flight Center staff 

302 



APPENDIX H 

will include leaders in the several space science fields who will be 
responsible for the formulation of ideas and concepts which are 
essential to the effectiveness of the space flight program. This 
advance planning will be of value to the Space Flight Center 
in carrying out its mission. Also, the Space Flight Center will assist 
and advise the Office of Space Flight Development, NASA Headquarters, 
in the formulation of the national space flight program. 

b) Research. The Space Flight Center will perform two broad types 
of research: scientific and engineering research necessary to serve 
as a base for future ideas and applications; and research in the 
disciplines of the space sciences as a basis for acquiring ever- 
increasing knowledge of space phenomena. 

c) Development and Fabrication. The Goddard Space Flight Center 
will design and develop, including prototype fabrication, components 
and systems which advance the state-of-the-art of space technology or 
which have direct project application. A part of this activity will 

be in-house, while the remainder will be on contract. The development 
and fabrication activities to be handled in-house will normally be 
those which cannot be handled as economically, expeditiously, or 
effectively by a contractor, either because they are so intimately 
related to other activities being carried out at the Center or 
because they involve matters so fundamental to major in-house project 
operations of the Center that they cannot readily be separated therefrom. 

d) Operations. The Space Flight Center personnel will be in charge 
of technical operations in the field for all programs assigned to 

the Center. These programs will include in-house projects as well as 
those on contract for which the Center has the monitoring 
responsibility. Space Flight Center technical teams at launches will 
be under the technical direction and control of project and 
functional heads within the Center. Space communications and 
tracking, as well as data reduction and interpretation, will be 
operational responsibilities of the Space Flight Center. For other NASA 
space flight programs, the Center, upon request of the Director of 
Space Flight Development, will assume operational responsibility for 
tracking, data acquisition, communications and computing operations and 
for the provision of orbital and reduced flight data from satellites 
and space vehicles. 

e) Project Management. The Space Flight Center will be 
responsible for the management of projects and parts of projects as 
necessary for the accomplishment of its assigned missions. A project 
in this sense is the application of scientific and engineering 
technology to a specified objective, such as man-in-space, 
meteorological satellites, lunar probes, and so forth. Ideas for 
projects may originate in Headquarters, in the NASA field 
organizations, or from other sources. Projects will be undertaken 
following authorization by Headquarters. Projects will be carried out 
on either an in-house or a contract basis. Monitoring responsibility may 
from time to time be assigned to the Space Flight Center on contracts 
let by NASA Headquarters. Project officers will be designated 

from the NASA Headquarters staff to advise and assist the Goddard 
Space Flight Center in projects execution and in resolving 
management problems which require Headquarters attention and support . 

303 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 
Relationships 

!• With Office of Space Flight Development, NASA Headquarters 

a) The Goddard Space Flight Center will participate with the Office 
of Space Flight Development in the definition and establishment 

of national program objectives. 

b) Within the defined national program objectives, the Goddard 
Space Flight Center will carry the full responsibility for 
accomplishing the missions assigned to it, subject to such technical 
advice and assistance as the Office of Space Flight Development, 
NASA Headquarters, may provide. 

c) The Goddard Space Flight Center will keep the Office of Space 
Flight Development fully informed at all times concerning problems 
arising and progress made in connection with the Center's 
assigned responsibilities. 

d) The Goddard Space Flight Center will be responsible for its own 
internal administration, in accordance with the provisions of 
applicable statutes and policies, procedures, and regulations 

issued by NASA Headquarters. 

2. With JPL 

The missions and functions of the Goddard Space Flight Center and 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory complement each other. There will be 
no contractual relationships between the two, but there will be frequent 
interchange of data and technical information to the extent warranted 
by the common interests of both or as necessary for the operations of 
either. The relationships between these two organizations, both 
active in the space flight development field, will be essentially the 
same as those which exist between the NASA Research Centers. 

3. With NASA Research Centers 

The Goddard Space Flight Center will have no formal relationships with 
the NASA Research Centers except through NASA Headquarters. The 
channel of communications in matters requiring formal action will normally 
be: Goddard Space Flight Center to Office of Space Flight 
Development, NASA Headquarters, to Office of Aeronautical and Space 
Research, NASA Headquarters, to the Research Centers. Such matters 
originating in the Research Centers will be referred to the Goddard 
Space Flight Center through the same offices, but in opposite sequence. 
Interchange of information and data, however, may be carried on 
freely between the Space Flight Center and the Research Centers without 
regard to these channels, except that information copies shall be 
furnished to the Office of Space Flight Development and the Office of 
Aeronautical and Space Research, NASA Headquarters. 

4. With Contractors 

The Goddard Space Flight Center will be authorized to enter into 
contractual arrangements with private contractors in accordance with 
applicable NASA policies, regulations, and procedures. Subject 
to the limitations imposed by such policies, regulations, and procedures, 
the Goddard Space Flight Center will have the authority to develop 
contract specifications, including engineering design where appropriate, 
invite bids, evaluate proposals, make awards and monitor performance. 

5 • With Governmental Agenci es 

There will be contractual relationships between the Goddard Space 

304 



APPENDIX H 

Flight Center and other governmental agencies as authorized by 
NASA Headquarters. 

Organization of the Goddard Space Flight Center 

1. Attached is an organization chart reflecting the components which 
are proposed as major segments of the Goddard Space Flight Center. 

This organization provides: 

a) Integration of the missions and functions of the Goddard. Space 
Flight Center with the national space program objectives. 

b) Coordination of the direction of the scientific and 
technical functions of the Center with the supporting engineering 
and business management activities. 

c) A staffing pattern that anticipates and provides for the 
orderly integration of the personnel and functions now separately 
located at Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and 
Naval Research Laboratory. 

d) A management structure capable of full execution of both 
technical and support activities with the same degree of delegated 
responsibility that characterizes the operation of other major 
NASA field establishments. 

2. The scientific and technical programs of the Center are grouped 
under three Assistant Directors. 

a) The Assistant Director, Space Science and Satellite Applications, 
will be responsible for: 

1) Space Sciences Division — responsible for conduct of a 
broad program of basic research in the space sciences through 
the use of experiments carried in rockets, earth satellites, 
and space probes. 

2) Theoretical Division — responsible for conduct of abroad 
program of study and research in phases of theoretical physics, 
mathematics, and mechanics associated with the exploration of space. 

3) Payload Systems Division — responsible for integration 
of scientific experiments and equipments into complete 
earth satellites and space probes; conducts research and 
development in the fields of space environment and special 
electronic devices such as telemetering systems, command 
receivers, control circuitry, and power supplies; designs, 
fabricates, constructs, and tests satellite and probe space systems. 

4) Satellite Applications Systems Division — responsible for 
research and development on applications systems, including: 
applications satellites, such as the meteorological, 
communications, and geodetic satellites; space techniques such 
as advanced control and stabilization systems; and space and 
booster vehicle systems. 

b) The Assistant Director, Tracking and Data Systems, will be 
responsible for: 

1) Tracking Systems Division — responsible for research and 
development on new systems for tracking, data acquisition, and 
communications between satellites and/or space vehicles and ground 
receiving stations; provides evaluation capability for all 
system proposals plus calibration capability for systems 
which are in operation; provides technical and engineering 

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VENTURE INTO SPACE 

support for all modifications and enlargements of technical 
equipment at the field stations, by furnishing prototype equipment, 
contract monitoring, and field installation and technical 
inspection services. 

2) Data Systems Division — responsible for the application 
of data reduction techniques to: launching of vehicles, 

orbit calculation, and satellite and space probe scientific data; 
conducts research and development on new data handling techniques as 
required for Space Flight Center programs, and furnishes 
theoretical support for all phases of data techniques and 
analyses; responsible for data reduction and computation activities 
connected with NASA space flight programs assigned to, or 
monitored by, personnel of the Center; provides computation service 
for all areas of the Center as required, as requested by Director 
of Space Flight Development, assumes operational responsibility for 
data reduction and computation activities for other NASA or 
Department of Defense programs. 

3) Operational Support Division — responsible for establishment 
and continuous operation of global tracking, data acquisition, 

and communications network, furnishing personnel and technical and 
logistic support therefore; operates control center of the 
Goddard Space Flight Center, furnishes continuing technical 
support of space flight operations, including range support and 
operations necessary to initiate communication, tracking and data 
sequences after vehicle launch; coordinates operations to assure 
utilization of the net and adequate service to user teams, 
both inside and outside NASA. 

c) The Assistant Director, Manned Satellites, will be 
responsible for: 

1) Flight Systems Division — responsible for conceptual 
design, integration and performance of complete manned space flight 
systems, including on-board equipment and subsystems; - 

carries out preliminary design and performance analyses and 
specifies requirements for advanced systems; monitors or performs 
the required basic and applied research in support of space 
flight systems. 

2) Operations Division — responsible for establishing 
operational procedures associated with the launch, in-orbit, 
reentry and recovery phases of manned space flight missions ; 
accomplishes detailed trajectory analyses associated with each 
mission in the Mercury Program to ensure that test plans and test 
schedules are met; conducts necessary pre-f light checking and 
in-flight monitoring in order to maintain flight safety; selects and 
trains flight crews appropriate for each flight test. 

3) Engineering and Specifications Division — responsible for 
engineering studies of proposed manned space flight vehicles and 
components to determine their feasibility; prepares specifications 
and cost estimates; supplies and monitors technical information 
required for the procurement and administration of contracts. 

3. There is also included in the organization a Special Projects Group, 
currently identified as the Lewis Space Task Group, which has program 

306 



APPENDIX H 

responsibility for engineering development and design of a special 
high energy rocket stage. 

4. The Office of Business Administration will provide the Center 

with the full range of central administrative support functions, including: 
personnel administration; budget and financial administration; plant 
and personnel security programs; management analysis activities; 
administrative services, including plant and fire protection; procurement 
and supply, including contract administration; and technical information, 
including library services. 

5. The Office of Technical Services initially will include only 
the construction group which is already in existence. As construction 
progresses, however, and the Space Flight Center becomes a physical 
reality, it will be necessary to staff this Office to perform the full 
range of its functions. These will include: fabrication and shop operations; 
construction and repair; buildings and grounds maintenance; 

utilities operations, automotive operations, and industrial safety. 

/s/ Abe Silverstein 
Director of Space Flight Development 

Attachment 

1 Chart 
Date: 1 May 1959 



307 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



EXHIBIT 12 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
Washington 25, D. C. 

NASA RELEASE NO. 59-125 FOR RELEASE: 

EX 3-3260 Friday P.M. 

Ext. 7827 May 1, 1959 

NASA'S NEW SPACE PROJECTS FACILITY NAMED 
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 

T. Keith Glennan, NASA Administrator, announced today the Government ' s 
space projects center at Greenbelt, Maryland, will be named the 
Goddard Space Flight Center in commemoration of Robert H. Goddard, 
American pioneer in rocket research. 

The Goddard Space Flight Center, under the overall guidance of the 
Director of Space Flight Development at NASA Headquarters, will perform 
basic space research and will be responsible for the development of 
satellites, space probes and vehicles, tracking, communications, and data 
reduction systems. In addition, the facility will eventually be a 
command control center for NASA space flight operations. 

The organization of NASA's new Space Center includes a director, 
not yet appointed; three major research and development groups, 
each headed by an assistant director; and business administration 
and technical services departments. 

John W. Townsend, Jr. , formerly Chief of NASA's Space Sciences Division, 
has been appointed Assistant Director for Space Science and Satellite 
Applications. Divisions reporting to him are: Space Sciences, 
Theoretical, Satellite Applications Systems, and Payload Systems. 
The Vanguard Operations Coordinating Group also reports to Townsend. 
Beginning today, the staff of the Vanguard Division will be 
integrated into other major NASA space flight projects. 

John T. Mengel, former head of the Space Tracking Systems Branch 
in the Vanguard Division, has been named Assistant Director for 
Tracking and Data Systems. Reporting to him are the Tracking Systems, 
Data Systems, and Operational Support Divisions. 

Robert R. Gilruth is the Center's Assistant Director for Manned 
Satellites . He currently heads the Mercury manned space flight 
project. Divisions under his direction are: Flight Systems, Engineering 
and Specifications, and Operations. 

Michael J. Vaccaro, formerly assistant head of the Administrative 
Management Office and Personnel Director at the Lewis Research Center, 
Cleveland, Ohio, has been appointed Business Manager of the Space 
Center. The head of Technical Services has not been announced. 

The Goddard Space Flight Center will be built on an approximately 

308 



APPENDIX H 

550-acre tract acquired from the Government's Beltsville Agricultural 
Center, north of Washington, D. C. Located east of the Baltimore-Washington 
Parkway, the site is bounded on the south by Glendale Road. 

The contract for the first two major buildings at the Center — Space 
Projects Building and Research Projects Laboratory — was let 
April 10, 1959, to Norair Engineering Corporation of Washington, D.C., 
at a total cost of $2,882,577. These two-story buildings, scheduled 
for completion in mid-1960, will total about 100,000 square feet of 
laboratory and office floor space. They will house a staff of about 450. The 
remainder of the staff of the Goddard Space Flight Center will be 
housed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, and 
at the Langley Research Center, Langley Field, Virginia, until the 
completion of the facility. 



309 



EXHIBIT 13 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 



i€IS IELEASE 



NASA 



SPACE FLIGHT CE1TER 

GiEElBELT, iO. 



OFFICE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION 
PHONE: GRanite 4-9000, Ex. 555 



KLEISE IS. l-M - fa - 1 



FOR RELEASE 
SUNDAY A.M.'s 
March 12, 1961 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration will dedicate 
its $27-million Goddard Space Flight Center at Greenbelt, Md. , on 
March 16. The Dedication date marks the 35th anniversary of the world's 
first flight of a liquid-propelled rocket engine by Dr. Robert H. Goddard, 
father of American rocketry, for whom the Center has been named. 

The Center, which will be completed by the end of next year , is the 
first completely new complex to be constructed and staffed for the peaceful 
exploration of space since NASA was established in October, 1958. 

Center personnel conceive, develop and fabricate satellite and 
sounding rocket instrumentation that probe space in the immediate vicinity 
of the earth. The Center also has the world-wide responsibility for 
tracking, communications and data analysis for both manned and unmanned 
spacecraft . 

Several hundred invited guests are expected to attend the 
Dedication ceremony which will begin at 2 P.M. The ceremony will be 
followed by a guided one and one-half hour tour of the Center's facilities. 
The Dedication will not be open to the public. Open house for 
employees and their families will be held Saturday, March 18 from 10:30 to 
3:30 P.M. It is planned to hold a public open house later as the 
Center nears completion. 

The Center will be dedicated by Dr. Detlev Wulf Bronk, President of 
the National Academy of Sciences. He will be introduced by James E. Webb, 
NASA Administrator. An honored guest will be Mrs. Esther Goddard, 
widow of the Clark University rocket pioneer. She will be presented a 
Congressional Gold Medal, authorized by the 86th Congress. The 
presentation will be made jointly by Senator Robert S. Kerr (D-Okla. ) , 
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, and 



310 



Overton Brooks (D-La.), Chairman of the House Committee on Science 
and Astronautics. 

Mrs. Goddard and Dr . Bronk will unveil a sculpture of Dr . Goddard 
which later will be placed in the Center's Administration Building. It 
was created by Washington sculptor, Joseph Anthony Atchison, noted for his 
creative work in the Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, 
the World Flight Memorial for the Smithsonian Institution, and the 
Second Inaugural Medal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Invocation for the ceremonies will be delivered by The Rev. 
Kenneth B. Wyatt, pastor of the Greenbelt Community Church. The benediction 
will be said by Father Victor J. Dowgiallo, pastor of St. Hugh's 
Catholic Church, Greenbelt. 

The tours, both for invited guests and the "open house" for employees 
and their families, will embrace the full spectrum of the Center's 
activities . Included will be a Control Room demonstration with simulation 
of a pre-rocket launch and countdown procedures, followed by a 
simulated satellite injection into orbit. 

Lectures will be given on the Center's operation of global satellite 
tracking networks, including Minitrack and Project Mercury. The 
Center's cooperative role for the international exploration of space will 
be explained. Guests will see an animated miniature tracking station, 
and a scale model of the forthcoming S-51 spacecraft being instru- 
mented by the United Kingdom which will be flown by Goddard. 

There will be an extensive display of spacecraft instrumentation 
along with many of the Goddard Center's family of sounding rockets used for 
scientific experiments. Included will be an Iris Sounding Rocket 
and an Aerobee 150A with a new attitude (or pointing) control system. A 
similar rocket will be fired March 15 for the first test of controlling a 
rocket's three axes of pitch, yaw and roll. The experiment also will 
carry equipment aimed at measuring gamma ray intensities and the 
solar illumination. 

Other models will include the Tiros weather satellite; the P-14 
magnetometer (or radiation-counting) spacecraft; the S-3 
energetic particles measurement satellite; the Explorer VIII and Vanguard I. 
Guests will also see a demonstration of a micrometeorite detector . 

Tours will be conducted through the Center's extensive laboratory 
facilities where guests will see vacuum, vibration and spin-balancing 
equipment used to simulate space environmental conditions. 



311 



EXHIBIT 14 
COPY 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

NEWS RELEASE 

GODDARD 

SPICE FLIGHT CENTER 

GREENBELT, MD. 




OFFICE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION 
PHONE: GRanite 4-9000, Ex. 555 



RELEASE NO.? 714761 - 1 



GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 
FACT SHEET 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space 
Flight Center is the first completely new scientific center created since 
the NASA was established October 1, 1958. It is the nation's newest 
facility devoted exclusively to the peaceful exploration of space . 

Formally organized on May 1, 1959, it was named for the late 
Dr . Robert H. Goddard, recognized as the Father of American Rocketry. 
He designed, developed and flew the world's first liquid-fuel rocket. 

The Center was dedicated March 16, 1961, the Thirty-fifth Anni- 
versary of that launching by Dr. Goddard. 

The Goddard Space Flight Center is one of ten field laboratory 
facilities of the N.A.S.A. , and is one of several integrated units under the 
direction of the Office of Space Flight Programs. The Center carries 
out assigned missions in the theoretical, planning, research, develop- 
ment and operational phases of space flight, utilizing laboratory studies 
and experiments, sounding rockets, earth satellites and space probes. 

Organization 

Dr. Harry J. Goett is Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center. 
Principal operating executive is Eugene W. Wasielewski. Associate 
Director. Other major officials and their duties are: 

Mr. John W. Townsend. Jr.. Assistant Director, Space Sciences 
and Satellite Applications, supervises four divisions: 

a. The Space Sciences Division, headed by Dr. Leslie H. Meredith, 
conducts basic research in the space sciences through 



312 



the use of experiments carried in rocket sondes, earth satellites, 
and space probes. It supports the NASA National Sounding Rocket 
Program and provides management and contract monitoring. 

b. The Theoretical Division, headed by Dr. Robert Jastrow, studies 
and conducts research in theoretical physics, mathematics, 

and mechanics associated with space exploration. Included are 
special analytical problems involving the use of large computers. 
The Division is now organizing an Institute for Space Studies 
in New York City, where it will draw on talent from universities 
and research groups. 

c. The Payload Systems Division, headed by N. Whitney Matthews, is 
responsible for the integration of experiments and equipments 
into complete earth satellites and space probes; and for the 
basic satellite structure, thermal balance, and integrity of 
the entire system through all anticipated environmental 
conditions. 

d. The Satellite Applications Division, headed by D. G. Mazur, is 
concerned with research, preliminary design and project 
management of meteorological, communications, and geodetic 
satellites. 

Mr. John T. Mengel. Assistant Director, Tracking and Data Systems. 
This office supervises three divisions: 

a. Tracking Systems Division, headed by Clarence A. Schroeder, 
which concerns itself with research and development of new 
tracking, data acquisition and communications systems between 
space vehicles and ground receiving stations. 

b. The Data Systems Division, headed by Dr. Charles V. L. Smith, 
applies data reduction techniques to launchings of vehicles, 
orbit calculations, and satellite and space probe findings. 

c. The Operational Support Division, headed by Fred S. Friel, 
establishes and operates NASA's global tracking, data 
acquisition, and communications network. 

d. The Theory and Analysis Staff, headed by Dr. Joseph W. Siry, 
provides orbital and system analysis support for tracking and 
data systems. 

Dr. Michael J. Vaccaro. Assistant Director. Business Administration. 
This office provides business management support functions, including 
personnel, budget and finance, security, procurement and supply, 
administrative, and public information. 

Mr. Leopold Wink l er, Chief. Office of Technical Services. This 
office is charged with fabrication and shop operation, construction 
and repair, buildings and grounds maintenance, utilities and 
automotive operation, and industrial safety. 

The Goddard Mission 

Specific areas of Goddard 's responsibilities are: 

• Advanced planning and theoretical studies leading to development 
of spacecraft for manned and unmanned scientific space investigations. 
This work includes formulation of concepts and ideas essential to the 
effectiveness of the NASA program. 

• Supporting research in spacecraft, applications systems, 



313 



Instrumentation, communications, guidance, and rocket vehicles as 
assigned. 

• Development and fabrication of spacecraft for scientific and 
applications programs and manned space flight. The Center designs, 
develops, and fabricates prototypes of components and systems to 
advance space technology or to foster practical applications. 
Although the Center directs all such work, most of it is contracted out 
to industry and universities. For reasons of economy, urgency, 
efficiency or effectiveness, about fifteen percent of such activities 
are performed internally by the Center. 

• Development and supervision of worldwide tracking, data 
acquisition, communications and computing operations for all NASA space 
programs except deep space probes. 

• Interpretation of results of experiments under Goddard management. 

• Management of projects, including technical direction and the 
execution and monitoring of contracts. 

Staff and Facilities 

Located on a 550-acre tract of land near Greenbelt, Maryland, 
about fifteen miles from Washington, D.C., the physical plant when 
completed in 1962 will consist of eight facilities costing approximately 
$27 million. Facilities now in operation are: Space Projects Building, 
Research Projects Laboratory and Central Flight Control and Operations. 

First elements of the Goddard Staff were drawn from the Vanguard 
Project Team of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. The complement now 
numbers more than 1,300 and will total 1,800 by the end of 1961. It is 
expected to rise to about 2,000 when the Center construction is 
completed. 

Facilities at the Center will enable scientists and engineers to 
subject payloads to the complete range of flight environments without 
having to risk an actual launch with untried hardware. 

As one example, the Center's environmental test facilities include 
centrifuges, dynamic balancing machines, vibration machines, and thermal 
vacuum chambers. Of the last, there will be four when the present 
construction program is completed — including some of the largest 
chambers in the country. The largest will measure thirty feet by forty 
feet and will be capable of producing the complete range of near-space 
vacuum and temperature conditions. 

Scientific Exploration in Space 

Goddard Center programs embrace unmanned scientific research and 
exploration of space; study of the earth's upper atmosphere; study of 
the earth itself from the space viewpoint; unmanned technological 
utilization of space for practical purposes, such as weather forecasting 
and global telephone, radio and television communications; and near- 
space tracking and data handling. 

During the present decade, in the execution of this program, the 
Center plans to launch at least ninety-six scientific satellites and 
twenty-eight applications satellites. 

Launching of sounding rockets and space probes will total 

314 



hundreds. Purchases of sounding rockets in the current fiscal year 
include 22 Aerobees, 18 Nike-Asps, 20 Nike-Cajuns, 4 Argo D-4's 
(Javelins), 2 Argo D-8's (Journeyman), 5 Iris. Frequency of rocket 
launchings is expected to increase steadily over the next decade, 
particularly in support of the Tiros-Nimbus weather satellite programs. 

The Center plays a major role in NASA's international cooperation 
for the peaceful exploration of space. Scientists of twenty-one 
nations are participating in the Tiros meteorological satellite experi- 
ments; Canada is designing the payload for a swept-frequency topside 
ionosphere sounder satellite to be launched and tracKed by Goddard; United 
Kingdom will supply the experiments for an international ionosphere 
satellite to be built and launched by Goddard; and a number of scientists 
and technicians are in cooperative study and training at the Center. 

Accomplishments 

Since its organization, the Goddard staff has made significant 
contributions to knowledge of space and the earth. 

The VANGUARD III satellite, designed and launched by the Goddard 
Staff, provided information on the distribution and intensity of the 
earth's magnetic fields; detailed location of the lower edge of the 
Van Allen Great Radiation Belt, and made an accurate count of micro- 
meteorite impacts. 

The EXPLORER VII satellite, in which Goddard played a key role in 
cooperation with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory, provided valuable information on radiation 
balance, Lyman-Alpha x-rays, heavy primary rays, micrometeorite impacts, 
solar exposure, temperature, magnetic storms and detected large-scale 
weather patterns. 

The PIONEER V space probe experiment, jointly conducted by Goddard 
and the Space Technology Laboratories, transmitted valuable data on 
solar flares, particle energies and their distribution, and magnetic 
fields. The probe, second U.S. spacecraft to orbit the sun, trans- 
mitted data to earth from a record distance of 22,500,000 miles. 

The TIROS I and II meteorological satellite experiments, launched by 
the Delta rocket developed under Goddard supervision, provided many 
thousands of photographs of the earth's cloud cover and mapped 
radiation and heat balance on a global scale. 

ECHO I, the first passive communications satellite, was launched in 
cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center. This 100-foot 
inflatable sphere proved the feasibility of communications over long 
distances by bouncing radio signals off its reflective surface. 
Messages were transmitted across the continent and across the Atlantic 
and photographs were sent by the same means. 

The EXPLORER VIII satellite, another joint project of Goddard, the 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center, carried 
out the first intensive direct measurements of the earth's ionosphere, 
by measuring concentrations of charged particles and their temperatures. 

In its sounding rocket programs, Goddard made the first measure- 
ments of auroral absorption events and solar proton beams; first flew 
an alkali vapor magnetometer to measure the earth's magnetic field at 
altitudes above 600 miles, and obtained the first ultraviolet stellar 
spectra. 

315 



The NERY, or Nuclear Emulsion Recovery Vehicle, launched by sounding 
rocket from the Pacific Missile Range to a height of 1,260 miles, was 
recovered from the ocean. The experiment produced exact measurements 
of the lower Van Allen Great Radiation Belt. 



316 



EXHIBIT 15 
COPY 



HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE ACT OF 1962 

On August 31, 1962, the President signed H.R. 11040, and the 
Communications Satellite Act of 1962 became law. At the time of 
signing, the President congratulated the Congress for "a step of 
historical importance." He stated further: "It promises significant 
benefits to our own people and to the whole world. Its purpose is to 
establish a commercial communications system, utilizing space satellites 
which will serve our needs and those of other countries and contribute 
to world peace and understanding." 

Major steps in the development of this legislation were as follows: 
a. June 15, 1961, the President asked the Chairman of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Council to have recommendations prepared 
for communications satellite .policy. Under direction of the 
Council staff, interagency meetings were held; policy recommenda- 
tions were drafted; and those recommendations were acted upon 
unanimously by the Council, 
b. July 14, 1961, the President approved and released the policy 
statement, which stressed the public interest objectives in 
obtaining a global system as soon as technically feasible. This 
policy stated that private ownership and operation of the U.S. 
portion of the system is favored, provided that the public 
interest is adequately protected through opportunities for 
foreign participation, non-discriminatory use of and equitable 
access to the system, and effective competition in the acquisi- 
tion of equipment and in the structure of ownership and control. 

c. In the fall of 1961, the President requested the staff of the 
Council to draft recommendations in order that the communications 
satellite policy could be effectively implemented. Under the 
direction of the Council staff, interagency drafting sessions 
were held, and the proposed bill was prepared and transmitted 

to the President. 

d. February 7, 1962, the President sent the proposed legislation 
to the Congress and, in his accompanying message, urged that it 
be given prompt and favorable consideration. 

e. Extensive hearings were held in the Congress. Six different 
committees called witnesses and participated in a thorough 
examination of the communications satellite policy and proposed 
legislation. After such committee actions, explanation and 
debate took place prior to votes in both the House and the 
Senate. The House passed a bill by a 354 to 9 vote on May 3; 
the Senate passed its corresponding version of a bill by a 66 
to 11 vote on August 11; and the House acted to accept the 
Senate bill by a 377 to 10 vote on August 27. 

f . August 31, 1962, the bill was signed by the President and 
became law. 

317 



g. October 4, 1962, the President nominated 13 distinguished citizens 
to be Incorporators, with the statutory responsibility for 
taking the necessary actions to establish a Communications 
Satellite Corporation. 

The Incorporators, under interim appointments, have held a number 
of meetings to consider and initiate the steps required to organize 
the corporation and to apply for a charter under the District of 
Columbia Business Incorporation Act, as provided under the terms of 
the Communications Satellite Act. 

The Communications Satellite Act of 1962 incorporates the major 
objectives of the President's policy statement of July 24, 1961. It 
provides authority for the creation of a private corporation to serve 
as the United States portion of any global system. It will be privately 
financed and the essential business management will be in the hands of 
12 directors elected by the stockholders and 3 directors appointed by 
the President and confirmed by the Senate. At the same time that the 
benefits of profit-making incentives and private management are 
obtained, the Act is most careful to identify national policy 
objectives in relation to the use of commercial communications 
satellites and to provide the machinery within Government for the 
regulation of and assistance to the corporation. In such a framework, 
it is expected that the services the corporation provides and the way 
it conducts business will be wholly responsive to the several 
objectives of the Act. 



31 8 



EXHIBIT 16 
COPY 




Public Law 87-624 

87th Congress, H. R. 11040 

August 31, 1962 



2to act 

76 STAT. 419. 



To provide for the establishment, ownership, operation, and regulation of a 
commercial communications satellite system, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, 

TITLE I— SHORT TITLE, DECLARATION OF POLICY AND 
DEFINITIONS 

SHORT TITLE 

Sec. 101. This Act may be cited as the "Communications Satellite 
Act of 1962". 

DECLARATION OF POLICY AND PURPOSE 

Sec. 102. (a) The Congress hereby declares that it is the policy of 
the United States to establish, in conjunction and in cooperation with 
other countries, as expeditiously as practicable a commercial communi- 
cations satellite system, as part of an improved global communications 
network, which will be responsive to public needs and national ob- 
jectives, which will serve the communication needs of the United 
States and other countries, and which will contribute to world peace 
and understanding. 

(b) The new and expanded telecommunication services are to be 
made available as promptly as possible and are to be extended to pro- 
vide global coverage at the earliest practicable date. In effectuating 
this program, care and attention will be directed toward providing 
such services to economically less developed countries and areas as 
well as those more highly developed, toward efficient and economical 
use of the electromagnetic frequency spectrum, and toward the reflec- 
tion of the benefits of this new technology in both quality of services 
and charges for such services. 

(c) In order to facilitate this development and to provide for the 
widest possible participation by private enterprise, United States 
participation in the global system shall be in the form of a private 
corporation, subject to appropriate governmental regulation. It is 
the intent of Congress that all authorized users shall have nondiscrim- 
inatory access to the system ; that maximum competition be maintained 
in the provision of equipment and services utilized by the system ; that 
the corporation created under this Act be so organized and operated 
as to maintain and strengthen competition in the provision of commu- 
nications services to the public; and that the activities of the corpora- 
tion created under this Act and of the persons or companies partici- 
pating in the ownership of the corporation shall be consistent with the 
Federal antitrust laws. 

(d) It is not the intent of Congress by this Act to preclude the use 
of the communications satellite system for domestic communication 
services where consistent with the provisions of this Act nor to pre- 
clude the creation of additional communications satellite systems, if 
required to meet unique governmental needs or if otherwise required 

in the national interest. $Jp 



Pub. Law 87-624 

76 STAT. 420. 



DEFINITIONS 



Sec. 103. As used in this Act, and unless the context otherwise 
requires — 

(1) the term "communications satellite system" refers to a sys- 
tem of communications satellites in space whose purpose is to relay 
telecommunication information between satellite terminal sta- 
tions, together with such associated equipment and facilities for 
tracking, guidance, control, and command functions as are not 
part of the generalized launching, tracking, control, and command 
facilities for all space purposes; 

(2) the term '^satellite terminal station" refers to a complex 
of communication equipment located on the earth's surf ace, opera- 
tionally connected with one or more terrestrial communication 
systems, and capable of transmitting telecommunications to or 
receiving telecommunications from a communications satellite 
system. 

(3) the term "communications satellite" means an earth satel- 
lite which is intentionally used to relay telecommunication in- 
formation ; 

(4) the term "associated equipment and facilities" refers to 
facilities other than satellite terminal stations and communica- 
tions satellites, to be constructed and operated for the primary 
purpose of a communications satellite system, whether for ad- 
ministration and management, for research and development, or 
for direct support of space operations; 

(5) the term "research and development" refers to the concep- 
tion, design, and first creation of experimental or prototype 
operational devices for the operation of a communications satel- 
lite system, including the assembly of separate components into 
a working whole, as distinguished from the term "production," 
which relates to the construction of such devices to fixed specifi- 
cations compatible with repetitive duplication for operational 
applications; and 

(6) the term "telecommunication" means any transmission, 
emission or reception of signs, signals, writings, images, and 
sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical, or 
other electromagnetic systems. 

(7) the term "communications common carrier" has the same 
meaning as the term "common carrier" has when used in the 
Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and in addition in- 
cludes, but only for purposes of sections 303 and 304, any indi- 
vidual, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust, cor- 
poration, or other entity which owns or controls, directly or in- 
directly, or is under direct or indirect common control with, any 
such carrier; and the term "authorized carrier", except as other- 
wise provided for purposes of section 304 by section 304(b) (1), 
means a communications common carrier which has been au- 
thorized by the Federal Communications Commission under the 
Communications Act of 1934, as amended, to provide services by 
means of communications satellites; 

(8) the term "corporation" means the corporation authorized 
by title III of this Act. 

(9) the term "Administration" means the National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration ; and 

(10) the term "Commission" means the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission. 



320 



Pub. Law 87-624 

76 STAT. 421. 



TITLE II— FEDERAL COORDINATION, PLANNING, AND 
REGULATION 

IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY 

Sec. 201. In order to achieve the objectives and to carry out the 
purposes of this Act — 

(a) the President shall — 

(1) aid in the planning and development and foster the 
execution of a national program for the establishment and 
operation, as expeditiously as possible, of a commercial com- 
munications satellite system ; 

(2) provide for continuous review of all phases of the 
development and operation of such a system, including the 
activities of a communications satellite corporation author- 
ized under title T II of this Act ; 

(3) coordinate the activities of governmental agencies 
with responsibilities in the field of telecommunication, so as 
to insure that there is full and effective compliance at all 
times with the policies set forth in this Act; 

(4) exercise such supervision over relationships of the 
corporation with foreign governments or entities or with 
international bodies as may be appropriate to assure that such 
relationships shall be consistent with the national interest 
and foreign policy of the United States ; 

( 5 ) insure that timely arrangements are made under which 
there can be foreign participation in the establishment and 
use of a communications satellite system ; 

(6) take all necessary steps to insure the availability and 
appropriate utilization of the communications satellite sys- 
tem for general governmental purposes except where a sep- 
arate communications satellite system is required to meet 
unique governmental needs, or is otherwise required in the 
national interest; and 

(7) so exercise his authority as to help attain coordinated 
and efficient use of the electromagnetic spectrum and the 
technical compatibility of the system with existing com- 
munications facilities both in the United States and abroad. 

(b) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
shall— 

(1) advise the Commission on technical characteristics of 
the communications satellite system ; 

(2) cooperate with the corporation in research and de- 
velopment to the extent deemed appropriate by the Admin- 
istration in the public interest ; 

(3) assist the corporation in the conduct of its research 
and development program by furnishing to the corporation, 
when requested, on a reimbursable basis, such satellite launch- 
ing and associated services as the Administration deems nec- 
essary for the most expeditious and economical development 
of the communications satellite system ; 

(4) consult with the corporation with respect to the tech- 
nical characteristics of the communications satellite system ; 

(5) furnish to the corporation, on request and on a reim- 
bursable basis, satellite launching and associated services re- 
quired for the establishment, operation, and maintenance 
of the communications satellite system approved by the 
Commission; and 



321 



Pub. Law 87-624 

76 STAT. 422. 

(6) to the extent feasible, furnish other services, on a reim- 
bursable basis, to the corporation in connection with the 
establishment and operation of the system. 
(c) the Federal Communications Commission, in its adminis- 
tration of the provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as 
amended, and as supplemented by this Act, shall — 

(1) insure effective competition, including the use of com- 
petitive bidding where appropriate, in the procurement by 
the corporation and communications common carriers of ap- 
paratus, equipment, and services required for the establish- 
ment and operation of the communications satellite system 
and satellite terminal stations; and the Commission shall 
consult with the Small Business Administration and solicit 
its recommendations on measures and procedures which will 
insure that small business concerns are given an equitable op- 
portunity to share in the procurement program of the corpo- 
ration for property and services, including but not limited to 
research, development, construction, maintenance, and repair. 

(2) insure that all present and future authorized carriers' 
shall have nondiscriminatory use of, and equitable access 
to, the communications satellite system and satellite terminal 
stations under just and reasonable charges, classifications, 
practices, regulations, and other terms and conditions and 
regulate the manner in which available facilities of the sys- 
tem and stations are allocated among such users thereof ; 

(3) in any case where the Secretary of State, after obtain- 
ing the advice of the Administration as to technical feasi- 
bility, has advised that commercial communication to a par- 
ticular foreign point by means of the communications satellite 
system and satellite terminal stations should be established 
in the national interest, institute forthwith appropriate pro- 
ceedings under section 214(d) of the Communications Act of 
1934, as amended, to require the establishment of such com- 
munication by the corporation and the appropriate common 
carrier or carriers ; 

(4) insure that facilities of the communications satellite 
system and satellite terminal stations are technically compat- 
ible and interconnected operationally with each other and 
with existing communications facilities; 

(5) prescribe such accounting regulations and systems and 
engage in such ratemaking procedures as will insure that any 
economies made possible by a communications satellite system 
are appropriately reflected in rates for public communication 
services ; 

(6) approve technical characteristics of the operational 
communications satellite system to be employed by the cor- 
poration and of the satellite terminal stations; and 

(7) grant appropriate authorizations for the construction 
and operation of each satellite terminal station, either to the 
corporation or to one or more authorized carriers or to the 
corporation and one or more such carriers jointly, as will best 
serve the public interest, convenience, and necessity. In de- 
termining the public interest, convenience, and necessity the 
Commission shall authorize the construction and operation 
of such stations by communications common carriers or the 
corporation, without preference to either ; 

(8) authorize the corporation to issue any shares of capital 
stock, except the initial issue of capital stock referred to in 
section 304(a), or to borrow any moneys, or to assume any 

322 



Pub. Law 87-624 

76 STAT. 423. 



obligation in respect of the securities of any other person, 
upon a finding that such issuance, borrowing, or assumption 
is compatible with the public interest, convenience, and neces- 
sity and is necessary or appropriate for or consistent with 
carrying out the purposes and objectives of this Act by the 
corporation ; 

(9) insure that no substantial additions are made by the 
corporation or carriers with respect to facilities of the system 
or satellite terminal stations unless such additions are re- 
quired by the public interest, convenience, and necessity; 

(10) require_in accordance with the procedural require- 
ments of section 214 of the Communications Act of 1934, as 
amended, that additions be made by the corporation or car- 
riers with respect to facilities of the system or satellite 
terminal stations where such additions would serve the pub- 
lic interest, convenience, and necessity ; and 

(11) make rules and regulations to carry out the pro- 
visions of this Act. 

TITLE III— CREATION OF A COMMUNICATIONS 
SATELLITE CORPORATION 

CREATION OF CORPORATION 

Sec. 301. There is hereby authorized to be created a communica- 
tions satellite corporation for profit which will not be an agency or 
establishment of the United States Government. The corporation 
shall be subject to the provisions of this Act and, to the extent con- 
sistent with this Act, to the District of Columbia Business Corporation 
Act. The right to repeal, alter, or amend this Act at any time is 
expressly reserved. 

process of organization 

Sec. 302. The President of the United States shall appoint incor- 
porators, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall 
serve as the initial board of directors until the first annual meeting 
of stockholders or until their successors are elected and qualified. 
Such incorporators shall arrange for an initial stock offering and 
take whatever other actions are necessary to establish the corporation, 
including the filing of articles of incorporation, as approved by the 
President. 

directors and officers 

Sec. 303. (a) The corporation shall have a board of directors con- 
sisting of individuals who are citizens of the United States, of whom 
one shall be elected annually by the board to serve as chairman. Three 
members of the board shall be appointed by the President of the United 
States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, effective the 
date on which the other members are elected, and for terms of three 
years or until their successors have been appointed and qualified, ex- 
cept that the first three members of the board so appointed shall 
continue in office for terms of one, two, and three years, respectively, 
and any member so appointed to fill a vacancy shall be appointed only 
for the unexpired term of the director whom he succeeds. Six mem- 
bers of the board shall be elected annually by those stockholders who 
are communications common carriers and six shall be elected annually 
by the other stockholders of the corporation. No stockholder who 
is a communications common carrier and no trustee for such a stock- 
holder shall vote, either directly or indirectly, through the votes of 
subsidiaries or affiliated companies, nominees, or any persons subject to 



323 



Pub. Law 87-624 

76 STAT. 424. 

his direction or control, for more than three candidates for member- 
ship on the board. Subject to such limitation, the articles of incor- 
poration to be filed by the incorporators designated under section 
302 shall provide for cumulative voting under section 27(d) of the 
District of Columbia Business Corporation Act (D.C. Code, sec. 
29-911 (d)). 

(b) The corporation shall have a president, and such other officers 
as may be named and appointed by the board, at rates of compensation 
fixed by the board, and serving at the pleasure of the board. No in- 
dividual other than a citizen of the United States may be an officer 
of the corporation. No officer of the corporation shall receive any 
salary from any source other than the corporation during the period 
of his employment by the corporation. 

FINANCING OF THE CORPORATION 

Sec. 304. (a) The corporation is authorized to issue and have out- 
standing, in such amounts as it shall determine, shares of capital stock, 
without par value, which shall carry voting rights and be eligible for 
dividends. The shares of such stock initially offered shall be sold at 
a price not in excess of $100 for each share and in a manner to en- 
courage the widest distribution to the American public. Subject to 
the provisions of subsections (b) and (d) of this section, shares of 
stock offered under this subsection may be issued to and held by any 
person. 

(b) (1) For the purposes of this section the term "authorized car- 
rier" shall mean a communications common carrier which is specifi- 
cally authorized or which is a member of a class of carriers authorized 
by the Commission to own shares of stock in the corporation upon a 
finding that such ownership will be consistent with the public interest, 
convenience, and necessity. 

(2) Only those communications common carriers which are author- 
ized carriers shall own shares of stock in the corporation at any time, 
and no other communications common carrier shall own shares either 
directly or indirectly through subsidiaries or affiliated companies, 
nominees, or any persons subject to its direction or control. Fifty 
per centum of the shares of stock authorized for issuance at any time 
by the corporation shall be reserved for purchase by authorized car- 
riers and such carriers shall in the aggregate be entitled to make pur- 
chases of the reserved shares in a total number not exceeding the total 
number of the nonreserved shares of any issue purchased by other 
persons. At no time after the initial issue is completed shall the ag- 
gregate of the shares of voting stock of the corporation owned by 
authorized carriers directly or indirectly through subsidiaries or 
affiliated companies, nominees, or any persons subject to their direc- 
tion or control exceed 50 per centum of such shares issued and out- 
standing. 

(3) At no time shall any stockholder who is not an authorized 
carrier, or any syndicate or affiliated group of such stockholders, own 
more than 10 per centum of the shares of voting stock of the corpora- 
tion issued and outstanding. 

(c) The corporation is authorized to issue, in addition to the stock 
authorized by subsection (a) of this section, nonvoting securities, 
bonds, debentures, and other certificates of indebtedness as it may 
determine. Such nonvoting securities, bonds, debentures, or other 
certificates of indebtedness of the corporation as a communications 
common carrier may own shall be eligible for inclusion in the rate 
base of the carrier to the extent allowed by the Commission. The vot- 



324 



Pub. Law 87-624 

76 STAT. 425. 



ing stock of the corporation shall not be eligible for inclusion in the 
rate base of the carrier. 

(d) Not more than an aggregate of 20 per centum of the shares of 
stock of the corporation authorized by subsection (a) of this section 
which are held by holders other than authorized carriers may be held 
by persons of the classes described in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), 
and (5) of section 310(a) of the Communications Act of 1934, as 
amended (47 US.C. 310). 

(e) The requirement of section 45(b) of the District of Columbia 
Business Corporation Act (D.C. Code, sec. 29-920 (b)) as to the 
percentage of stock which a stockholder must hold in order to have 
the rights of inspection and copying set forth in that subsection shall 
not be applicable in the case of holders of the stock of the corporation, 
and they may exercise such rights without regard to the percentage of 
stock they hold. 

(f) Upon application to the Commission by any authorized carrier- 
and after notice and hearing, the Commission may compel any other 
authorized carrier which owns shares of stock in the corporation to 
transfer to the applicant, for a fair and reasonable consideration, a 
number of such shares as the Commission determines will advance the 
public interest and the purposes of this Act. In its determination 
with respect to ownership of shares of stock in the corporation, the 
Commission, whenever consistent with the public interest, shall pro- 
mote the widest possible distribution of stock among the authorized 
carriers. 

PURPOSES AND POWERS OF THE CORPORATION 

Sec. 305. (a) In order to achieve the objectives and to carry out the 
purposes of this Act, the corporation is authorized to — 

(1) plan, initiate, construct, own, manage, and operate itself 
or in conjunction with foreign governments or business entities 
a commercial communications satellite system ; 

(2) furnish, for hire, channels of communication to United 
States communications common carriers and to other authorized 
entities, foreign and domestic; and 

(3) own and operate satellite terminal stations when licensed 
by the Commission under section 201(c) (7). 

(b) Included in the activities authorized to the corporation for 
accomplishment of the purposes indicated in subsection (a) of this 
section, are, among others not specifically named — 

(1) to conduct or contract for research and development re- 
lated to its mission ; 

(2) to acquire the physical facilities, equipment and devices 
necessary to its operations, including communications satellites 
and associated equipment and facilities, whether by construction, 
purchase, or gift ; 

(3) to purchase satellite launching and related services from 
the United States Government ; 

(4) to contract with authorized users, including the United 
States Government, for the services of the communications satel- 
lite system ; and 

(5) to develop plans for the technical specifications of all 
elements of the communications satellite system. 

(c) To carry out the foregoing purposes, the corporation shall 
have the usual powers conferred upon a stock corporation by the 
District of Columbia Business Corporation Act. 



32? 



Pub. Law 87-624 

76 STAT. 426. 

TTLE IV— MISCELLANEOUS 

APPLICABILITY OF COMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1034 

Sec. 401. The corporation shall be deemed to be a common carrier 
within the meaning of section 3(h) of the Communications Act of 
1934, as amended, and as such shall be fully subject to the provisions 
of title II and title III of that Act. The provision of satellite 
terminal station facilities by one communication common carrier to 
one or more other communications common carriers shall be deemed to 
be a common carrier activity fully subject to the Communications 
Act. Whenever the application of the provisions of this Act shall 
be inconsistent with the application of the provisions of the Com- 
munications Act, the provisions of this Act shall govern. 

NOTICE OF FOREIGN BUSINESS NEGOTIATIONS 

Sec. 402. Whenever the corporation shall enter into business nego- 
tiations with respect to facilities, operations, or services authorized 
by this Act with any international or foreign entity, it shall notify 
the Department of State of the negotiations, and the Department of 
State shall advise the corporation of relevant foreign policy consid- 
erations. Throughout such negotiations the corporation shall keep 
the Department of State informed with respect to such considerations. 
The corporation may request the Department of State to assist in 
the negotiations, and that Department shall render such assistance as 
may be appropriate. 

SANCTIONS 

Sec. 403. (a) If the corporation created pursuant to this Act shall 
engage in or adhere to any action, practices, or policies inconsistent 
with the policy and purposes declared in section 102 of this Act, or 
if the corporation or any other person shall violate any provision of 
this Act, or shall obstruct or interfere with any activities authorized 
by this Act, or shall refuse, fail, or neglect to discharge his duties and 
responsibilities under this Act, or shall threaten any such violation, 
obstruction, interference, refusal, failure, or neglect, the district court 
of the United States for any district in which such corporation or 
other person resides or may be found shall have jurisdiction, except 
as otherwise prohibited by law, upon petition of the Attorney General 
of the United States, to grant such equitable relief as may be necessary 
or appropriate to prevent or terminate such conduct or threat. 

(b) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as relieving 
any person of any punishment, liability, or sanction which may be 
imposed otherwise than under this Act. 

(c) It shall be the duty of the corporation and all communications 
common carriers to comply, insofar as applicable, with all provisions 
of this Act and all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. 

REPORTS TO THE CONGRESS 

Sec. 404. (a) The President shall transmit to the Congress in 
January of each year a report which shall include a comprehensive 
description of the activities and accomplishments during the preceding 
calendar year under the national program referred to in section 
201(a) (1), together with an evaluation of such activities and accom- 
plishments in terms of the attainment of the objectives of this Act 
and any recommendations for additional legislative or other action 
which the President may consider necessary or desirable for the attain- 
ment of such objectives. 



326 



Pub. Law 87-624 

76 STAT. 427, 

(b) The corporation shall transmit to the President and the 
Congress, annually and at such other times as it deems desirable, a 
comprehensive and detailed report of its operations, activities, and 
accomplishments under this Act. 

(c) The Commission shall transmit to the Congress, annually and 
at such other times as it deems desirable, (i) a report of its activities 
and actions on anticompetitive practices as they apply to the com- 
munications satellite programs; (ii) an evaluation of such activities 
and actions taken by it within the scope of its authority with a view 
to recommending such additional legislation which the Commission 
may consider necessary in the public interest; and (hi) an evaluation 
of the capital structure of the corporation so as to assure the Congress 
that such structure is consistent with the most efficient and economical 
operation of the corporation. 

Approved August 31, 1962, 9:51a.m. 



327 



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Appendix I 

Robert I. fioddard 

Contributions and 
Memorabilia 



Robert H. Goddard's Basic Contribution to Rocketry and Space Flight 

First American to explore mathematically the practicality of using rocket propulsion to 

reach high altitudes and to traject to the moon (1912) 
First to receive a U.S. patent on the idea of a multistage rocket (1914) 
First to prove, by actual static test, that rocket propulsion operates in a vacuum, that it 

needs no air to push against (1915-1916) 
First to develop suitable pumps for liquid-fuel rockets (1923) 
First to develop and successfully fly a liquid-fuel rocket (March 16, 1926) 
First to launch a scientific payload (a barometer, a thermometer, and a camera) in a 

rocket flight (1929) 
First to use vanes in the rocket thrust for guidance (1932) 
First to develop gyro control apparatus for rocket flight (1932) 
First to fire a liquid-fuel rocket faster than the speed of sound (1935) 
First to launch successfully a rocket with a motor pivoted in gimbals controlled by a gyro 

mechanism (1937) 

Robert H. Goddard Memorabilia 

National Air Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.— Exhibit of the four 
complete extant Goddard rockets, made in 1926, 1935, 1938, and 1941; also some 
rocket parts, an oil portrait of Dr. Goddard, and a few personal memorabilia. 

Institute of the Aerospace Sciences, New York City— Goddard collection of early rocket 
literature, one of the best in the U.S., which was transferred to the Library of 
Congress. The Institute had, from 1950 to 1959, an exhibit of numerous devices and 
parts developed and used by Dr. Goddard from 1918-1945, on long-term loan to the 
Roswell Museum, Roswell, New Mexico. 

Roswell Museum, Roswell, New Mexico— Largest exhibit of parts of Goddard rockets, 
housed in the Goddard Wing of museum (dedicated April 25, 1959), including pip- 
ing, drawings, murals of life-size photographs of four Smithsonian rockets, etc. On 
the grounds of the museum is the launching tower used by Dr. Goddard, with a copy 
of the 1940 rocket in it. His observation tower is also on display. 

329 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass.— Physics Department owned rocket parts, with addi- 
tional items given by Mrs. Goddard, Also life-size photos, used as murals, of the four 
Smithsonian-held rockets, and bronze tablet at entrance to Physics Building, a gift of 
the class of 1959. 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass.— Collection of solid-propellant rockets, 
some of which were developed in WPI building and grounds. Also set of four murals 
of life-size Smithsonian rockets. 

Robert H, Goddard Professorships, at Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Centers, at Princeton 
University, and at the California Institute of Technology, established by The Daniel 
and Florence Guggenheim Foundation. 

Goddard Award, given by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics an- 
nually to one selected by its Directors as having made the greatest contribution to 
rocket development during the year; the oldest award in rocketry, 

Goddard Power Plant, multimillion dollar plant at the Naval Proving Ground, Indian 
Head, Maryland, in memory of Dr. Goddard's work there in 1920-1922. 

WPI 1908-Goddard Memorial Funtf-Established by the class of 1 908 of Worcester Poly- 
technic Institute in June 1958; income to be used for prize or scholarship. 

Hill Transportation Award, of the Institute of the Aerospace Sciences— Carrying §5,000 
and citation, accepted for Dr. Goddard by Mrs. Goddard at the annual dinner of IAS, 
January 1959. 

Golden Replica of 1926 Goddard Rocket-Accepted for Dr. Goddard by Mrs, Goddard 
at the Missile Industry Conference at Washington, D.C, June 1958. Now on view at 
the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 

Goddard Memorial Dinner— Sponsored annually since 1958 on the anniversary of the 
first liquid-fuel flight, in Washington, D.C., by the National Space Club. 

Goddard Trophy and Goddard Scholarship— Given annually at the Goddard Memorial 
Dinner at Washington, D.C,, sponsored by the National Space Club. 

Air Force Academy Goddard Award, Colorado— Established by the American Ordnance 
Association, to the cadet with the highest standing in mathematics in each graduating 
class. 

Langley Medal— Dr. Goddard was the ninth recipient of this coveted medal from the 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Presented to Mrs. God- 
dard, in Washington, June 28, I960. 

American Rocketry Society Goddard Memorial— Granite marker at site of the first flight 
of a 1 iq u id- propel la nt rocket, March 16, 1926. at Auburn, Mass., with a granite tablet 
beside road nearby, explaining significance of the marker. Dedicated July 13, 1960. 

Congressional Medal—Presented posthumously to Dr. Goddard on March 16, 1961, at 
the dedication of the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 

Goddard Institute for Space Studies, extension in New York City of the Goddard Space 
Flight Center; established January 1961. 

Goddard Alumni A ward— Established by the alumni of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 
[une 1 951 warded annually to an outstanding alumnus, 

Robert H. Goddard Squadron— Air Force Association, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Cali- 
fornia, established 1961, 

Robert H. Goddard Industrial Center, Worcester, Mass.— Dedicated June 19, 1961. 

Goddard Science Symposium of the American Astronautical Society— Annually on March 
36, in Washington, D.C. 

Robert H. Goddard Historical Essay Competition of the National Space Club— Prize of 
$200 and trophy awarded annually for the best essay on the historical development of 
rocketry and astronautics; established March 1962. 

Robert H. Goddard Achievement Award— In Civil Air Patrol Cadet Aerospace Educa- 
tion and Training Program, National Headquarters, Ellington Air Force Base, Tex. 

330 



APPENDIX I 



Robert H. Goddard Memorial Library,, Clark University, Worcester, Mass., depository of 

Dr. Goddard 's papers, established 1964. 
Robert H. Goddard Memorial— Tower and rocket at Fort Devens, Mass., at the site of 

the Goddard testing tower, 1929-1930. Dedicated May 1963. 



331 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT F1LW 



Appendix J 
Selected Bibliograph; 



Books 



Aarons, J. (ed.) , Radio Astronomical and Sat- 
ellite Studies of the Atmosphere (New York, 
1963) . 

Akens, David S., Historical Origins of George 
C. Marshall Space Flight Center (Hunts- 
ville, Ala., 1960) . 

American Institute o£ Aeronautics and Astro- 
nautics, AIAA Unmanned Spacecraft Meet- 
ing, AIAA Publication CP-12 (New York, 
1965) . 

Bergaust, Eric, Reaching for the Stars (Gar- 
den City, N.Y., 1960) . 

Berkner, Lloyd V. (ed.) , Manual on Rockets 
and Satellites (New York, 1958) . 

and Odishaw, Hugh, Science in Space 

(New York, 1961) . 

Bestev, Alfred, The Life and Death of a Sat- 
ellite (Boston, 1966) . 

Blanco, V. M., and McCuskey, S. W., Basic 
Physics of the Solar System (Reading, Mass., 
1961) . 

BOEHM, J., FlCHTNER, H. J., AND HOBERG, O. 

A., "Explorer Satellites Launched by Juno 1 
and Juno 2 Space Carrier Vehicles," in As- 
tronautical Engineering and Science, Ernst 
Stuhlinger et al., eds. (New York, 1963) . 

Boyd, R. L. F., Space Research by Rocket and 
Satellite (New York, 1960) . 

Brandt, J. C, and Hodge, P. W., Solar System 
Astrophysics (New York, 1964) . 

Carter, L. J. (ed.) , The Artificial Satellite: 
Proceedings of the Second International 
Congress on Astronautics, British Inter- 
planetary Society (London, 1951) . 



Chamberlain, Joseph W., Physics of the Au- 
rora and Airglow (New York, 1961) . 

Chapman, John L., Atlas: The Story of a Mis- 
sile (New York, 1960) . 

Chapman, Sidney, Solar Plasma, Geomagnet- 
ism and Aurora (New York, 1964) . 

Devjtsch, Armin J., and Klemperer, Wolfgang 
B. (eds.) , Space Age Astronomy (New York, 
1962) . 

Emme, Eugene M., Aeronautics and Astronau- 
tics, 1915-60 (Washington, D.C., 1961) . 

(ed.) , The History of Rocket Technolo- 
gy (Detroit, 1964) . 

Franklin Institute: Earth Satellites as Research 
Vehicles, Monograph 2 (Philadelphia, 1956) . 

Frutkin, Arnold, International Cooperation in 
Space (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965) . 

Gartman, Heinz, The Men Behind the Space 
Rockets (New York, 1956) . 

Gatland, Kenneth W., Project Satellite (Lon- 
don, 1958) . 

Glasstone, S., Sourcebook on the Space Sci- 
ences (Princeton, 1965) . 

Goddard, Robert H., Rocket Development: 
Liquid Fuel Rocket Research, 1929-1941 
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1961) . 

Grim wood, James M., Project Mercury: A 
Chronology, NASA SP-4001 (Washington, 
D.C., 1963) . 

Hale, Edward E., The Brick Moon and Other 
Stories (Boston, 1899) . 

Haviland, Robert P., and House, C. M., 
Handbook of Satellites and Space Vehicles 
(Princeton, 1965) . 



333 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



Hess, Wilmot N. (ed.) , Introduction to Space 

Science (New York, 1965) . 
Jastrow, Robert (ed.) , The Exploration of 
Space (New York, 1960). 

and Cameron, A. G. W. (eds.) , Origin 

of the Solar System (New York, 1963) . 
Jeter, Irving E. (ed.) , Scientific Satellites, 
Mission and Design (North Hollywood, 
Calif., 1963) . 
Jones, Bessie Z., Lighthouse of the Skies: A 
History of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory (Washington, D.C., 1965) . 
Johnson, Francis S. (ed.) , Satellite Environ- 
ment Handbook (Palo Alto, 1965) . Second 
edition. 
Kallman Bijl, Hilde (ed.) , Space Research 

(New York, 1960) . 
Kaula, William M., Theory of Satellite Geod- 
esy (New York, 1965) . 
King-Hele, D. G., Satellites and Scientific Re- 
search (New York, 1965) . 
• , Muller, P., and Righini, G„ Space Re- 
search V (New York, 1965) . 
Kornosova, L. V. (ed.) , Artificial Satellites 

(New York, vols. 1-6, 1960-1961) . 
Lasser, David, The Conquest of Space (New 

York, 1931) . 
LeGalley, Donald P. (ed.) , Space Science 
(New York, 1963) . 

• and Rosen, Alan, Space Physics (New 

York, 1964) . 

and McKee, John W., Space Exploration 

(New York, 1964) . 
Lehman, Milton, This High Man: The Life 

of Robert H. Goddard (New York, 1963) . 
Ley, Willy, Rockets, Missiles, and Space 

Travel (3 rev. ed., New York, 1961) . 
McMahon, A. J., Astrophysics and Space 
Science: An Integration of Sciences (Engle- 
wood Cliffs, N.J., 1965) . 
Moore, Patrick, Earth Satellites (New York, 

1956) . 
Morcenthaler, George (ed.) , Unmanned Ex- 
ploration of the Solar System (New York, 
1965) . 
Mueller, I. I., and Rookie, J. D., Gravimetric 

and Celestial Geodesy (New York, 1966) . 
Muller, P. (ed.) , Space Research IV (New 

York, 1964) . 
Naugle, John E., Unmanned Space Flight 
(New York, 1965) . 



Newell, Homer E. (ed.) , Sounding Rockets 
(New York, 1959) . 

, Express to the Stars (New York, 1960) . 

Odishaw, Hugh (ed.) , Research in Geophysics 
series; Vol. 1, Sun, Upper Atmosphere and 
Space (Cambridge, 1964) . 

and Ruttenberg, S. (eds.) , Geophysics 

and the IGY, American Geophysical Union, 
Monograph 2 (Washington, 1958) . 
Pendray, G. Edward, The Coming Age of 

Rocket Power (New York, 1945) . 
Priester, Wolfgang (ed.) , Space Research III 

(New York, 1963) . 
Rosen, Milton, The Viking Rocket Story 

(New York, 1955) . 
Rosholt, Robert L., An Administrative His- 
tory of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101 
(Washington, D.C., 1966) . 
Schwiebert, Ernest G., A History of the U.S. 
Air Force Ballistic Missiles (New York, 
1965) . 
Shternfeld, Ari, Artificial Satellites (Wash- 
ington, 1958) . 
Smith-Rose, R. L. (ed.) , Space Research VI 

(Washington, 1966). 
Stehling, Kurt R., Project Vanguard (Garden 

City, N.Y., 1961) . 
Swenson, Loyd S., Grimwood, James M., and 
Alexander, Charles C, This New Ocean: A 
History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201 
(Washington, D.C., 1966) . 
Sullivan, Walter, Assault on the Unknown: 
The International Geophysical Year (New 
York, 1961) . 
Thomas, Shirley, Satellite Tracking Facilities: 
Their History and Operation (New York, 
1963) . 
Valley, Shea L. (ed.) , Handbook of Geophys- 
ics and Space Environments, U.S.A.F. Office 
of Aerospace Research (Hanscom Field, 
Mass., 1965) . 
Van Allen, James A. (ed.) , Scientific Uses of 

Earth Satellites (Ann Arbor, 1958) . 
van de Hulst, H. C, de Jager, C, and Moore, 
A. F. (eds.) , Space Research II (New York, 
1961) . 
Veis, G. (ed.) , The Use of Artificial Satellites 

for Geodesy (New York, 1963) . 
Williams, Beryl, and Epstein, Samuel, The 
Rocket Pioneers on the Road to Space 
(New York, 1955) . 



334 



APPENDIX J 



Official Reports 



Adams, James L., Space Technology, Vol. II, 
"Spacecraft Mechanical Engineering," NASA 
SP-66 (Washington, 1965) . 

Alexander, J. K., and Stone, R. H., A Satel- 
lite System for Radio-astronomical Measure- 
ments at Low Frequencies, NASA TM 
X-55089 (Washington, 1964) . 

Ashby, John, "A Preliminary History of the 
Evolution of the Tiros Weather Satellite 
Program," NASA HBN-45. 

Aucremanne, Marcel, Jr. (ed.) , The Iono- 
sphere Beacon Satellite, S-45, NASA TN 
D-695 (Washington, 1961) . 

Bell Laboratories: Final Report on Bell Tele- 
phone Laboratories Experiments on Ex- 
plorer XV, NASA CR-67106 (New York, 
1964) . 

Blumle, L. J., Fitzenreiter, R. J., and 
Jackson, J. E., The National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Topside Sounder 
Program, NASA TN D-1913 (Washington, 
1963) . 

Boeckel, John H., The Purpose of Environ- 
mental Testing for Scientific Satellites, NASA 
TN D-1900 (Washington, D.C., 1963) . 

Bourdeau, Robert E., et al., The Ionosphere 
Direct Measurements Satellite Instrumenta- 
tion (Explorer VIII), NASA TN D^14 
(Washington, 1962) . 

Casper, Jonathan D., History of Alouette: 
NASA Case-Study of An International' Pro- 
gram, NASA HHN-42, 1964, revised 1965. 

Coffee, Claude W„ Bressette, Walter E., and 
Keating, Gerald M., Design of the NASA 
Lightweight Inflatable Satellite for the De- 
termination of Atmospheric Density at Ex- 
treme Altitudes, NASA TN D-1243 (Wash- 
ington, 1962) . 

Corliss, William R., The Evolution of the 
Manned Space Flight Network, NASA 
GHN-4 (Greenbelt, Md., 1967) . 

, The Evolution of the Satellite Tracking 

and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), 
NASA GHN-3, X-202-67-26 (Greenbelt, 
Md., 1967) . 

, Scientific Satellites, NASA SP-133 (Wash- 
ington, D.C., 1967) . 

Cortright, Edcar M., Unmanned Spacecraft of 
the United States (Washington, 1964) . 



DAiutolo, Charles T. (ed.) , The Microme- 
teoroid Satellite Explorer XIII (1961 Chi), 
NASA TN D-2468 (Washington, 1964) . 

Franta, Allen L., Integrating Spacecraft Sys- 
tems, NASA TN D-3049 (Washington, 
1966). 

Giacconi,. R., An X-Ray Telescope, NASA 
CR-41 (Washington, 1965) . 

Goddard, Mrs. Robert H., "Account of Dr. 
Goddard's World 1917-18," in Congressional 
Record, September 9, 1959. 

' and Pendray, G. Edward, "Biographical 

Data: Dr. Robert H. Goddard," reprinted in 
Congressional Record, May 6, 1960. 

Habib, E. J., Keipert, F. A., and Lee, R. C, 
Telemetry Processing for NASA Scientific 
Satellites, NASA TN D-3411 (Washington, 
D.C., 1966) . 

Hayes, E. Nelson, The Smithsonian's Satel- 
lite-Tracking Program: Its History and Or- 
ganization, in Annual Report, Smithsonian 
Institution (Washington, D.C., 1962) . 

Heppner, James P., Ness, Norman F., Skill- 
man, Thomas L., and Scearce, Clell S., 
Goddard Space Flight Center Contributions 
to 1961 Kyoto Conference on Cosmic Rays 
and the Earth Storm (Washington, B.C., 
1961) . 

Hess, Wilmot N., Mead, G. D., and Nakada, 
M. P„ Bibliography of Particles and Fields 
Research, NASA X-640-65-37 (Greenbelt, 
Md., 1965) . 

Ludwig, George H., Particles and Fields Re- 
search in Space, NASA SP-11 (Washington, 
D.C., 1962) . 

, The Orbiting Geophysical Observatories, 

NASA TN D-2646 (Washington, D.C., 
1963) . 

NASA, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1963: A 
Chronology on Science, Technology, and 
Policy, SP-4004, prepared by the NASA His- 
torical Staff (Washington, D.C., 1964) . 

, Goddard Projects Summary: Satellites 

and Sounding Rockets, Goddard Space Flight 
Center (Greenbelt, Md.; published peri- 
odically) . 

, Ariel I, The First International Satellite, 

Experimental Results, Goddard Space Flight 
Center (Washington, D.C., 1966) . 



335 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



— — , Ariel I, The First International Satellite, 
NASA SP-^3 (Washington, B.C., 1963) . 

, Goddard Space Flight Center Contribu- 
tions to COSPAR Meeting, May 1962, NASA 
TN B-1669 (Greenbelt, Md., 1962) . 

— — , Goddard Space Flight Center Contribu- 
tions to COSPAR Meeting, June 1963, G-545 
(Washington, B.C., 1963) . 

, Orbiting Solar Observatory, Goddard 

Space Flight Center, NASA SP-57 (Washing- 
ton, B.C., 1965) . 

, Historical Sketch of NASA, NASA EP-29, 

prepared by the NASA Historical Staff 
(Washington, B.C., 1965) . 

, Juno II Summary Project Report, Vol. I, 

Explorer VII Satellite. Vol. II, The S~46 
Satellite, NASA TN B-608 (Washington, 
1961) . 

— — , Launch Vehicles of the National Launch 
Vehicle Program, NASA SP-10 (Washington, 
B.C., 1962) . 

, Proceedings of the NASA-University Con- 
ference on the Science and Technology of 
Space Exploration, NASA SP-11 (Washing- 
ton, 1962) . 

, Semiannual Reports to Congress, Octo- 
ber 1, 1958 and October 1, 1959 (Washing- 
ton, B.C., 1959 and 1960) . 

, Significant Achievements in Ionospheres 

and Radio Physics, 1958-1964, NASA SP-95 
(Washington, 1966) . 

, Significant Achievements in Particles and 

Fields, 1958-1964, NASA SP-97 (Washing- 
ton, 1966) . 

, Significant Achievements in Satellite 

Geodesy, 1958-1964, NASA SP-94 (Washing- 
ton, 1966) . 

— — , Significant Achievements in Satellite Me- 
teorology, 1958-1964, NASA SP-96 (Wash- 
ington, 1966) . 

, Significant Achievements in Solar Physics, 

1958-1964, NASA SP-100 (Washington, 
1966) . 

, Significant Achievements in Space Astron- 
omy, 1958-1964, NASA SP-91 (Washington, 
1966) . 

, Space Measurements Survey, Instruments 

and Spacecraft, October 1957-March 1965, 
ed. by Dr. Henry L. Richter, NASA SP-3028 
(Washington, B.C., 1966) . 

, The Observatory Generation of Satellites, 

NASA SP-30 (Washington, 1963) . 



, United States Space Science Program: Re- 
port to COSPAR, Sixth Meeting, Warsaw, 
Poland, June 1963 (Washington, B.C., 1963) . 

United States Space Science Program: Report 
to COSPAR, Seventh Meeting, Florence, 
Italy, May 1964 (Washington, B.C., 1964) . 

National Academy of Sciences-National Re- 
search Council, United States Space Science 
Program: Report to COSPAR, Fifth Meet- 
ing, Washington, D.C., May 1962 (Washing- 
ton, B.C., 1962) . 

National Research Council, A Review of Space 
Research, Publication 1079 (Washington, 
1962) . 

, Proposed United States Program for the 

International Geophysical Year (Washing- 
ton, 1956) . 

, Space Research, Directions for the Future 

(Washington, D.C., 1966) . 

New, John C, Achieving Satellite Reliability 
through Environmental Tests, NASA TN 
B-1853 (Washington, 1963) . 

, Scientific Satellites and the Space Envi- 
ronment, NASA TN B-1340 (Washington, 
B.C., 1962) . 

Southwick, A. B., "The Memorial Which Dr. 
Goddard Would Have Liked Best of All," 
Worcester Evening Gazette, May 9, 1958, re- 
printed in Congressional Record, Septem- 
ber 9, 1959, p. A7904. 

Stafford, Walter H, and Croft, Robert M., 
Artificial Earth Satellites and Successful So- 
lar Probes, 1957-1960, NASA TN B-601 
(Washington, 1961) . 

Sterhardt, J. A., NASA Sounding Rocket Pro- 
gram: Summary of Sounding Rocket Flights, 
NASA X-721-66-515 (Greenbelt, Md., 
1966) . 

Timmins, Albert R., and Rosette, Kenneth 
L., Experience in Thermal-Vacuum Testing 
Earth Satellites at Goddard Space Flight 
Center, NASA TN B-1748 (Washington, 
B.C., 1963) . 

U.S. Congress, NASA Authorization for Fiscal 
Year 1961— Part I, 86th Congress, 2nd Ses- 
sion, Testimony by Homer E. Newell, Jr., 
Office of Space Flight Programs (Washing- 
ton, B.C., 1961) . 

House, Committee on Science and Astronau- 
tics, Aeronautical and Astronautical Events 
of 1961, prepared by the NASA Historical 
Staff (Washington, B.C., 1962) . 



336 



APPENDIX J 



House, Committee on Science and Astronau- 
tics, Astronautical and Aeronautical Events 
of 1962, prepared by the NASA Historical 
Staff (Washington, D.C., 1963) . 

Senate, Committee on Aeronautical and Space 
Sciences, Documents on International As- 
pects of the Exploration and Use of Outer 



Space, 1954-1963, Staff Report (Washington, 
D.C., 1963) . 

Space Handbook: Astronautics and Its Appli- 
cations (Washington, 1959) . 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Conference on 
Artificial Satellites, NASA CR-60131 (Blacks- 
burg, Va., 1963) . 



Speeches 



Boushey, Brig. Gen. Homer A., "Vignettes of 
Dr. Robert H. Goddard," Address at Third 
Annual Goddard Memorial Dinner, Febru- 
ary 17, 1960. 

Glennan, Dr. T. Keith, "The Nation's Pro- 
gram in Space Exploration," Speech at the 
Economic Club, Worcester, Mass., February 
15, 1960. 

, Speech, Science, Engineering and New 

Technology Committee, Oregon State De- 
partment of Planning and Development, 
Portland, Ore., October 12, 1960. 

Goett, Dr. Harry J., "Scientific Exploration 
of Space," Address to Franklin Institute, 
Philadelphia, Pa., May 9, 1962. 



, "Scientific Exploration of Space and Its 

Challenge to Education," Address at Centen- 
nial Convocation, Worcester Polytechnic In- 
stitute, Worcester, Mass., October 8, 1964. 

Jastrow, Robert, "Results of Experiments in 
Space," 25th Wright Brothers Lecture 
(IAS) , Washington, D.C., December 18, 
1961. 

Webb, James E., Address before the American 
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 
New York, October 21, 1963. 

, Address to Webb School Alumni Asso- 
ciation Testimonial Dinner, Los Angeles, 
Calif., April 26, 1962. 



Articles 



Arnoldy, R. L., Hoffman, R. A., and 
Winckler, J. R., "Observations of the Van 
Allen Radiation Regions During August 
and September 1959," Part I, Journal of 
Geophysical Research, LXV (May 1960) , 
1361-1376. 

Augenstein, B. W., "Scientific Satellite — Pay- 
load Considerations," RAND Corp., RM- 
1459, 1955. 

Beller, William S., "New Delta May Prove 
Most Economical," Missiles and Rockets, 
XVII (Aug. 16, 1965) , 24-29. 

Bourdeau, Robert E., "Ionospheric Research 
from Space Vehicles," Space Science Re- 
views, I (1962) , 683-718. 

, "Research Within the Ionosphere," 

Science, CXLVIII (April 30, 1965) , 585-594. 

Boyd, R. L. F., "In Space: Instruments or 
Man?" International Science and Technolo- 
gy, No. 41 (May 1965) , 65-70. 

, "Techniques for the Measurement of 

Extraterrestrial Soft X-Radiation," Space 
Science Reviews, IV (Feb. 1965) , 35-90. 



Burcess, Eric, "The Establishment and Use of 
Artificial Satellites," Aeronautics, XXI 
(Sept. 1949) , 70-82. 

Cahill, Laurence J., "Magnetic Fields in In- 
terplanetary Space," Science, CXLVII (Feb. 
26, 1965) , 991-1000. 

, "The Magnetosphere," Scientific Ameri- 
can, CCXII (March 1965) , 58-68. 

Canney, H. E., and Ordway, F. L, "The Uses 
of Artificial Satellite Vehicles," Astronautica 
Acta, II (1956) , 147-179; (1957) , 1-15. 

Chazy, J., "Sur les Satellites Artificiels de la 
Terre," Comptes Rendus, CCXXV (Sept. 22, 
1947) , 469. 

Clarke, Arthur C, "Extraterrestrial Relays," 
Wireless World (Oct. 1945) . 

Coleman, P. J., Jr., Sonett, C P., Judge, D. 
L., and Smith, E. J., "Some Preliminary Re- 
sults of the Pioneer V Magnetometer Ex- 
periment," Journal of Geophysical Research, 
LXV (June 1960) , 1856-1857. 

Cross, C A., "The Fundamental Basis of 
Power Generation in a Satellite Vehicle," 



337 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



Journal of the British Interplanetary So- 
ciety, XI (1952) , 117-125. 

Dicke, R, H., and Peebles, P. J., "Gravitation 
and Space Science," Space Science Reviews, 
IV (June 1965) , 419-460. 

Edson, j. B., and Snodgrass, R. J., "Prelude to 
Missilry," Ordnance, XLIII (July-Aug. 
1958) , 67-70. 

Ehricke, Krafft A., "The Satelloid," Astro- 
nautica Acta, 11 (1956) , 63-100. 

Ehrlich, Eugene, "NASA Particles and Fields 
Spacecraft," AIAA Paper 64-337 (1964) . 

Emme, Eugene M., "Yesterday's Dream . . . 
Today's Reality; A Biographical Sketch of 
the American Rocket Pioneer, Dr. Robert 
H. Goddard," The Airpower Historian, V 
(Oct. 1960) , 216-221. 

Fan, C. Y., Meyer, Peter, and Simpson, J. A., 
"Experiments in the Eleven-Year Change of 
Cosmic-Ray Intensity Using a Space Probe," 
Physical Review Letters, V (Sept. 1960) , 

Findlay, John W„ "Radio Astronomy from 
Space Vehicles," Astronautics and Aeronau- 
tics, IV (Oct. 1966) , 10-14. 

Friedman, Herbert, "The Next 20 Years of 
Space Science," Astronautics and Aeronau- 
tics, III (Nov. 1965) , 40-47. 

, "X-Ray Astronomy," Scientific American, 

CCX (June 1964) , 36-45. 

Gatland, K. W„ Kunesch, A. M., and Dixon, 
A. E., "Minimum Satellite Vehicles," Jour- 
nal of the British Interplanetary Society, X 
(1951), 287. 

Goddard, Robert H., "An Autobiography," 
Astronautics, IV (April 1959) , 24 ff. 

, "A Method of Reaching Extreme Alti- 
tudes," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Publica- 
tion No. 2540 (1919) , reprinted by the 
American Rocket Society, 1946. 

, "Liquid-Propellant Rocket Develop- 
ment," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Publica- 
tion No. 3381 (March 1936) , reprinted by 
the American Rocket Society, 1946, and in 
The Air Power Historian, V (July 1958), 
152-160. 

Goldman, D. T., and Singer, S. F., "Studies of 
a Minimum Orbital Unmanned Satellite of 
the Earth (MOUSE) , Part III," Astronauti- 
ca Acta, III (1957), 110-129. 

Haber, Heinz, "Space Satellites, Tools of 



Earth Research," National Geographic Maga- 
zine, CIX (April 1956) , 487-509. 

Hagen, John P., "The Viking and the Van- 
guard," in Emme, Eugene M. (ed.) , The 
History of Rocket Technology (1964) , 
122-141. 

Hagermann, E. R., "Goddard and His Early 
Rockets," Journal of the Astronautical 
Sciences, VIII (Summer 1961) , 51-59. 

Hall, R. Cargill, "Early U.S. Satellite Pro- 
posals," in Emme, Eugene M. (ed.) , The 
History of Rocket Technology (1964) , 
67-93. 

, "Origins and Development of the Van- 
guard and Explorer Satellite Programs," 
The Air Power Historian, XI (Oct. 1964) , 
101-112. 

Heppner, J. P., "The World Magnetic Sur- 
vey," Space Science Reviews, II (1963) , 
315-354. 

Hines, Colin O., "Sounding Rocket Resur- 
gence," Astronautics and Aeronautics, IV 
(1966) , 8-13. 

- — — , "The Magnetopause: A New Frontier in 
Space," Science, CXLI (July 12, 1963) , 
130-136. 

Hinteregger, H. E., "Absolute Intensity Meas- 
urements in the Extreme Ultraviolet Spec- 
trum of Solar Radiation," Space Science Re- 
views, IV (June 1965) , 461-497. 

Hoover, George W., "Instrumentation for 
Space Vehicles," American Rocket Society 
Paper 157-54 (1954) . 

Jastrow, Robert, and Cameron, A. G. W., 
"Space: Highlights of Recent Research," 
Science, CXLV (Sept. 11, 1964) , 1129-1139. 

Kallmann, H. K., and Kellogg, W. W., 
"Scientific Uses of an Earth Satellite," RAND 
Corp., RM-1500 (1955) . 

Krull, A. R., "A History of the Artificial Sat- 
ellite," Jet Propulsion, XXVI (May 1956), 
369-383. 

Kupperian, James E., and Zeimer, Robert R., 
"Satellite Astronomy," International Science 
and Technology (March 1962) , 48-56. 

LaGow, H. E., "Instrumenting Unmanned 
Satellites," American Rocket Society Paper 
281-55 (1955). 

Lehman, M., "The Strange Story of Doctor 
Goddard," Reader's Digest, LXVII (Nov. 
1955) , 147-152. 



33c 



APPENDIX J 



Ley, Willy, "The Satellite Rocket," The 
Technology Review, LII (Dec. 1949) , 93. 

Ludwig, George H., "Cosmic-Ray Instrumenta- 
tion in the First U.S. Earth Satellite," Re- 
views of Scientific Instruments, XXX (April 
1959) , 223. 

Malina, Frank J., "Origins and First Decade 
of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory," in 
Emme, Eugene M. (ed.) , The History of 
Rocket Technology (1964) , 63-65. 

Maxwell, W. R., "Some Aspects of the 
Origins and Early Development of Astro- 
nautics," Journal of the British Interplane- 
tary Society, XVIII (1962) , 415-425. 

Mayo-Wells, Wilfrid J., "The Origins of 
Space Telemetry," Technology and Culture, 
IV (Fall 1963) , 499-514. 

McGuire, James B., Spangler, Eugene R., and 
Wong, Lem, "The Size of the Solar System," 
Scientific American, CCIV (April 1961) , 
64-72. 

Ness, Norman F., "Earth's Magnetic Field: A 
New Look," Science, CLI (March 4, 1966) , 
1041-1052. 

, "The Earth's Magnetic Tail," Journal of 

Geophysical Research, LXX (July 1, 1965) , 
2989-3005. 

Newell, Homer E., "The Satellite Project," 
Scientific American, CXCIII (Dec. 1955) , 
29-33. 

Newton, Robert R., "Geodesy by Satellite," 
Science, CXLIV (May 15, 1964) , 803-808. 

Oberth, Hermann, "From My Life," Astro- 
nautics, IV (June 1959) , 38-39, 100 f. 

O'Brien, Brian J., "Review of Studies of 
Trapped Radiation with Satellite-Borne Ap- 
paratus," Space Science Reviews, I (1962) , 
415-484. 

Ordway, Frederick L, "Project Vanguard — 
Earth Satellite Vehicle Program," Astronau- 
tica Acta, III (1957) , 67-86. 

Pendray, G. Edward, "Pioneer Rocket Devel- 
opment in the United States," Technology 
and Culture, IV (Fall 1963) , 384-392. 

Pierce, John R., "Satellite Science and Tech- 
nology," Science, CXLI (July 19, 1963), 
237-244. 

RAND Corp., "Preliminary Design of An Ex- 
perimental World-Circling Spaceship," (May 
1946) . 
Rogerson, John B., "The Orbiting Astronom- 



ical Observatories," Space Science Reviews, 
II (1963) , 621-652. 

Schuessler, Raymond, "How America Muffed 
Space Supremacy," American Mercury, XC 
(May 1960) , 25-30. 

Singer, S. F., "A Minimum Orbital Instru- 
mented Satellite — Now," Journal of the 
British Interplanetary Society, XIII (1954) , 
74-79. 

, "Research in the Upper Atmosphere 

with Sounding Rockets and Earth Satellite 
Vehicles," Journal of the British Interplane- 
tary Society, XI (1952) , 61-73. 

, "Studies of a Minimum Orbital Un- 
manned Satellite of the Earth (MOUSE) ," 
Astronautica Acta, I (1955) , 171-184; and II 
(1956) , 125-144. 

Spitzer, Lyman, Jr., "The Beginnings and Fu- 
ture of Space Astronomy," American Scien- 
tist, L (Sept. 1962) , 473-484. 

Stambler, Irwin, "The Explorers," Space) Aero- 
nautics, XLI (Feb. 1964) , 38-46. 

, "The Orbiting Observatories," Space) 

Aeronautics, XLH (Sept. 1964) , 34-42. 

, "The OGO," Space I Aeronautics, XXXIX 

(Feb. 1963) , 70-76. 

Stone, Robert G., "RAE — 1500-ft. Antenna 
Satellite," Astronautics and Aeronautics, III 
(March 1965) , 46-49. 

Stuhlinger, Ernst, "Army Activities in Space 
—A History," Transactions of the IRE, 
MIL-4 (April-July 1960) , 64-69. 

Thomas, J. O., "Canadian Satellites: The 
Topside Sounder Alouette," Science, 
CXXXIX (Jan. 18, 1963) , 229-232. 

Thomas, Shirley, "Robert H. Goddard," Men 
of Space, Vol. I (1960) . 

, "Harry J. Goett," Men of Space, Vol. 

VII (1965) . 

Toussey, Richard, "The Extreme Ultraviolet 
Spectrum of the Sun," Space Science Re- 
views, II (1963) , 3-69. 

Trent, N., "Early Days in Rocketry," Chris- 
tian Science Monitor (July 24, 1963) . 

von Braun, Wernher, "The Explorers," As- 
tronautica Acta,V (1959) , 126-143. 

, "The Redstone, Jupiter, and Juno," in 

Emme, Eugene M. (ed.) , The History of 
Rocket Technology (Detroit, 1954) , 144-145. 

Whipple, Fred L., "Scientific Value of 
Artificial Satellites," Journal of the Franklin 
Institute (Aug. 1956) . 



339 



PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FI 



_MED 



INDEX 



Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., 203 

ABMA. See Army Ballistic Missile Agency 

Ad Hoc Carrier Committee, 218, 219 

"Administration of Scientific Research by Fed- 
eral Agencies" (Executive Order 10521) , 204 

Advanced Orbiting Solar Observatory. See 
AOSO 

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) , 
30, 80, 81, 138 fn. 64, 207, 208, 282, 283, 284- 
285 

Advent, Project, 234 

Aerobee, 13, 16, 17, 125, 127, 204, 205, 227, 229 
illus., 245, 247, 249, 315 
Applied Physics Laboratory, 15, 104 

Aerobee 150, 127, 238, 242, 245, 247 

Aerobee 150A, 35, 127, 217, 224, 226, 227, 238, 
241, 247, 311 

Aerobee 300, 127 

Aerobee 300A, 127, 239 

Aerobee-Hi, 125, 211, 213, 249 

University of Rochester's Institute for 
Optics, 213 

Aerobee Jr., 238 

Aerojet-General Corp., 14, 19, 204, 218 

AFCRL. See USAF Cambridge Research Lab- 
oratories 

Agena, 228, 231 

Lockheed Corp., 231 

Air Force Ballistic Missile Division, 284 

Air Force Long-Range Proving Ground, 204 

Air Rescue Service, 226 

Air Research and Development Command, 209 

Alaska Data Acquisition Facility, 245 

Albus, James S., 161, 221 

Alexander, M., 159, 161, 163, 165 

Allegany Ballistics Laboratory (Vanguard, 
Delta) , 19, 218 

Alouette Topside Sounder program (S-27) , 
215, 231, 236, 248 

Alouette 1, 110-112, 112 illus., 168-171, 227, 
228, 236, 241 

American Astronomical Society, 249 

American Broadcasting Co. (ABC) , 251 

American Geophysical Union, 239 

American Physical Society, 220 



American Rocket Society, 15, 206 

Truax, Cdr. Robert, 15 
American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) , 

109, 117, 132, 166, 174, 216, 224, 246, 247 
American University, 240 
Ames Research Center (ARC) , 27, 29, 155, 163, 

165, 171, 179,211,217,281 
"A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes," 7, 

203 
AMR (Atlantic Missile Range) , 60, 107, 208, 

213, 217, 219, 243, 250, 253, 295 
Anacostia, D.C., 31 
Anderson, K. A., 177 
Andover, Maine, 224, 230, 247 
Antigua, West Indies Federation, 65 
Antofagasta, Chile, 65, 66, 218 
AOMC (Army Ordnance Missile Command) , 

208 
AOSO (Advanced Orbiting Solar Observatory) , 

226, 234, 249 

Cervenka, A. J., 234 
Republic Aviation Corp., 249 
APL. See Applied Physics Laboratory 
Apollo, 132, 251 

Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) , 204 
Applied Sciences Laboratory, 57 
Argentine Comision Nacional de Investiga- 

ciones Espaciales (CNIE) ,215 
Argo D-4 rocket (Javelin) , 218, 219, 241, 248, 

315 
Argo D-8 (Journeyman) ,315 
Ariel I (UK-1) , 35, 106, 106 illus., 124, 

167, 222, 223, 224, 227, 236, 254 
Arking, Albert, 60 illus. 
Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) 

30, 206, 208, 209, 284-285 
Army-Navy Research Development Board, 204 
Army Ordnance, 203, 204 

Rocket Development Branch, 204 
Army Ordnance Missile Command (AOMC) , 

208 
Army Signal Corps, 30 

Research and Development Laboratory, 30 
ARPA. See Advanced Research Projects 

Agency 



166- 



19, 



341 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



ARS. See Astronautical Research and Devel- 
opment Agency 

Arthur Venneri Co., 55, 56 

AST (Aerospace Technologist) , 51 

Astrobee "1500," 238 

Astronautical Research and Development 
Agency (ARS) , 206 

Astronautics Engineer Achievement Award, 221 
Stroud, William G., 221 

AT&T, See American Telephone & Telegraph 

Atchison, Joseph Anthony, 33, 34, 34 illus., 311 

Atlantic Missile Range. See AMR 

Atlas, 14, 16,81,231,251 

Atlas-Agena B, 231 

Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) , 206, 232 

Auburn, Mass., 8, 203, 330 

Automatic picture transmission (APT) , 253 

Azikiwe, Governor General Dr. Nnamdi, 244, 
244 illus. 

Bacon, Francis, 145 

Bader, M., 163, 171 

Baird, L. I., 288 

Balewa, Sir Abubaker Tafawa, 118, 245 

Ball Brothers, 47 

Banana River, Fla., 204 

Barnes, Richard, 233 

Bartol Research, 157 

Batcheider, R. W., 288 

Bauer, Dr. S. J., 164-165, 241 

Baumann, Robert C, 31, 166 

Beall, Sen. J. Glenn, 280 

Behring, W., 165 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 47, 69, 89, 

155, 159, 167, 171, 205, 229 
Belrose, J. S., 169 
Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, 28, 31, 

309 
Beltsville, Md., 54, 57, 72, 290 
Beltsville Space Center. See Goddard Space 

Flight Center 
Bendix Corp., 20, 47, 69, 224 
Berg, O., 161 
Berg, Cdr. W. £., 18 illus. 
Bermuda, 245, 247, 250 
Best, L., 298 
Seta II. See Vanguard I 
"Big Shot" (see also Echo) , 226 
Blagonravov, Anatoly A., 236 
Bloemfontein, South Africa, 234 
Bloom, S., 165 
Blossom Point, Md., 66, 254 
Blumle, L„ 169 
Bourdeau, Robert E., 134 illus., 158-159, 165, 

166, 177, 228 
Boyd, R. L. F., 167 
Boyden Observatory, 234 



Brace, L., 175 

Bridge, H. S., 161, 177 

Bridger, J. M., 18 illus. 

Bristol, England, 240 

British National Committee on Space Research, 

106 
Bronk, Dr., Detlev W., 32, 214, 310-311 
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, 59 
Brooks, Rep. Overton, 31, 32, 311 
Brown, W., 167, 171 
Buckley, Edmond C, 221 
Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 

1950, 283 
Bureau of the Budget, 31, 206, 282, 283 
Burns & Roe, Inc., 69 
Butler, H. I., 158 
Butler, Paul, 162, 176 

Cahill, Dr. L., 163, 171 

Cahill, William, 49 

Cain, J., 159 

California Institute of Technology (see also 

JPL) , 14, 208 
Calvert, W., 169 
Camp Devens, Mass., 8 
Canadian Black Brant sounding rocket, 224, 

242 
Canadian Defence Research Board, 110, 227, 

231 
Canadian Defence Research Telecommunica- 
tions Establishment (DRTE) , 112, 155, 169, 

209 
Canadian Department of Transport, 245 
Canary Islands, 111 illus., 250 
Canberra, Australia, 235, 236 
Canney, H. E„ Jr., 228 
Cape Canaveral, 19, 116, 122, 127, 204, 216, 

220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227, 231, 234, 

238, 240, 241, 250 
Cape Kennedy, 251 
Carnarvon, Australia, 236, 249, 250 
Case Institute of Technology, 284 
CDA. See Command Data Acquisition 
Centaur, 29, 251, 295 
Central Flight Control and Range Operations 

Laboratory, 55 
Central Radio Propagation Laboratory, 155, 

169 
Cerenkov detector, 98, 104 
Cervenka, A. J., 234 
Chubb, T., 157 

Churchill Research Range, 242 
Churchill, Sir Winston, 238, 239 illus. 
City College of New York, 59 
Clark, G., 163 

Clark, Dr. John F., ix, 134, 134 illus. 
Clark University, 6, 7, 11, 310 



342 



INDEX 



Cleveland, Ohio, 346 

CNES. See French National Center for Space 
Studies 

Coleman, P. J., 157 

Columbia University, 59 

Command, 68, 69, 70 

Command Data Acquisition (CDA) , 246 

"Commercial Applications of Space Communi- 
cations Systems" report, 218 

Committee on Space Research. See COSPAR 

Committee on Special Capabilities, 16 
Stewart, Homer J., 16 

Communications, 70, 72, 73, 313, 314-315 

Communications Line Terminations (CUT) , 
253 

Communications Satellite Act of 1962, 110, 223, 
317-318 

Kerr, Sen. Robert S., 220 
Miller, Rep. George, 220 

Communications Satellite Corp., 31, 132, 234 

Congress of Quantitative Electronics, 332 

Congressional Medal (see also R. H. God- 
dard honors) , 214, 310 

Construction Engineering, 56 

Cooper, Gordon, 109, 110, 240, 246 

COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) , 106, 

208, 223 
Covington, Ozro M., 226 
Cowan, R. C, 289, 298 

Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Founda- 
tion, 8 

Darcey, R. J., 172, 174 

Darwin, Australia, 236 

Data processing, 77, 78 

DAiutola, C. T., 162 

Davis, L., 163, 171 

D.C. Council of Engineering and Architectural 
Society, 234 

Defence Research Telecommunications Estab- 
lishment. See Canadian Defence Research 
Telecommunications Establishment 

De Gaulle, Gen. Charles, 241 

Delta, 25, 29, 60, 63, 121-122, 123, 124 illus., 

209, 218, 219, 227, 231, 234, 315 

Aerojet (see also Allegany Ballistics Labo- 
ratory, Douglas Aircraft) , 218 
Schindler, William, 223, 235 illus. 
Department of the Air Force, 282, 283, 285 
Department of Defense, 15, 16, 17, 18, 65, 80, 
205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 214, 215, 218, 222, 
232, 234, 282, 283, 284-285, 317, 335, 338 
Committee on Special Capabilities, 16 
Department of Scientific and Industrial Re- 
search, England, 155, 169 
Department of the Navy, 282 
Desai, U., 171 
Digital Solar Aspect Sensor, 221 



Discoverer I, 81,208 

Discoverer 11, 82, 209 

Discoverer-Thor, 81 

Distinguished Service Award of Prince Georges 
County, 222 
Sisco, Bernard, 222 

District of Columbia Business Corporation, 318 

District of Columbia Incorporation Act, 318 

DOD. See Department of Defense 

Donegan, James, 74 illus. 

Donley, J., 159, 165 

Doppler, 152 

Dossin, Dr. Francois V., 243, illus., 245 

Douglas Aircraft Co., 121, 209, 218 

Dowgiallo, Father Victor J., 311 

DRTE. See Canadian Defence Research Tele- 
communications Establishment 

Druyvesteyn, 107 

Dryden, Dr. Hugh L., 28, 32, 208, 214, 231, 
233, 235, 236 

Dyke, W., 157 

Dynamic test chambers, 56 

Dytrt, M. C, 289 

"Early Bird," 118, 132 

Eastern Pyrenees Department, 231 

East Grand Forks, Minn., 66 

Echo, 90 illus., 123, 211, 226, 227, 286, 293, 294 

Schjeldahl Co., 215 
Echo I, 89-91, 93, 95, 110, 123, 158-159, 211, 

215, 217, 218, 221, 222, 226, 227, 315 
Results, 90-91 
Echo II, 215, 221,252 
Egan, P. M., 289 
EGO (Eccentric Geophysical Observatory) , 

223, 232 
Einstein, Albert, 152 
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 24, 81, 204, 206, 207, 

208, 213, 283 
Electric-field meter (Explorer VIII), 91, 92, 93 
Electron Density Profile Probe (EDPP) . See 

P-21 and P-21a 
Elliot, H., 167 

Energetic particle counter, 111 
Energetic Particles Satellite (Explorer XIV, 

which see), 112, 113 illus. 
Engineers, Scientists, and Architects Day, 231 
EOGO (Eccentric Orbiting Geophysical Ob- 
servatory) . See EGO 
Esselen Park, Union of South Africa, 65, 66 
Executive Order 10521, 204 
Explorer I, 22, 80, 206, 207, 207 illus., 220 
Explorer III, 80, 206, 207 
Explorer IV, 207 
Explorer VI (S-2) , 79, 82, 83, 83 illus., 113, 

156-157, 209, 249 

University of Chicago, 82, 83, 157 
University of Minnesota, 82, 83, 157 



343 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



Explorer VII, 85, 156-159, 211, 219, 315 
Explorer VIII (S-30) , 35, 91, 92, 93, 158-161, 

213, 215, 311, 315 

Explorer IX (S-56a) , 95, 160-161, 214, 220, 

221, 223 
Explorer X (P-14) , 35, 95, 96, 96 illus., 97, 

160-161, 215, 218, 219, 220, 311 
Rossi, Dr. Bruno, 161, 220 
Explorer XI (S-15; Gamma-ray Astronomy 

Satellite) , 97, 98, 162-163, 215 
Explorer XII (S-3) , 100, 100 illus., 102, 113, 

114, 123, 162-163, 217, 218, 219, 221, 236, 311 
Explorer XIII (S-55a) , 102, 162-165, 218 
Explorer XIV (S-3a) , 112, 113, 113 illus., 123, 

170-171, 227, 228, 230, 231, 236, 245, 247, 248 
Marcotte, Paul G., 170, 231 
Explorer XV (S-3b) , 114, 123, 170-171, 227, 

228, 236 
Explorer XVI (S-55b) , 124 illus., 229, 233 
Explorer XVII (S-6) , 115, 116, 117 illus., 123, 

174-175, 238, 239 
Explorer XVIII (IMP), 118, 119, 120, 123, 124, 

176-179, 232, 251, 273 
Explorer Satellites, 123, 131 

Fairbanks, Alaska, 66, 67, 67 illus., 219, 223, 
246 

University of Alaska, 67, 223 

Fan, C. Y., 157 

Fanfani, Premier Amintore, 237 illus. 

Farley, T. A., 157 

Fazio, G., 165 

FCC. See Federal Communications Commis- 
sion 

Federal Civil Servant of the Year-State of 
Maryland Award, 222 

Robert W. Hutchison, 222 

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) , 

214, 215, 218, 222 

Federal Women's Award, 238, 240 

Pressly, Eleanor G., 238, 240 

Roman, Nancy, 240 
Field Projects Branch, 60 
Financial Management Division, 58, 245 
Fisher, R. J., 289 
Fitzenreiter, R., 169 
Flight Research Center, 27 
Forbush decrease, 86, 87, 88 
Fort Churchill, Canada, 125, 211, 228, 229, 233, 

238, 245 
Fort Dix, N.J., 247 
Fort Monmouth, N.J., 30, 89 
Fort Myers, Fla., 66 
French National Assembly, 231 
French National Center for Space Studies, 236 
French VLF program, 249 

Storey, Dr. Owen, 249 
Friedman, H., 157 



Friel, Fred S., 313 

Fritz, Dr. Sigmund, 219 

Frost, K., 165 

Fuhrman, Herbert S., 288, 292 

Fucino, Italy, 230 

Future for Science in Space, 267-277 

Gagarin, Y., 43 

Galileo, 151 

Gamma-ray telescope (see also Explorer XI), 98 

Gaspe Peninsula, 95 

Gegenschein effect, 120 

Geiger counter (Explorer VI), 83 

Geiger-Mueller tube (Explorer VII), 85, 101 

Geiger tubes (Explorer VII, Pioneer V), 85, 87 

Gemini, 132, 231 

General Dynamics Astronautics (Atlas) , 231 

General Electric, 47, 220, 226, 246 

Geneva, Switzerland, 209, 236 

Geophysics Corp., of America, 219, 223, 241 

Geronimo, 247 

Gilmore Creek, 67 

Gilpatric, Roswell (see also Department of 

Defense) , 214 
Gilruth, Dr. Robert R., 29, 209, 292, 308 
Glenn, John, 221 

Glenn L. Martin Co. See Martin Co. 
Glennan, Dr. T. Keith, 27, 29, 39, 65, 208, 209, 

211, 281,-284, 300, 308 
Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 59, 215, 

221, 313 
Goddard Memorial Scholarship Award, 240 
Goddard, Mrs. Esther, v illus., vii, 8, 31, 32, 33, 

34 illus., 310-311 
Goddard, Dr. Robert H., vii, ix, 3 illus., 1-11, 
10 illus., II illus., 29, 203, 204, 209, 212, 251, 
267, 308, 310-311, 312 
"A Method of Reaching Extreme Alti- 
tudes," 7, 203 
Auburn, Mass., 8, 203 
Camp Devens, Mass., 8 
Clark University, 6, 7, 11, 310 
Liquid-fuel experimentation, 6-7, 203, 310, 

312 
"Liquid Propellant Rocket Develop- 
ment," 204 
Roswell, N. Mex., 8, 203, 204 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 6 
Goddard Scientific Satellite Symposium, 119, 
236 

Ness, Dr. Norman F., 119, 120, 177 
Goddard Space Flight Center: 
Administration, 45, 56, 57 
Communication, 73, 304 
Construction, 35, 53-59, 209, 211, 213, 215, 
218, 219, 223, 226, 227, 232, 233, 239, 240, 
243, 309, 314 



344 



INDEX 



Dedication, 31-35, 32 illus., 33 illus., 34 
illus., 214, 310-311, 312 
Baumann, Robert C, 31, 166 
Dowgiallo, Father Victor J., 311 
Wyatt, Rev. Kenneth B., 311 
Division assignments, 286-289, 305-306, 

308-309, 312-313 
Educational opportunities, 51-52 
Establishment, 280, 281, 282, 290, 312 
Fabrication, 61, 293, 303 
Functions, 28, 292-296, 299-300, 301-307, 

335-339 
Funding, 43-44, 243-244, 280, 282, 283, 285 
Organization, 59, 292-296, 297, 300, 301- 

307, 308, 312-313 
Organizational relationships, 300, 304, 339- 

340 
Personnel, 35, 49-52, 295, 297-298, 312-314 
Physical plant, 35, 53-57, 314 
Procurement, 61 
Research, 43, 293, 303 
Goddard Space Flight Center Colloquium, 238 

O'Keefe, John A., 238 
Goddard Space Flight Center and satellite 

space probe projects, 155-179 
Goddard Space Flight Center Symposium on 

the Physics of Solar Flares, 249 
Goett, Dr. Harry, J., ix, 29, 31, 34 illus., 131, 
133 illus., 211, 232, 235 illus., 253, 267-277, 
312 
Goldstone, Calif., 66, 72 illus., 89, 214, 214 

illus. 
Goonhilly, England, 114, 230 
Grand Central Rocket Co., 19 
Gray, Robert H., 288 
Great radiation belt (see also Van Allen belt) , 

149 
Greenbelt, Md., 39, 241, 249, 250, 280, 299, 308, 

310-311, 314 
Groetzinger, G., 157 
Ground Communications Network, 72 
Grumman Aircraft Corp., 47 
Guam, 127 

Guaymas, Mexico, 250 
Guggenheim, Daniel, 8 
Guggenheim, Harry, 8, 204 
Gulf of Guinea, 247 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, 95 
Gummel, H. K., 171 

Hagen, Dr. John P., 17, 18, 18 illus., 284, 288, 

292, 297 
Hagerty, James C, 282 
Hagg, E. L., 169 
Hallam, K., 165 
Hanel, R., 161, 163, 165 
Hartesbeesthoek, South Africa, 249 



Hartz, T. R., 169 

Harvard College Observatory, 234 

Menzel, Donald H., 234 
Hawaii, 209 
Helios. See AOSO 
Heppner, Dr. J. P., 157, 160-161 
Herring, Jackson, 60 illus. 
Hess, Dr. Wilmot, 165, 170 
Hickman, Dr. Clarence N., 7 
Hirao, Dr. Kunio, 223 illus. 
Hispaniola, 247 
Hodgson, Alfred S., 292, 298 
Holloman Air Force Base, 204 
Holmdel, N.J., 89 
Horowitz, R., 175 
House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 

218, 221, 234, 238 
House joint resolution, 251 
Houston, Tex., 41, 59 

Hughes Aircraft Co., 47, 216, 224, 226, 240 
Humphreys & Harding, Inc., 55 
Hunter, C, 179 
Huntsville, Ala., 208 
Hutchison, Robert W., 222 

Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, 251, 252 illus. 

IMP I (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) . 
See Explorer XVIII 

Imperial College, London (P-21a) , 107, 167 

Indian Department of Atomic Energy, 231 

Industrial Engineering Corp., 237 

Infrared sensor (Tiros) , 93, 110 

Ingomish, Nova Scotia, 229 

Injun III, 236 

Institute of World Affairs, 211 

Instrument Construction and Installation Lab- 
oratory, 55 

Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), 14, 18 

Intermediate range ballistic missile (IRBM) 
121 

International Business Machines Corp., 47, 69 
72, 75 

International Conference on the Ionosphere 
224 

International Council of Scientific Unions, 208 

International Geophysical Year (IGY) 15, 16. 
18, 19, 22, 43, 65, 66, 77, 80, 121, 127, 147 
205, 206, 208, 211, 235 

International Geophysics Bulletin, 232 

International Ionosphere Satellite. See Ariel I 

International Scientific Radio Union, 16 

International Telecommunication Union, 209 

International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT) , 
227 

International Union of Geodesy and Geophys- 
ics, 16 

International Year of the Quiet Sun. See 
IQSY 



345 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP I) . 

See Explorer XVIII 
Ion trap (Explorer VIII), 93 
IQSY (International Quiet Sun Year) , 232, 

234, 235, 241 
Iris rocket, 192, 311, 315 
Italian Space Commission, 226, 240, 254 
Italy, 217 illus. 

Jackson Building, 57 

Jackson, H. G., 289 

Jackson, John E., 164-165, 168-169, 241 

Jaffe, Leonard, 231 

japan, 222, 223, 245, 247, 251 

Jastrow, Br. Robert, 60, 60 illus., 216 illus., 

288, 292, 297-298, 313 
JATO (jet-assist takeoff) , 9, 204 
Javelin (Argo D-4), 127, 128 illus., 211, 215, 

315 
Jenkins, T. E„ 287, 289, 292, 296, 297-298, 301 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) , 14, 22, 89, 

90, 155, 159, 204, 206, 208, 209, 304, 315 
Jodrell Bank Tracking Station, England, 212 
Johns Hopkins University, 242 
Johannesburg, South Africa, 229 
Johnson, Lyndon B., 208, 226, 230 illus., 237, 

246 
Journeyman (Argo D-8), 127, 315 
JPL. See Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Judge, D. L., 157, 159 
jungquist, N. L., 10 illus. 
Juno II, 125, 156. 158, 162, 206, 208, 211 
Juno V, 29, 295 
Jupiter C, 206 

Kagoshima, Japan, 240 

Kalmia Construction Co., Inc., 243 

Kennedy, Mrs. John F., 230 illus. 

Kennedy, President John F., 43, 110, 114, 118, 

215, 230 illus., 231, 235, 238, 239, illus, 241, 

244, 247, 251 
Ken, Sen. Robert S., 31, 219, 220, 310 
King, j. W., 169 

Kiruna Geophysical Observatory, 227 
Kisk, A., 10 illus. 
Knecht, R. W., 169 
Kollsman Instrument Division, 220 
Kraushaar, W„ 163 
Kreplin, R. W„ 157 
Kronogard rocket range, 243, 244 
Kupperian, Dr. J. E., Jr., 162, 288 

Lacklen, R. 298 

Lagos Harbor, Nigeria, 231,- 244, 245, 246, 247 
LaGow, H. E., 134 illus., 156-159, 288 
Lakehurst, N.J., 244, 245, 246, 247, 252 

Langiey Medal, 212 



Langley Research Center, 27, 29, 30, 160, 162, 
215, 218, 234, 254, 281, 290, 295, 305, 309, 315 

Langmuir probe, 93, 107, 150, 222, 241, 247 

Launch Operations Center. See Cape Canav- 
eral 

Launch Phase Simulator (LPS) , 251 
Northrop Electronics, 251 

Leavy, William A., 228 

Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, 281 

Lewis Research Center, 27, 29, 281, 290, 291, 
295, 305, 308 

Lick Observatory, 215 

Lima, Peru, 65, 66 

Lincoln Laboratory (MIT) , 69, 222 

Lindbergh, Charles A., 8 

Lindsay, Dr. John C, 156, 158, 164, 228, 236, 
288 

Linfield Research Institute, 157 

"Liquid Propellant Rocket Development," 204 

Little, C, 157 

Litton Industries, 57 

Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., 231 

Lockwood, G. E., 169 

Loki rocket, 205 

Longanecker, G., 163 

Ludwig, G, 157, 177 

Lyman-alpha, 85, 107, 315 

McCracken, C, 159, 161, 165 

McCulloch, A., 175 

McDiarmid, L. B., 169 

McDonald, Dr. F. B., 162-163, 170-171, 176-177 

McElroy, Neil, 65 

Mcllwain, C, 171-173 

Mackey, R. J., 158 

Madley, Jesse M., 248 

Magnetic coil (Tiros II), 93 

Magnetometer (Explorer VII, X, XII, SLU-5) , 

85, 95, 100, 150, 209 
Malraux, Madame Andre, 230 illus. 
Malraux, Minister Andre, 230 illus. 
Management Services and Supply Division, 240 
Manned Flight Network, 67-78 
Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) , 41, 51, 59 
Manned Space Flight Program, 31, 308 
Manned Space Flight Support Division, 59, 247 
Manring, E., 159 
Mansur, C, 10 illus. 
Mansur, L., 10 illus. 
Marcotte, Paul G, 170, 231 
Mariner, 231, 232 
Mariner II, 85 
Mars, 6, 150 

Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) , 221, 315 
Martin Co., 16, 18, 19, 85, 157 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 

69, 98, 155, 161, 163, 177, 220, 222 
Rossi, Dr. Bruno, 161, 220 



346 



INDEX 



Matthews, N. Whitney, 288, 313 

Mayer, Xopher W., 248 

Mazur, D. G., 18 illus., 134 illus., 288, 313 

Mediterranean Sea, 217 illus., 267 

Medrow, K. R., 288 

Mengel, John T., 18 illus., 29, 133 illus., 134 

illus., 209, 288, 308, 313 
Menzel, Donald H., 234 
Mercury (planet) , 151 
Mercury Control Center, 69, 74 illus. 
Meredith, Leslie H., 288, 312 
Meyer, P., 157 
Micrometeoroid detector (Explorer VII, VIII), 

85, 92, 311 
Miller, Rep. George, 220 
Miller, N. P., 289 
Millstone Hill, Mass., 222 
Miner, Marcia S., 240 
Minitrack, 20, 29, 65-66, 91, 103, 218, 254, 311 

Radio interferometer, 66, 140 fn. 76 
Minitrack Network, 34, 65, 75, 91, 209 

See also: 

Antigua, West Indies Federation 

Antofagasta, Chile 

Blossom Point, Md. 

East Grand Forks, Minn. 

Esselen Park, Union of South Africa 

Fairbanks, Alaska 

Fort Monmouth, N.J. 

Goldstone, Calif. 

Lima, Peru 

Quito, Ecuador 

Santiago, Chile 

St. John's, Newfoundland 

Winkfield, England 

Woomera, Australia 

See also: 

Bell Telephone Laboratories 

Bendix Corp. 

Burns & Roe, Inc. 

International Business Machines Corp., 
Inc. 

Lincoln Laboratory 

Western Electric Co. 
Minneapolis, Minn., 240 
Minneapolis-Honeywell Corp., 56 
Moffett Field, Calif., 211 
"Mona Lisa," 230 illus. 
Motorola, Inc., Military Electronics Division, 

219 
Muldrew, D. B„ 169 
Muraoka, Toshio, 223 illus. 
Mylar, 89, 95, 102,211,214 

NACA. See National Advisory Committee for 

Aeronautics 
Nagy, A. P., 289, 298. 



NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration) , 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 39, 40, 65, 
66, 67, 121, 280, 281, 282, 284-285, 286, 292- 
293, 302-307, 312, 315 

Founding, 207, 208, 282, 283 
NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement 

Award, 228 
NASA Group Achievement Award, 228, 234 
NASA Medal for Outstanding Leadership, 228 
NASA Office of International Programs, 233 
National Academy of Neurology, 240 
National Academy of Sciences, 16, 18, 32, 147, 
205, 206, 209, 214, 235, 245, 310 

Bronk, Dr. Detlev W., 32, 214, 310, 311 
Dossin, Dr. Francois V., 243 illus., 245 
Technical Panel for the Earth Satellite 
Program, 205 
National Academy of Sciences Board, 147 
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 
(NACA) , 27, 28, 30, 203, 206, 281, 284, 356 
Langley Laboratory, 30 
National Aeronautics and Space Act, 24, 208, 

220, 281, 282, 283, 284 
National Aeronautics and Space Council, 215, 

232, 282, 317 
National Broadcasting Co. (NBC) , 237, 251 
National Bureau of Standards, 157 
National Capital Award, 233 
National Conference of the American Society 

for Public Administration, 222 
National Meteorological Center, 218 
National Oceanographic Data Center, 247 
National Operational Meteorological Satellite 

System, 218 
National Research Council, 209, 235 
National Research Council, Canada, 155, 169 
National Rocket Club, 237, 240 
National Satellite Weather Center, 238 
National Science Foundation, 15, 16, 205, 206, 

216 
National Science Teachers Association, 248 
National Weather Satellite Center, 241, 246 - 
Naval Research Laboratory, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 
23, 27, 29, 39, 40, 44, 65, 84, 89, 91, 121, 155, 
157, 159, 204, 205, 206, 284-285, 286-287, 295, 
305, 309, 314 

Newell, Homer E., Jr., 18, 18 illus., 125 
Rocket Sonde Branch, 29, 204 
See also Vanguard launch vehicles, SLV 
Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, 14, 204 
Nelms, G. L. B., 169 
Neptune, 14 

NERV. See Nuclear Emulsion Recovery Ve- 
hicle 
Ness, Dr. Norman F., 119, 120, 177 
Neupert, W., 165 
New York University, 59 



347 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



Newell, Dr. Homer E., Jr., 18, 18 illus., 125 

Newton, G., 175 

Nigeria, 231, 244, 245, 246, 247 

Nike, 223 

Nike-Apache, 127, 128 illus., 223, 227, 228-229, 

238, 240-241, 242 
Nike-Asp, 125, 211, 224, 233, 315 
Nike-Cajun, 125, 126 illus., 127, 128 illus., 211, 

216, 219, 221, 222-224, 227, 228, 229, 240, 241, 

243, 244, 251, 315 
Nike-Deacon, 125, 127 
Nimbus, 47, 67, 131, 218, 221, 223, 229, 234, 246, 

268, 270, 272, 315 

General Electric Co., 47, 246 
Norair Engineering Corp., 55-57, 233, 240, 309 
Nordberg, W., 161, 163, 165 
Northrop Electronics, 251 
Nova rocket, 29, 215, 295 
NBX, See Naval Research Laboratory 
NSF. See National Science Foundation 
Nuclear Emulsion Recovery Vehicle (NERV) , 

316 
Nutley, N.J., 114, 229-230 

Office of Naval Research, 205 
O'Brien, Brian J., 163, 171 
G'Keefe, John A., 238 
Orbiter, Project, 16, 205 

Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) , 47, 
226, 231 
General Electric Co., 226 
Grumman Aircraft Corp., 47 
OGO (Orbiting Geophysical Observatory) , 47, 
231, 232 

Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Space Labo- 
ratories, 47 
OSO I (Orbiting Solar Observatory, S-16) , 47, 
104-105, 104 illus., 123, 124, 164-165, 221, 
222, 223, 224, 232, 234, 236, 244, 273 
Bail Brothers, 47 

P-21, 103, 105, 164-165,219 
P-21a, 105, 164-167, 221, 238 
Palewski, Gaston, 230 
Paris International Air Show, 241 

Pasteur, Louis, 32 

Patents, 227 

Paul!, Stephen, 228 

Peake, Harold J., 227 

Pennsylvania State University, 157 

Peterson, L., 165 

Petrie, L. E., 169 

Philippine Islands, 245 

Photodiode (Explorer VII), 101 

Piccioni, Attilio, 226 

Pieper, Dr. George F., 134 illus. 

Pioneer, 232 



Pioneer III, 82 

Pioneer IV, 81, 209 

Pioneer V, 47, 85-88, 86 illus., 158-159, 211, 
315 
Achievements, 86-88 

Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Space Labo- 
ratories, 47 

Piracci Construction Co., 57 

Plasma probe (Explorer X), 96-97 
Rossi, Dr. Bruno, 161, 220 

Pleasant Pond, Maine, 243, 245 

Pleumeur-Bodou, France, 114 

PMR (Pacific Missile Range), 60, 110, 209, 
295, 316 

POGO (Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observa- 
tory) , 221, 223, 232 

Point Mugu, Calif., 204, 246 

Pomerantz, M., 157 

Pope John XXIII, 241 

Pope Paul VI, 241 

Porter, Richard W., 205 

President's Science Advisory Committee, 24 

Pressly, Eleanor C, 238, 240 

Princeton University, 6, 59 

Procurement Division, 240, 245 

Project Mercury, 29, 34, 68-72, 132, 208-209, 

215, 219, 221, 224, 240, 246, 292, 295, 308, 311 
Fronton analyzer (Explorer XII), 101 

Public Law 85-325 (NASA) , 284 

Public Law 85-568 (NASA) , 24, 281, 282, 283, 

284 
Public Law 87-624 (Communications Satellite 

Act), 110, 317-318 

Quilon, India, 234 
Quito, Ecuador, 22, 65-66 

Radar tracking, 68-70 

Radio Corp. of America (RCA) , 47, 76, 215, 

216, 237, 246 

Radio frequency (RF) impedance prober (Ex- 
plorer VIII) , 92 

Radio frequency resonance probe, 247 

Radio interferometer, 66, 139 fn. 76 

Radio Research Laboratory, 247, 248 

Rados, Robert, 162, 164, 166, 168, 174, 178 

RAND, 14-15; 204 

Range and range rate tracking, 219 

Motorola, Inc., Military Electronics Di- 
vision, 219 

Ranger, 231 

RCA Space Environment Center, 47, 215, 216, 
230 

Reber, C, 175 

Rebound, Project, 214, 234 

Redstone, 14, 16, 68, 205, 208 

Reid, C, 157 



34& 



INDEX 



Relay I, 47, 114, 115 illus., 123, 132, 170-173, 
214, 219, 229-230, 231, 233, 236, 237, 238-239, 
241, 246, 247, 249, 251, 252-253, 268, 269 
National Academy of Neurology, 240 
See Radio Corp. of America 

Relay II, 47 

Republic Aviation Corp., 232, 249 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 114, 231, 239, 246 

Robert H. Goddard Memorial Library, 11 

Robert Hutchings Goddard Day, 232-233 

Robinson, G., 165 

Rocket and Satellite Research Panel, 205, 206 

Rocket Development Branch, 204 

Rocketdyne MB-3 engine. See Thor 

Rocket Sonde Branch (NRL) , 29, 204 

Rockoons, 125 

Rohr Aircraft Corp., 219 

Roman, Dr. Nancy C, 240 

Rose, R. C, 169 

Rosen, Allen, 157 

Rosen, M. W., 18 illus. 

Ross, W., 157 

Rossi, Dr. Bruno, 161, 220 

Roswell, N. Mex., 8, 203, 204 

Rover, Project, 215 

Rumford, Maine, 114 

S-66 Ionosphere Beacon Satellite, 228, 233 

Saltonstall, Sen. Leverett, 232 

San Marco Satellite Program, 226-234, 240, 244, 
254 

Piccioni, Attilio, 226 

San Nicolas Island, Calif., 99, 127 

Santiago, Chile, 65-66, 99, 229 

"Satellite Communications Corporation," 219, 
220 

Satellite Systems Building, 56 

Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Net- 
work (STADAN) , 249, 251 

Saturn (rocket) , 208 

Savedoff, M., 165 

Sayers, James, 167, 224 

SCAMA (Switching, Conferencing, and Moni- 
toring Arrangement) , 72 

Scandinavian Committee for Satellite Telecom- 
munications, 246 

Scearce, C. S., 161 

Scherb, F., 161 

Schindler, William, 233, 235 illus. 

Schirra, Walter M., Jr., 109, 110, 227, 231, 232 
illus., 246 

Schjeldahl Co., 215 

Schroeder, Clarence A., 313 

Schwed, P., 157 

Score, Project, 81 , 208 

Scout, 63, 102, 103, 124, 124 illus., 160, 162, 
164, 212-213, 218, 219, 226, 229, 236 



Scriven, Brig. Gen. George P., 203 

Seamans, Dr. Robert C, Jr., 34 illus., 234 

Secretan, Luc, 163, 243 illus. 

Seddon, J. C, 288 

Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space 

Sciences, 221, 310 
Senate Committee on Commerce, 222, 233 
Serbu, G. P., 159, 167, 177 
Sergeant-Delta rocket, 211 
Shotput vericle, 240 
Siepert, Albert P., 291, 298 
Silver Spring, Md., 27, 31, 57, 243 
Silverstein, Dr. Abe, 28, 29, 33, 290, 292, 297- 

298, 307 
Simpson, J. A., 159, 177 
Simpson, T. A., 157 
Singer, Dr. S. Fred, 238 
Siry, Dr. J. W., 18 illus., 214, 288, 313 
Sisco, Bernard, 298 
Skillman, T. L., 161 
SLV. See Vanguard launch vehicles 
Smith, C. P., Jr., 166, 174 
Smith, Charles V. L., 313 
Smith, E. J., 157 
Smith, Sen. Margaret Chase, 240 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 20 
Smithsonian Institution, 7-11, 33, 203-204, 209, 

212, 311 
Sonett, C. P., 157 
Sounding rockets, 79, 125, 295, 313-315 

Launches (see also Wallops Island, White 
Sands), 181-202 
South Point, Hawaii, 249 
Soviet Academy of Sciences, 236 
Space Communications Laboratory, 251, 252 

illus. 
Space Data Acquisition Division, 59 
Space Environment Center (RCA) , 47, 215, 

216, 230 
Space Environment Simulator, 62, 62 illus. 
Space exploration: 

Astronomy, 152, 315 

Atmosphere exploration, 147-148, 314-315 

Biological science, 153 

Electric and magnetic fields, 150, 315 

Energetic particles, 149, 315 

Gravitational fields, 150-152 

Ionospheres, 148-149, 315 
Space Operations Control Center, 73 
Space Projects Integration Office, 59 
Space Science and Satellite Applications, 59-60, 

209, 305, 308, 312 
Space Science Laboratory, 55, 211 
Space Sciences Division, 29, 286-287, 288, 290, 

292, 297, 305, 308, 312 
Space Technology Laboratories (STL) , 82-84, 
155, 157, 159, 315 



349 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 



Space Technology Magazine, 253 

Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Net- 
work (ST AD AN) , 249, 251 

Spacecraft Test Facility, 61-63 

Spafd, G. H., 165 

Spencer, N. W., 174-175 

Sperry Rand Corp. Univac Division, 250 

Spitsbergen Islands, 82, 209 

Sputnik I, 15, 17, 21-23, 43, 206 

Sputnik III, 92 

STADAN. See Satellite Tracking and Data 
Acquisition Network 

Stampfl, R. A., 160 

Stanford Research Institute, 238 

Stanford University, 82 

State University of Iowa, 85, 157, 163, 171, 205, 
217 

Stever, H. Guy ford, 206 

Stewart, Homer J., 16 

St. Hugh's Catholic Church, 311 

St. John's, Newfoundland, 66 

Stokes' Theorem, 151 

Storey, Dr. Owen, 249 

Stroud, William G., 134 illus., 158, 221 

Stroup, R.-W., 288 

Stump Neck, Md„ 89 

Sun sensor (Explorer X), 96 

Sunderlin, Wendell, 170 

Suomi, V., 99, 157, 163, 165, 175 

Supplemental Appropriations Act., 1955, 205 

Surveyor, 232 

Swedish Committee for Space Research, 244 

Swenson, G., 157 

Swept Frequency Topside Sounder. See Alou- 
ette 

Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) , 
232 

Republic Aviation Corp., 232 

Synchronous orbit: 

Darwin Mobile Station, 236 
Hughes Aircraft Co., 47, 216, 224, 226, 240 
Syncom, 47, 132, 217, 219, 224, 226, 231, 
233, 268, 269 

Syncom I, 115, 116 illus., 123, 172-173, 233, 234 

Syncom II, 117, 118, 123, 132, 174-177, 243, 
244-245, 246-247, 249, 251 

Takeuchi, Ryuji, 251 

TAVE (Thor-Agena vibration experiment) , 
228 

Technical Information Division, 240 

Technical Panel for the Earth Satellite Pro- 
gram, 205 

Technical services, 59 

Tegea Knoptik lens (Tiros satellites) , 104, 
224, 227 

Telespazio, 230 



Telstar, 132, 219, 232, 233, 268 

Telstar I, 109-110, 110 illus., 123, 166-169, 224, 

226, 228 

Telstar II, 116, 123, 174-175, 240 

Tepper, Morris, 234 

Test and Evaluation Division, 59 

Theoretical Division, 60, 286-287, 288, 290, 292, 
297, 305, 308, 313 

Theory and Analysis Staff, 59 

Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Space Labora- 
tories, 47, 155, 157, 159 

Thor, 121, 218, 226, 228 

Thor-Aable rocket, 85, 121-122, 156, 158, 211 

Thor-Agena, 63, 168, 221, 228 

Thor-Agena A, 209 

Thor-Agena B, 227 

Thor-Delta, 29, 158, 160, 162, 213, 215, 216-217, 
220, 221, 222, 224, 227, 233, 238, 240, 295 

Thor-Hustler, 208 

Thor-Vanguard. See Delta 

Thule, Greenland, 87 

Thumba, India, 231, 251 

Tiros (Television Infrared Observation Weather 
Satellite), 25, 131, 209, 216, 219, 234, 238, 239, 
246,268,270,271,311,315 

Tiros I, 88-89, 93, 124, 158-159, 211, 222, 223, 
315 

Tiros II, 93-95, 99, 123, 160-161, 213-214, 216, 

218, 219, 222, 315 

Tiros III, 94-95, 99, 104, 123, 162-163, 216, 218, 

219, 222 

Tiros IV, 103-104, 123, 164-165, 220, 222, 224 
Tiros V, 107-109, 108 illus., 123, 166-167, 224, 

227, 234, 246 
Elgeet-lens camera, 224 

Tiros VI, 123, 168-169, 227, 229, 234, 245, 246, 

249 
Tiros VII, 117, 123, 174-175, 241, 245, 247 
Tiros VIII, 120, 123, 178-179, 253 
Titan, 18 
Tokyo, Japan, 247, 248, 251 

Radio Research Laboratory, 247, 248 
Topside Sounder Program, 110, 149, 315 

See also Alouette, Alouette I 
TOSS (Tiros Operational Satellite System) , 

120, 131 
Townsend, Dr. John W., 29, 133 illus., 134 

illus., 170, 209, 228, 253, 288, 292, 297-298, 

308, 312 
Tracking, 20, 71, 219, 235 
Tracking and data acquisition, 221, 235 
Tracking and Data Systems, 59, 209, 246, 305, 

308, 313 
Tracking and Telemetry Laboratory, 57, 227 
Tracking Systems Division, 59, 246, 305, 313 
Triple coincidence telescope (Explorer VI), 83 



350 



INDEX 



Truax, Cmdr. Robert, 15 
Truman, President Harry S. 204 
Tyuratum Range, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R., 21 

Ulmer, R., 298 
Unified S-band, 251 
United Kingdom, 106, 311 
United Nations, 208, 315 

Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer 

Space, 234 
General Assembly, 247 
United States Congress, 9, 24-25, 31, 43, 206- 

207, 218, 251, 280, 282, 310, 317-318 
United States Engineering & Constructors, Inc., 

56 
United States Scientific Satellite Program, 282, 

284 
United States Weather Bureau, 120, 216, 218, 

222, 223, 224, 229, 234, 246 
University College, London (P-21a) , 107, 167 
University of Alaska, 67, 157, 223 
University o£ Birmingham (P-21a, Ariel /), 107, 

167, 224 
University of California, 165, 171, 173, 177 
University of Chicago, 82, 83, 157, 159, 177 
University of Illinois, 157 
University of Michigan, 216 
University of Minnesota, 82, 83, 157, 159, 165 
University of New Hampshire, 163, 171, 216, 

217, 248 
University of Rochester, 165 
University of Rochester's Institute of Optics, 

213 
University of Stockholm Institute of Meteor- 
ology, 227, 244 
University of Wisconsin, 85, 99, 157, 163, 165, 

175 
UPI (United Press International) , 231 
Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel, 44, 

205 
USAF (U.S. Air Force) Cambridge Research 

Laboratories (AFCRL) , 155, 157, 159, 227, 

243 
USIA (U.S. Information Agency) , 245 
USNS Coastal Sentry, 69 illus., 250 
USNS Kingsport, 231, 244, 245, 246, 247 
USNS Rose Knot Victory, 69 illus., 250 

V-l, 204 

V-2, 9, 13-14, 17, 127, 204 

Vaccaro, Dr. Michael J., 29, 31, 133 illus., 134 

illus., 209, 308, 312 
Valley Forge, Pa., 220 
Van Allen, Dr. James, 113, 157, 171, 205, 206, 

228, 236 
Van Allen radiation belt, 80, 84, 98-102, 120, 

149, 209, 219, 272, 275, 315-316 



Vandenberg Air Force Base, 221, 227 
Vanguard I, 18 illus., 22, 23 illus., 80, 95, 206, 

209, 232, 311 
Vanguard 11, 81, 131,208 
Vanguard III, 24 illus., 84, 125, 156-157, 211, 

215, 315 
Vanguard Division (Goddard Space Flight Cen- 
ter) , 28, 286-287, 288, 290, 292-296, 297-298, 
308 

See also: 

Baird, L. I. 

Canney, H. E., Jr. 

Hagen, J. P. 

Matthews, N. W. 

Mazur, D. G. 

Mengel, J. T. 

Siry, J. W. 

Stroud, R. W. 
Vanguard launch vehicles, 20-22, 23, 156, 205, 
206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212 illus. 

SLV-1, 23, 207 

SLV-2, 23, 207 

SLV-3, 23, 208 

SLV-4, 25 

SLV-5, 209 

SLV-7, 25, 211 

TV-0, 20, 205 

TV-1, 20, 205 

TV-2, 20, 21,23, 206 

TV-3, 21, 22, 206 

TV-4, 22, 211 

TV-5, 207 

See also: 

Aerojet-General Corp. 

Allegany Ballistics Laboratory 

Grand Central Rocket Co. 

Martin Co. 
Vanguard, Project, 16-25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 44, 77, 
80-81, 84, 121-124, 205-206, 207, 208, 218, 
282, 283, 284, 314 
Van Zandt, T. E„ 169 
Vega, 29, 295 
Venus (planet) , 150, 151 
Viking, 14, 16-18, 20-21, 125, 205 
Villard, O., Jr., 157 
Voice of America, 231, 245, 247 
Voorhees, Walker, Smith, Smith & Haines, 53 

WAC Corporal rocket, 14, 125 

Waddel, Dr. Ramond, 170-171 

Walcott, Dr. Charles D., 203 

Wallops Island, Va„ 27, 68, 99, 103, 127, 209, 
211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 219, 221-224, 
226, 227, 228, 229, 231, 233, 236, 238, 239, 240, 
241, 244, 246, 247, 249, 251, 295 

Walsh, Dr. J. P., 18 illus. 

War Department, 9 

Warren, E. S., 169 



351 



VENTURE INTO SPACE 

Washington Academy o£ Sciences, 234 Whitehead, J. D., 241 

Wasleiewskl, Eugene W., 47, 133 illus., 134 Wichita Falls, Tex., 211 

illus., 312 Winckler, J. R., 157, 159, 165 

Waterman, Dr. Alan T., 15 Winkfield, England, 66 

Webb, James E., v illus., 31, 133, 214, 216, 222, Winkler, Leopold, 29, 133 illus., 313 

231, 240, 245, 251, 310 Wolfe, John, 179 

Weiiheim, West Germany, 114 Woomera, Australia, 65, 66, 209, 214, 229 

Welsh, Dr. Edward, 232 Worcester, Mass., 5 
Western Electric Co. (Mercury), 47, 68-69, 209 Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 6 

Western Union, 75, 76, 219 World Flight Memorial, 311 

Westford, Mass., 222 WSMR. See White Sands Missile Range, 

West German Post Office, 219 N. Mex. 

Whale, H., 165 WSPG (White Sands Proving Ground) , 204, 

Whelpley, H., 157 205 

Whipple, £., 159, 165 Wyatt, DeMarquis, 292, 298 

White, H., 165 Wyatt, Rev. Kenneth B., 311 
White, William, 165, 236 
White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex. (WSMR) , Yale University, 59 

13, 19, 127, 227 Youth Science Congress, 248 



352 



The Author 



ALFRED Rosenthal has been the Historian of the Goddard Space Flight 
-Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration since 
1962. He is responsible for documentation and preparation of historical 
monographs covering over 50 major satellite programs as well as the other 
important activities at the Goddard Center with regard to space science, 
tracking, and advanced technology. Mr. Rosenthal is also Deputy Public 
Affairs Officer and published a series on space-science-oriented mathematics 
developed in cooperation with the U.S. Office of Education. 

Before joining NASA, Mr. Rosenthal was with the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers, preparing studies on civil works programs and military projects, 
including a series on the development of U.S. water resources. He at- 
tended Charles University in Prague, Czechoslovakia. During World War 
II he served with the 88th Division in Italy. 



353 



NASA Historical Publications 



Histories 

• Robert L. Rosholt, An Administrative History of NASA, 1958-1963, NASA SP-4101, 1966; 

for sale by Supt. of Documents ($4) . (Management History Series) 

• Loyd S. Swenson, James M. Grimwood, and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A 

History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201, 1966; for sale by Supt. of Documents 
(|5.50) . (Program History Series) 

Historical Studies 

• History of Rocket Technology, edited by Eugene M. Emme, special issue of Technology 

and Culture (Fall 1963) ; augmented and published by Society for the History of Tech- 
nology (Detroit: Wayne State Univ., 1964) . 
8 Space Medicine in Project Mercury, by Mae Mills Link, NASA, SP-4003, 1965; for sale by 
Supt. of Documents ($1) . 

Chronologies and Special Studies 

Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the 
Exploration of Space, 1915-1960, compiled by Eugene M. Emme, Washington: NASA, 
1961 (out of print) . ~\ 

• Aeronautical and Astronautical Events of 1961, published by the House Committee on 

Science and Astronautics, 1962 (out of print) . 

• Astronautical and Aeronautical Events of 1962, published by the House Committee on 

Science and Astronautics, 1963; for sale by Supt. of Documents ($1) . 

• Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1963, NASA SP-4004, 1964; for sale by Supt. of Documents 

($1.75) . 

• Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1964, NASA SP-4005, 1965; for sale by Supt. of Documents 

(f 1.75) . 

• Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1965, NASA SP^006, 1966; for sale by Supt. of Documents 

($2.25) . 

• Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1966, NASA SP-4007, 1967; for sale by Supt. of Documents 

(11.50) . 

• Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1967, NASA SP-4008 (1968) . 

• Project Mercury: A Chronology, by James M. Grimwood, NASA SP-4001, 1963; for sale 

by Supt. of Documents ($1.50). 

• Historical Sketch of NASA, NASA EP-29, 1965; for sale by Supt. of Documents ($0.25). 

• Project Gemini Technology and Operations: A Chronology, by James M. Grimwood and 

Barton C. Hacker, with Peter J. Vorzimmer, NASA SP^002 (1968) . 

• The Apollo Spacecraft: A Chronology, Vol. I, through November 7, 1962, by Ivan D. Ertel 

and Mary L. Morse, NASA SP^009 (1968) . 

354 * U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1968 O— Z8S-083 



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